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Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard Genetic Determinism.

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Presentation on theme: "Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard Genetic Determinism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard Genetic Determinism

2 Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard Cloning

3 Why do we want to clone? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

4 Why do we want to clone? the therapeutic cloning: We create a clone to save one person. the reproductive cloning: We use cloning to have a child. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

5 Are they the same person? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

6 Are they the same person? Some of people thinks that DNA decide of all but it is false. Because there is a difference during construction of human. Identical twins have not the same fingerprints. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

7 Why are we afraid? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

8 Why are we afraid? Yesterday: The scientists consider it was science fiction, and we should not think that it is serious "Nature 1997" Today: The scientists make research on the animals. Tomorrow: The Human beings cloned. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

9 Theories against cloning Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

10 2 theories against cloning Clones have pathology and malformation. (reduced by technology) The aim of a clone is just to create a copy, and it is not to live in the society. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

11 Danger As in the breedings, the people known as exceptional will be cloned. A clone does not have his life. The therapeutic cloning make an embryo, but when until can commit suicide an embryo. The human will not be original any more. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

12 Sources « Nature » 1997 Jacques Testart diplomatique.fr Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

13 What is a genetically modified food product? Genetically modified food products are plants that have had their genetic characteristics altered. Scientists change the plants' characteristics by putting new genetic material into them, genes for example from a bacteria which can withstand pesticides. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

14 What foods can you create by genetic modification? Sweet corn Rice Tomatoes Rape Many Others Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

15 Example of genetically modified crops Pesticide resistant rape plants –Advantages: The farmer can grow a larger crop because it is easier to fight pests. In some cases the farmer can use a more environmentally friendly crop spray. The farmer can also protect the environment by using less crop spray. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

16 Example of genetically modified crops Pesticide resistant rape plants –Disadvantages: Genes from the genetically modified rape crop could be transferred to the pests. The pests then become resistant to the crop spray and the crop spraying becomes useless. Rape plants can pollinate weeds - for example navew which is found in rape fields. When rape plants pollinate the navew their genes are transferred. The navew then acquires pesticide resistance. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

17 EU Laws about GMO Is it legal to produce and sell genetically modified foods? Companies have to have permission to market and sell a food that is produced using a genetically modified plant. Is it legal to import genetically modified foods? At the moment, only certain forms of genetically modified Soya beans, rape and sweet corn may be imported into the EU. Who decides, what is legal? In Europe, the EU is mainly responsible for deciding what is legal with regard to genetically modified foods. Member countries must follow two sets of instructions from the EU. A Directive on release into the environment of genetically modified organisms (no. 2001/18/EC) The Regulation concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients (no. 258/97) Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

18 EU Laws about GMO Must genetically modified foods be labelled? In the EU, products containing traces of genetically modified substances are to be labelled as genetically modified. In other words - foods that are different from the corresponding non-genetically modified foods because they contain new substances in the form of proteins and genes, derived from gene- modification. The same rules apply to additives and flavourings. Are legal ethics considered? In 2001, for the first time, the EU- plan opened up to the fact that authorities can include ethical considerations in their resolutions Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

19 Rights and Wrongs Give your opinions Are scientists playing God or are they merely facilitating a natural development? Is genetically modified food dangerous, or are people just frightened of something new? Can the richer countries refuse to save the poor from dying of hunger? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

20 Main GM cultures in the world Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

21 GM Cultures evolution Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

22 GM Cultures evolution Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

23 GM Production Map Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

24 Producer countries Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

25 Bibliography id.com/fr/consumers_methods.htm Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

26 DNA Database Who owns your genes? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

27 European Policy: The Ministers of Interior Department of G5 worked on the ways to improve safety in Europe. They will create Database storing the ADN of the criminals. 00.htm Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

28 Quiz (Numbers & Laws) How many genetic diseases are estimated to exist? ,000 30,000-40,000 Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

29 How many genetic diseases are estimated to exist? ,000 30,000-40,000 Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

30 How many genetic diseases can be identified by gene screening? Around 400 Around 4000 All of them Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

31 How many genetic diseases can be identified by gene screening? Around 400 Around 4000 All of them Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

32 Is it legal for insurance companies to have access to the results of genetic tests in France? Yes No Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

33 Is it legal for insurance companies to have access to the results of genetic tests in France? Yes No, instead, they ask for a declaration from applicants stating they are unaware of suffering from any disease. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

34 Is it legal for insurance companies to have access to the results of genetic tests in the UK? Yes No Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

35 Is it legal for insurance companies to have access to the results of genetic tests in the UK? Yes, unlike many European countries, there are currently no laws banning insurance companies from accessing the results of genetic tests No Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

36 What will be the future applications of database? What are your opinions Should Insurance companies access to our DNA database? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

37 What will be the future applications of database? What are your opinions Should Insurance companies access to our DNA database? Should the recruiters access to our DNA database to know if we are the good people for the job? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

38 What will be the future applications of database? What are your opinions Should Insurance companies access to our DNA database? Should the recruiters access to our DNA database to know if we are the good people for the job? Should the policemen spy people who have dangerous genes for others? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

39 Design your baby Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

40 Today Advanced reproductive technologies allow parents and doctors to screen embryos for genetic disorders and select healthy embryos.So why not a perfect baby ? What will we do when scientists are able to manipulate genes to form the so-called "perfect person?" And when we're able to identify the gene for intelligence, athleticism or beauty, will we want to make sure our future children have it? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

41 God or Devil ? In fact, there is intense speculation in the media about the implications of geneticists' capacity to identify the functions of a growing number of genes. The fear is that prenatal screening and abortion might be employed not only to prevent disease and disability but also by prospective parents anxious to maximise their offspring's brains, beauty and conformity to conventional behavioural norms and Designer babies is a term used by journalists to describe this frightening scenario. It is not a term used by scientists Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

42 Exemple Poll In a poll taken 10 years ago, 11 percent of American parents surveyed said they would abort a child if they knew it was going to be obese. –Source : ge Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

43 Today We were conceived in a genetic lottery But what are the situation today ? –Doctors can already to choose the sex of your future baby: What do you think about this possibility ? –Should parents be allowed to custom build their children and choose desirable or cosmetic characteristics ? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

44 Help to debate First case : –Modification to a women who are having trouble getting pregnant, because doctors need access to the embryos. Second case : –What about couples who are perfectly fertile - not prone to miscarriage, not carriers of a debilitating disease – and ask for modification to select the sex of their babies. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

45 Poll How do you feel about baby sex selection ? 27.78% –Scares me by taking place of God 6.67% –Unsure to the long-term consequences 11.85% –I would do it 9.26% –I do not know yet 6.30% –This is a great tool for parents 7.04% –I am uncomfortable with the idea 9.26% –I fully support it 21.11% –Some things science should not touch Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

46 Right or Wrong ? Differents cases : Cure genetic disease –http://preconception.com/resources/articles /pgd.htmhttp://preconception.com/resources/articles /pgd.htm If you know that your child will have a rare genetic disease that you can avoid with genetic therapy, is it normal to try to avoid that ? Should scientists tamper with the genes of unborn children to cure genetic disease? Is it right? Is it unnatural? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

47 Laws France / England Status of Laws in France and England –Is selecting an embryo for its genes legal ? –Is it legal to genetically engineer animals? –Is sex selection legal ? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

48 Stem Cells What are stem cells? Scientists are excited about the possibility of Stem Cells Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

49 Stem Cells Where do the embryos come from? There are currently at least 100,000 'spare' human embryos stored in freezers across the European Union. Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

50 Stem Cells Is it right to use an embryo as a stem cell 'factory'? Is an embryo a human life or just a ball of cells? Do the rights of the embryo outweigh the rights of the adult or child with an incurable disease? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

51 Stem Cells When does an embryo or foetus become a human being? At the moment of conception? Two months after fertilisation when the head and body are recognisable, but the embryo has no awareness because the brain has not wired up? At 5 1/2 months when the foetus can respond to noise and if born would survive? Only when the baby is born? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

52 Living Longer How long can we live? life expectancy in 2004 : Source : Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

53 Living Longer How do we age? How can science slow down the ageing process? The law Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

54 Living Longer Can society afford an even larger elderly population? Will we still have respect for the elderly when their numbers are exploding? How long should we go on working if we lived much longer? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard

55 Living Longer Is it a good idea to have longer life in our society? Should we aim for more life to our days than more days to our life? Durand Sven Lepannetier Morvan Gaillardou Arnaud Racoto Nicolas Thuleau Edouard


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