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Lecture Overview Sex and Gender Transvestism & transexualitySexual Orientation: How is it formed? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sex & Gender: Important/Confusing TermsSex: biological maleness or femaleness including chromosomal sex Gender: psychological & sociocultural meanings added to biological sex ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Let’s start with Sex: Genetics. X from mother, Y from fatherMullerian ducts = female ; Wollfian ducts= male SRY gene (sex determining region) on Y chromosome ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Dimensions of Sex & GenderSex Dimensions Male Female 1. Chromosomes 2. Gonads 3. Hormones 4. External genitals Internal accessory organs XY XX Testes Ovaries Androgens Estrogens,Progesterone Penis, scrotum Labia, clitoris, vaginal opening Prostate, seminal Vagina, uterus, vesicles, fallopian tubes, vas deferens cervix ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Early circulating hormones affect the hypothalamusPrenatal hormones--affect fetal brain development Do they affect sexual orientation? Do early circulating hormones affect gender identity? (Testosterone aromatizes to Estrogen) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Gender Dimensions Gender identity (self-defined) : Am I a boy or a girl? Gender role ( socially-defined): How shall I behave? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Gender Identity FormationGender Identity: self-identification as being either a man or a woman ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Gender Role DevelopmentGender Role: societal expectations for “appropriate” male & female behavior ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Gender development? Gender labels: Recognize difference between boys and girls ( around 30 months of age) Gender stability: I am a girl and will remain a girl (around 5) Gender constancy: Gender is consistent across all situations ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Two Theories of Gender Role DevelopmentSocial-learning theory of gender role development: suggests gender roles develop as children: receive rewards &/or punishments for gender role behaviors & attitudes observe & imitate the behaviors & attitudes of others ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Two Theories of Gender Role DevelopmentGender Schema Theory: combines social learning & cognitive processing; children form gender schemas (mental blueprints) of “correct” behaviors for boys vs. girls ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Theories of Gender Role Development©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Transsexual: mismatch between gender identity& gonads, genitals, or internal accessory organsTransvestite: individuals who cross-dress for emotional &/or sexual gratification; from Latintrans, meaning “to change,” & vestire, meaning “clothing” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sex & Gender: Sexual Orientation: primary erotic attraction toward members of same sex (homosexual, gay, or lesbian), both sexes (bisexual), or other sex (heterosexual) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Biology, gender, sexual orientationCongenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in girls ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Biology, gender, sexual orientation (cont.)Guevedoce in Dominican Republic AIS (androgen insensitive syndrome) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Amazing case of David ReimerMoney and Ehrhardt, Johns Hopkins Hospital David ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Male External Sex Organs©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sex Differences Physical anatomy: height, weight, body build, reproductive organs Functional & structural brain differences: hypothalamus corpus callosum cerebral hemispheres ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Gender Differences Cognitive abilitiesWomen score slightly higher on verbal skills. Men score slightly higher on math & visuospatial skills. Aggression Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness. Women supposedly higher on relational aggression, but no clear differences. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sex & Gender: Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.)Androgyny: combining characteristics typically male (assertive, athletic) with those considered typically female (yielding, nurturing); from Greek andro, meaning “male,” & gyn, meaning “female” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sexual Behavior: Sexual OrientationMyths of Homosexuality: Seduction theory--gays & lesbians seduced in childhood by adults of same sex “By default” theory--gays & lesbians unable to attract partners of opposite sex Poor parenting theory--gay men = domineering mothers, weak fathers; lesbian women = weak or absent mothers Modeling theory--children imitate gay or lesbian parents ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Biological basis of homosexualityChildhood gender nonconformity Michael Bailey twin studies Simon LeVay and the INAH3 2D :4D ratio ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Yet the environment is importantBem: traits are inborn and then get labeled and reinforced ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Study of Human SexualityAlfred Kinsey--among the first to use surveys & interviews to study sexual practices & beliefs. Masters & Johnson-- early scientists who used experimentation & direct observation to study the sexual response cycle. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Chapter 12 Gender Roles and Sexuality
Which of the following is true about primary sex characteristics?
Chapter 11 Reproductive Behaviors
The Development of Gender
Sex and Gender Differences
Hormones & Sexual Development
Sex Roles Introduction.
Sex and the Brain.
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman
Chapter Three Gender and Families
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
Chapter 10 Reproductive Behaviors
Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
Gender psychosocial meaning of maleness, or femaleness (feeling of what you are) Gender Identity – psychological sense of being male or female Gender.
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION Sixth Edition by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation.
Gender & Human Sexuality
Chapter Ten Sexual Behavior.
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