# 11 CHAPTER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, THE INTERNET, AND YOU.

## Presentation on theme: "11 CHAPTER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, THE INTERNET, AND YOU."— Presentation transcript:

11 CHAPTER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, THE INTERNET, AND YOU

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-2 Lecture Objectives Basic Computing Concepts Basic Working of a Computer System Introducing a Problem Analogy: Human & Computer Defining Information Processing Cycle Introducing Information Systems Explain the five parts of an information system

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-3 Introducing Computers Computer could be considered as a problem solving machine. Closely resembles with a human who is capable of solving a problem

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-4 Introducing Computers (contd..) What a Problem is? A problem requires some unprocessed facts (data) converted into useful results (information) For every problem, there exists a step-by-step method (algorithm) to do this conversion

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-5 Muhammad Ali Al-Hasan 80 70 Hashem65 Husain79 Data Values (Student Scores) Averaging Technique Problem Algorithm Average=73.5 Processed Result Problem: What will the average score in “math exam” in a class having 4 students, whose names & scores are as follows: Muhammad,80 Ali Al-Hasan,70 Hashem,65 Hussain,79

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-6 Humans: A well known Problem Solver Muhammad Ali Al-Hasan 80 70 Hashem65 Husain79 ------------------- ----------------- ------ Average=73.5 Brain Averaging Technique

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-7 Computers: A more efficient Problem Solver Muhammad Ali Al-Hasan 80 70 Hashem65 Husain79 Average=73.5 Averaging Technique (Computer Software)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-8 Why to prefer Computers? Speed Capable of processing jobs in millionth of seconds Accuracy Capable of performing the work with incomparable accuracy Unlimited memory/ working capability Don’t have any limitation in working continuous hours (for long) or memorizing the contents

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-9 Why we cannot avoid Humans? Intelligence Humans are not only obedient (as computers are) Capable of solving new situations (new algorithms) using their intelligence Thinking new/ improved algorithms Computers are dependant totally on humans for problem algorithms Keen supervision for computer working Computers are unable to detect and alarm for any erroneous algorithm step and keep on replicating any mistake when happen

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-10 Information Processing Cycle Get initial Data required for problem solution Get an algorithm for solving problem at hand Process initial data by following the algorithm steps Display Result to the user Generate Problem Result Store Result permanently

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-11 Introducing an Information System A SYSTEM is a collection of many inter- related/ interacting objects working together toward a common goal.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-12 What is an Information System? An Information System is meant for transforming crude data (input) into some useful information (result). Capable of implementing a complete Information Processing Cycle Expected Capabilities Reading Information Processing Information Generate Information (Results) Store Information Secure Information

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-13 Information System Examples A Payroll Information System for generating Employee Salary Bills Reads information about employees, their salary rates and the work done (number of hours per day) Does calculation for generating the month salary Displays results and saves it for future reference More Examples Student information system Hospital billing systems Airline reservation systems Is it possible to have an IS without computers? Yes, but it will prove to be very inefficient, and less- accessible systems with improved security.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-14 Five Parts of an Information System 1. People 2. Procedures 3. Software 4. Hardware 5. Data

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-15 1. People The most important part. All information systems require people in order to be operational. Two main classes Specialists - develop and operate Information Systems End Users - use the information produced by the Information Systems. Contact is … Direct (by themselves) Indirect (through specialist users)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-16..People User uses Information Systems in… Business & Entertainment Education & Medicine In a payroll information system example, Specialists are people like System Analysts, Programmers, System Operators who actively participate in system development/ run. End users include Company Employees, Managers, Clerks who are using the information generated by the system.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-17 2. Procedures Procedures are the guidelines related with Information System operations/ usage/ development. Procedures are meant for educating Information Systems related people (all classes) for their concerned activities. Some examples could be Usage Instructions for Students/ Faculty Members to make use of a University Registration System Software Documentation Kit for Programmers to make modification in the relevant program.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-18 3. Hardware Hardware includes all the physical devices and materials used in implementing an information processing cycle Equipment that processes the data Controlled by software

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-19 …Hardware The following could be considered: Computers Calculators Paper Sheets/ Pens/ desks Computer Terminals/ Printers/ Keyboard Magnetic disk media/ CD ROM disks etc. Devices needed for communication (modems/ telephones/ network cables/ network cards etc.)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-20 4. Software Software means set of instructions Needed to convert data into information. Directs the computer to do the data to information conversion. Used in concerned computers in an IS environment. Examples: Computer Programs (in a computer based IS) Formula/ computational details used in a company by the relevant staff (in a non-computer based IS environment)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-21 …Software In computer based IS, two major kinds of software System Software Application Software In a Payroll IS Environment, the program under use of payroll staff on their personal computers. Student Registration Web Site used by faculty, students (end-users) to perform registration activities.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-22 5. Data Data could be Unprocessed – needs to be worked upon Processed – processing result (also called information) Storage media is needed to record data (papers, magnetic tapes/ disks, CDs etc.) On electronic media, data is saved as files.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-23 …Data Four common file types are Document files – mainly alpha-numeric data Worksheet files – mainly mathematical sheets Database files – environment data in an structured/ organized way Presentation files – mainly pictures/ effects.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-24 Connectivity, the Wireless Revolution, and the Internet Connectivity Sharing of information Wireless communication is becoming popular Computer networks Connected communication system of computers Largest network is the Internet

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-25 Key Terms application software (9) basic application (9) chassis (12) communication device (14) compact disc (CD) (14) computer competency (3) computer network (16) Computing Essentials CD (8) connectivity (16) Data (5) database file (15) desktop computer (11) device driver (9) digital versatile disk (DVD) (14) digital video disc (DVD) (14) document file (15)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-26 Key Terms end user (4) floppy disk (14) general-purpose (9) application handheld computer (11) hard disk (14) hardware (5) information (4) information system (4) information technology (IT) (5) input device (12) Internet (16) keyboard (12) laptop computer (11) mainframe computer (11) memory ( 12) microcomputer (11)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-27 Key Terms microprocessor (12) midrange computer (11) minicomputer (11) modem (14) monitor (12) mouse (12) network (16) notebook computer (11) operating system (9) optical disk ( 14) output device (12) palm computer (11) people (4) personal digital assistant (PDA) (11) presentation file (15) primary storage (12) printer (12)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-28 Key Terms procedures (4) program (4) random access memory (RAM) (12) secondary storage device (14) service program (9) software (4) specialized application (10) special-purpose application (10) supercomputer (11) SimNet Concepts (8) system cabinet (12) system software (9) system unit (12) tablet PC (11)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-29 Key Terms temporary storage (12) utility (9) video display screen (12) Web (16) wireless revolution (16) worksheet file (15) World Wide Web (WWW) (16)

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-30 FAQs What is an information system? What is IT? How does raw data become information? What is an operating system? What are specialized applications? Please give some examples. Is the Internet the same as the World Wide Web?

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1-31 Discussion Questions How are you using information technology? Explain the difference between system and application software. Describe some of the uses for handheld computers. Why is the wireless revolution so important?