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Chapter 22 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to identify the responsibilities of both Awareness-Level and Operations-Level.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to identify the responsibilities of both Awareness-Level and Operations-Level."— Presentation transcript:

0 Chapter 22 — Introduction to Hazardous Materials
Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department Operations, 5th Edition Chapter 22 — Introduction to Hazardous Materials Firefighter I

1 Chapter 22 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to identify the responsibilities of both Awareness-Level and Operations-Level personnel at hazardous materials incidents, summarize types of clothing and protection necessary at hazardous materials incidents, and discuss various clues for detecting the presence of and identifying hazardous materials. Firefighter I

2 Specific Objectives 1. Summarize Awareness-Level and Operations-Level responsibilities at hazardous materials incidents. 2. Describe types of respiratory protection. 3. Summarize respiratory equipment limitations. (Continued) Firefighter I

3 Specific Objectives 4. Describe types of protective clothing.
5. Discuss U.S. EPA levels of protective equipment. 6. Describe NFPA® 1994 PPE ensemble classifications. 7. Describe the U.S. military mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) ensembles. (Continued) Firefighter I

4 Specific Objectives 8. Discuss PPE selection factors.
9. Discuss health and safety issues when wearing PPE. 10. Explain proper procedures for inspection, testing, and maintenance of protective clothing and equipment. (Continued) Firefighter I

5 Specific Objectives 11. Describe health and physical hazards that may be present at haz mat incidents. 12. Describe physical properties of hazardous materials. (Continued) Firefighter I

6 Specific Objectives 13. Explain how the General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model (GEBMO) can help firefighters understand the likely course of an incident. (Continued) Firefighter I

7 Specific Objectives 14. Explain locations or occupancies clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 15. Explain container shapes clues to the presence of hazardous materials. (Continued) Firefighter I

8 Specific Objectives 16. Explain transportation placards, labels, and markings clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 17. Explain other markings and colors (non-transportation) clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 18. Explain how written resources can be used to assist firefighters in identifying hazardous materials. (Continued) Firefighter I

9 Specific Objectives 19. Explain how the senses can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 20. Explain how monitoring and detection devices can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 21. Summarize indicators of terrorist attacks. (Continued) Firefighter I

10 Specific Objectives 22. Discuss identifying illicit laboratories.
23. Discuss secondary attacks. 24. Obtain information about a hazardous material using the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). (Skill Sheet 22-I-1) Firefighter I

11 Awareness-Level Responsibilities
Recognize a hazardous materials incident or terrorist attack Protect themselves from the hazards at the incident Call for additional help Secure the incident scene Firefighter I

12 Operations-Level Responsibilities
All of the requirements for Awareness Level, plus initiate defensive actions to protect The public The environment Property Courtesy of Rich Mahaney. (Continued) Firefighter I

13 Operations Level Responsibilities
Some may be trained to perform additional functions at a haz mat incident depending on their assigned missions or functions Firefighter I

14 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Must be National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) certified to be used at haz mat incidents Must meet design and testing criteria of NFPA® 1981 (Continued) Firefighter I

15 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Only positive-pressure open-circuit or closed-circuit SCBA is allowed in incidents where personnel are exposed to hazardous materials Firefighter I

16 Advantages of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Independence Maneuverability Firefighter I

17 Disadvantages of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Weight Limited air-supply duration Change in profile Limited vision Limited communications Firefighter I

18 SCBA Used in Emergency Response to Terrorist Attacks
Certification program for SCBA used in emergency response to terrorist acts is being worked on by NIOSH, NIST, OSHA, and NFPA® Firefighter I

19 Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs)
An atmosphere-supplying respirator; user does not carry the breathing air source (Continued) Firefighter I

20 Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs)
Components Facepiece Belt-or facepiece-mounted regulator Voice communications system Up to 300 feet (100 m) of air supply hose Emergency escape pack or emergency breathing support system (EBSS) Breathing air source (Continued) Firefighter I

21 Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs)
Type C respirators SARs used at haz mat incidents or terrorist events must provide positive pressure to the facepiece Firefighter I

22 Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs): Advantage
Reduce physical stress to the wearer by removing the weight of the SBCA Firefighter I

23 Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs): Disadvantages
Air supply line has potential for mechanical or heat damage Length of airline restricts mobility Restricted vision Restricted communications Firefighter I

24 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
Contain an air-purifying filter, canister, or cartridge that removes specific contaminants found in ambient air (Continued) Firefighter I

25 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
Types Particulate-removing APRs Vapor- and gas-removing APRs Combination particulate-removing and vapor- and gas-removing APRs (Continued) Firefighter I

26 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
May be powered (PAPRs) or non-powered Do not supply oxygen or air from a separate source; protect only against specific contaminants at or below certain concentration (Continued) Firefighter I

27 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
May have either Full facepieces Half-facepieces (Continued) Firefighter I

28 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
Do not protect against oxygen deficient or oxygen-enriched atmospheres Must not be used in IDLH situations Firefighter I

29 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs): Limitations
Limited life of filters and canisters Require constant monitoring of the contaminated atmosphere Require a normal oxygen content of the atmospheres before use Firefighter I

30 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs): Precautions
Know what chemicals/air contaminants are in the air Know how much of the chemicals/air contaminants are in the air (Continued) Firefighter I

31 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs): Precautions
Ensure that the oxygen level is between 19.5 and 23.5 percent Ensure that atmospheric hazards are below IDLH conditions Firefighter I

32 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs): Use at Haz Mat
APRs may be used after emergency operations are over and the hazards at the scene have been properly identified Firefighter I

33 Particulate-Removing Filters
Protect from particulates in the air May be used with half or full facepiece masks Eye protection must be provided when full facepiece mask is not worn Divided into nine classes (Continued) Firefighter I

34 Particulate-Removing Filters
Used to protect against toxic dusts, mists, metal fumes, asbestos, and some biological hazards If used for medical emergences, must be percent efficient (Continued) Firefighter I

35 Particulate-Removing Filters
Include particle masks (dust masks) Firefighter I

36 Vapor- and Gas-Removing Filters
Protect against specific vapors and gases Use some kind of sorbent material Designed to protect against related groups of chemicals such as organic vapors or acid gases (Continued) Firefighter I

37 Vapor- and Gas-Removing Filters
May be color-coded to identify what contaminant(s) the canister or cartridge is designed to protect against Firefighter I

38 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
Use a blower to pass contaminated air through a canister or filter Offer a greater degree of safety than standard APRs (Continued) Firefighter I

39 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
May be of use at CBR incidents for personnel conducting decontamination operations and long-term operations More comfortable to wear Several types are available (Continued) Firefighter I

40 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
Only used where the atmospheric hazards are understood and at least 19.5 percent oxygen is present Not safe to wear in atmospheres where potential respiratory hazards are unidentified Should not be used during initial emergency operations (Continued) Firefighter I

41 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
Require continuous atmospheric monitoring to ensure the safety of the responder Firefighter I

42 Supplied-Air Hoods Provide loose fitting, lightweight respiratory protection that can be worn with Glasses Facial hair Beards (Continued) Firefighter I

43 Supplied-Air Hoods Used as an alternative to other respirators because they require no fit testing and are ready to use Firefighter I

44 Escape Respirators Designed for escaping the hot zone
Can be self-contained or air-purifying Generally designed for a short duration of protection and are commonly designed in a hood style (Continued) Firefighter I

45 Escape Respirators Have filter canisters that are usually not designed to be replaced Some include cases that can be strapped onto the body and worn as part of an emergency PPE ensemble Firefighter I

46 Limitations of Equipment and Air Supply
Limited visibility Decreased ability to communicate Increased weight Decreased mobility Inadequate oxygen levels (Continued) Firefighter I

47 Limitations of Equipment and Air Supply
Chemical specific Open- and closed-circuit SBCA have maximum air-supply durations Non-NIOSH certified SCBAs may offer only limited protection in environments containing chemical warfare agents (Continued) Firefighter I

48 Physical, Medical, and Mental Limitations
Physical condition Agility Facial features Neurological functioning (Continued) Firefighter I

49 Physical, Medical, and Mental Limitations
Mental soundness Muscular/skeletal condition Cardiovascular conditioning Respiratory functioning Firefighter I

50 Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
Not a substitute for chemical protective clothing, but may provide limited protection against some hazardous materials (Continued) Firefighter I

51 Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
Limitations Neither corrosive-resistant, nor vapor tight Liquids can soak through, acids and bases can dissolve/deteriorate outer layers, gases and vapors can penetrate the garment Gaps in clothing occur Can be permeated by some hazardous materials (Continued) Firefighter I

52 Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
May be appropriate for use at haz mat incidents when certain conditions are met Contact with splashes of extremely hazardous materials is unlikely Hazards have been identified, and will not rapidly damage or permeate structural fire fighting protective clothing (Continued) Firefighter I

53 Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
May be appropriate for use at haz mat incidents when certain conditions are met (cont.) Total atmospheric concentrations do not contain high levels of chemicals that are toxic to the skin There is a chance of fire or there is a fire and this type of protection is appropriate When it is the only PPE available (Continued) Firefighter I

54 Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
At terrorism events Will provide protection against thermal damage in an explosive attack Provides limited or no protection against projectiles, shrapnel, and other mechanical effects from a blast Provides adequate protection against some types of radiological hazards, but not others (Continued) Firefighter I

55 Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
In cases where biological agents are strictly respiratory hazards, may provide adequate protection Not sufficient in any case where skin contact is potentially hazardous Firefighter I

56 High-Temperature Protective Clothing
Designed to protect the wearer from short-term high-temperature exposures Usually of limited use in dealing with chemical hazards (Continued) Firefighter I

57 High-Temperature Protective Clothing
Two basic types of high-temperature clothing are available. Proximity suits Fire-entry suits Firefighter I

58 High-Temperature Protective Clothing Limitations
Contributes to heat stress Bulky Limits wearer’s vision, mobility, and communication Requires frequent and extensive training Expensive Firefighter I

59 Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
Shields or isolates individuals from the chemical, physical, and biological hazards that may be encountered during hazardous materials operations Made from a variety of different materials (Continued) Firefighter I

60 Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
Must include a list of chemicals for which the suit is effective Designed to afford the wearer a known degree of protection from a known type, concentration, and length of exposure to a hazardous material (Continued) Firefighter I

61 Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
Must be decontaminated before storage or disposal Firefighter I

62 Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC): Liquid-Splash Protective Clothing
Primarily designed to protect users from chemical liquid splashes, but not against chemical vapors or gases Encapsulating or nonencapsulating (Continued) Firefighter I

63 Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC): Liquid-Splash Protective Clothing
Limitations Not resistant to heat or flame exposure Does not protect against projectiles or shrapnel May use an SCBA, an airline (SAR), or a full-face, air-purifying, canister-equipped respirator Firefighter I

64 Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC): Vapor-Protective Clothing
Designed to protect the wearer against chemical vapors or gases and offers a greater level of protection than liquid-splash protective clothing Courtesy of the Illinois Fire Service Institute (Continued) Firefighter I

65 Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC): Vapor-Protective Clothing
Must be worn with positive-pressure SCBA or combination SCBA/SAR Limitations Firefighter I

66 U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment : Level A
Provides the highest level of protection against vapors, gases, mists, and particles for the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin Courtesy of Kenneth Baum. Firefighter I

67 U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment : Level B
Requires a garment that includes an SCBA or a SAR and provides protection against splashes from a hazardous chemical Worn when the highest level of respiratory protection is necessary but a lesser level of skin protection is needed (Continued) Firefighter I

68 U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment : Level B
Provides liquid-splash protection, but little or no protection against chemical vapors or gases to the skin May be encapsulating or nonencapsulating Courtesy of Kenneth Baum. Firefighter I

69 U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment : Level C
Protection differs from Level B in the area of equipment needed for respiratory protection Composed of a splash-protecting garment and an air-purifying device (APR or PAPR) Includes any of the various types of APRs (Continued) Firefighter I

70 U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment : Level C
Should not use unless the specific material is known Periodic air monitoring is required Courtesy of Kenneth Baum. Firefighter I

71 U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment : Level D
Consists of typical work uniforms, street clothing, or coveralls For nuisance contamination only Worn only when no atmospheric hazards exist Firefighter I

72 NFPA® 1994 PPE Ensemble Classifications
Class 1 — Highest degree of protection Class 2 Class 3 Firefighter I

73 MOPP Ensembles Protect against chemical, biological, and radiological hazards (Continued) Firefighter I

74 MOPP Ensembles Consist of an overgarment, mask, hood, overboots, and protective gloves Provide six flexible levels of protection Firefighter I

75 PPE Selection Factors First-arriving responders often rely upon information in the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) PPE itself can create significant wearer hazards The higher the level of PPE is, the greater the associated risks Firefighter I

76 Health and Safety Issues When Wearing PPE
Most types of PPE inhibit the body's ability to disperse heat Wearing PPE usually increases firefighters' risks of developing heat-related disorders (Continued) Firefighter I

77 Health and Safety Issues When Wearing PPE
When working in cold climates, considerations must be taken to protect responders from cold-related disorders Firefighter I

78 Heat Disorders Wearing PPE or other special full-body protective clothing puts the wearer at considerable risk of developing heat stress. (Continued) Firefighter I

79 Heat Disorders First responders need to be aware of several heat disorders, including heat stroke (the most serious), heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat rashes, and heat fatigue. Firefighter I

80 Heat-Exposure Prevention
Firefighters wearing protective clothing need to be monitored for effects of heat exposure. Fluid consumption Body ventilation Body cooling (Continued) Firefighter I

81 Heat-Exposure Prevention
Rest areas Work rotation Proper liquids Physical fitness Firefighter I

82 Cold Disorders Cold temperatures caused by weather and/or other conditions such as exposure to cryogenic liquids must be considered when selecting PPE. Prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures can result in health problems. (Continued) Firefighter I

83 Cold Disorders The four primary environmental conditions that cause cold-related stress are Low temperatures High/cool winds Dampness Cold water (Continued) Firefighter I

84 Cold Disorders Wind chill is a crucial factor to evaluate when working outside. A dangerous situation of rapid heat loss may arise for any individual exposed to high winds and cold temperatures. Firefighter I

85 Medical Monitoring Provide for responders who may be at risk because of environmental hazards as well as potential exposure to CBR materials (Continued) Firefighter I

86 Medical Monitoring Should be conducted before responders wearing chemical liquid-splash or vapor-protective clothing enter the warm and hot zones as well as after leaving these zones (Continued) Firefighter I

87 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Must be conducted in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations Should include records of all inspection procedures (Continued) Firefighter I

88 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
At a minimum, record Item identification number Date of inspection Person making the inspection Results of the inspection Any unusual conditions noted (Continued) Firefighter I

89 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
Inspected when purchased Should be inspected after each use, daily or weekly, monthly, and annually Follow guidelines Firefighter I

90 Health and Physical Hazards
Health hazards Acute health effects are short-term effects that appear within hours or days Chronic health effects are long-term effects that may take years to appear (Continued) Firefighter I

91 Health and Physical Hazards
Thermal hazards Radiological hazards Asphyxiation hazards Chemical hazards Etiological/biological hazards (Continued) Firefighter I

92 Health and Physical Hazards
Mechanical hazards Firefighter I

93 Physical Properties of Hazardous Materials
Matter is found in three physical states (Continued) Firefighter I

94 Physical Properties of Hazardous Materials
Vapor pressure Boiling point Vapor density Solubility/miscibility (Continued) Firefighter I

95 Physical Properties of Hazardous Materials
Specific gravity Persistence Reactivity Firefighter I

96 GEBMO Stress Breach Release Dispersion/engulf Exposure/contact Harm
Firefighter I

97 Locations or Occupancies Clues
Hazardous materials are found everywhere Preincident surveys Community emergency response plans (Continued) Firefighter I

98 Locations or Occupancies Clues
Certain occupancies are always highly probable locations (Continued) Firefighter I

99 Locations or Occupancies Clues
Private property is not exempt Certain occupancies are more likely to be targeted for terrorist attacks Firefighter I

100 Container Shapes Clues
Bulk-capacity fixed-facility containers Bulk transportation containers Intermediate bulk containers Courtesy of Rich Mahaney. (Continued) Firefighter I

101 Container Shapes Clues
Ton containers Nonbulk packaging Containers for radioactive materials Courtesy of Rich Mahaney. Firefighter I

102 Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings Clues
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Transport Canada (TC), Ministry of Communications and Transport (Mexico) (Continued) Firefighter I

103 Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings Clues
Under the UN system, nine hazard classes are used to categorize hazardous materials Placards are required on specific bulk quantities U.S. DOT labels Markings (Continued) Firefighter I

104 Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings Clues
Four-digit UN identification numbers (Continued) Firefighter I

105 Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings Clues
Other North American highway vehicle identification markings North American railroad tank car markings International intermodal container/tank markings Firefighter I

106 Other Markings and Colors Clues
NFPA® 704 system Hazard communications labels and markings Canadian Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System Manufacturers’ labels and signal words (Continued) Firefighter I

107 Other Markings and Colors Clues
Military markings Pipeline identification Pesticide labels Courtesy of Rich Mahaney. Firefighter I

108 Written Resources Written resources to assist firefighters
MSDSs, inventory records, and other facility documents ERG and shipping papers Shipping papers, MSDSs, contacting an emergency response center (Continued) Firefighter I

109 Written Resources Shipping papers Material safety data sheets (MSDS)
The GHS for Hazard Classification and Communication OSHA MSDS requirements Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) Firefighter I

110 Senses Vision — Safest While many products release odors well below dangerous levels, this may be too close for safety’s sake Warning properties of chemicals include visible gas clouds, pungent odors, and irritating fumes (Continued) Firefighter I

111 Senses Be aware of visual/physical chemical indicators that provide evidence of hazardous materials Firefighter I

112 Monitoring and Detection Devices
Useful in determining the presence of hazardous materials Require actual contact with the hazardous material (Continued) Firefighter I

113 Monitoring and Detection Devices
Outside the scope of action for most Operations-Level responders Can help determine the scope of the incident (Continued) Firefighter I

114 Monitoring and Detection Devices
No single device will detect all materials Have advantages and disadvantages Various types are available (Continued) Firefighter I

115 Monitoring and Detection Devices
Responders assigned monitoring, detection, and sampling duties must be trained Firefighter I

116 Terrorist Attacks Response to a terrorist incident is essentially the same as that for response to other haz mat incidents; however, there are critical differences that must be understood by firefighters. Firefighter I

117 Indicators of Terrorist Attacks
Report of two or more medical emergencies in public locations Unusually large number of people with similar signs and symptoms (Continued) Firefighter I

118 Indicators of Terrorist Attacks
Reported explosion Firefighter I

119 Types of Terrorist Attacks
Chemical attack Biological attack Radiological attack Nuclear attack Explosive/incendiary attack Firefighter I

120 Identifying Illicit Laboratories
Produce or manufacture illegal or controlled substances Can be found virtually anywhere Drug labs Courtesy of Joan Hepler. (Continued) Firefighter I

121 Identifying Illicit Laboratories
Chemical agents labs Explosives labs Biological labs Firefighter I

122 Secondary Attacks Always a possibility at terrorist attacks or illicit laboratories Usually explosives Often designed to impact an ongoing emergency response May also be deployed as a diversionary tactic (Continued) Firefighter I

123 Secondary Attacks May be used to lure personnel to a specific area where a less obvious IED is hidden Guidelines exist for protecting against possible secondary devices (Continued) Firefighter I

124 Secondary Attacks Responders should be very cautious of any item(s) that arouse curiosity. Firefighter I

125 Summary Because hazardous materials could be involved in virtually any emergency, and because these materials may be highly toxic, it is critical that firefighters have at least a basic understanding of the potential threats and possible solutions. (Continued) Firefighter I

126 Summary Firefighters should be aware of the vast quantities of these materials that are shipped, stored, and used every day in North America. They should also be aware of the various placards, labels, and signs that are required. (Continued) Firefighter I

127 Summary Firefighters should be familiar with the various references that are available to assist them. Finally, they must know what specialized resources will be needed to mitigate a hazardous materials release and be prepared to assist. Firefighter I

128 Review Questions 1. What are persons trained to the Awareness Level expected to do? 2. What are persons trained to the Operations Level expected to do? 3. What is a supplied-air respirator? (Continued) Firefighter I

129 Review Questions 4. What U.S. EPA level of protective equipment provides the highest level of protection? 5. List three methods to prevent and/or reduce the effects of heat exposure while wearing protective clothing. (Continued) Firefighter I

130 Review Questions 6. Describe the four main routes through which hazardous materials can enter the body. 7. What are the seven clues to the presence of hazardous materials? 8. What are the three ways to use the ERG to locate the appropriate orange-bordered guide page? (Continued) Firefighter I

131 Review Questions 9. List four chemical attack indicators.
10. What are the clues to the presence of meth labs? Firefighter I

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