5 Brief Introduction to Whitman Working as a printer, editor, journalist, and publisher during the years of the publishing industry's phenomenal growth, Whitman became keenly aware that the tools necessary for his emergence as the new, democratic poet were at his disposal. He believed he could bring poetry to the common people, and with the publication of his 1855 Leaves of Grass, he assumed for himself the role of the American Poet, referring to himself as "one of the roughs," a common man.
6 Whitman carefully continued to cultivate his literary personality throughout his career.As he revised and enlarged Leaves of Grass (8 editions and numerous printings would appear between 1855 and 1891), Whitman's goal as the self-styled national poet became more clearly defined. Leaves of Grass is essentially a poem in process, with each succeeding edition representing a unique period in the poet's life as well as the nation's.
7 The Major Themes of his Poem The absolute intransigent individualismThe combination of a proud individualism with perfect equality
8 The Rhythm of Whitman’s poetry Free VerseThe differences betweenFree verse and Blank verse
9 The Difference between Blank verse and Free Verse The wonderful thing about free verse, is that it has very few distinct rules. It is similar to blank verse in that it does not rhyme, but unlike blank verse, it is not written in iambic pentameter.The rhythm or cadence of free verse varies throughout the poem. Though the words don't rhyme, they flow along their own uneven pattern.
10 Free VersePoetry that is based on the irregular rhythmic CADENCE or the recurrence, with variations, of phrases, images, and syntactical patterns rather than the conventional use of METER. RHYME may or may not be present in free verse, but when it is, it is used with great freedom. In conventional VERSE the unit is the FOOT, or the line; in free verse the units are larger, sometimes being paragraphs . If the free verse unit is the line, as it is in Whitman, the line is determined by qualities of RHYTHM and thought rather than FEET.
11 Free VerseIn the twentieth century free verse has had widespread usage by most poets, of whom T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Carl Sandburg, and William Carlos Williams are representative. Such a list indicates the great variety of subject matter, effect and tone that is possible in free verse, and shows that it is much less a rebellion against traditional English METRICS than a modification and extension of the resources of our language.
14 Song of MyselfI Celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loafe and invite my soul, I lean and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.
15 My tongue, every atom of my blood, form'd from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same, I, now thirty-seven years old in perfect health begin, Hoping to cease not till death. Creeds and schools in abeyance, Retiring back a while sufficed at what they are, but never forgotten, I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard, Nature without check with original energy.
17 The Symbol of GrassThe answer to the question is in many ways the entire poem (As we have already seen the entire poem is formally structured around the grass). Whitman sees the grass as the recapitulation of the whole cycle of life, death and rebirth; it the symbol of the individual ("the flag of my disposition"), of Deity ("the handkerchief of the Lord"), of reproduction ("the produced babe of the vegetation"), of the new social order of American democracy ("a uniform hieroglyphic"), of death ("the beautiful uncut hair of graves").
18 When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d Background InformationOf all the many poems written about the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, this one by Walt Whitman may well be the most well known. Although somewhat more abstract than his shorter "O, Captain! My Captain!", it nevertheless carries an emotional punch that the more accessible verses lack.
20 Theme The poem unites two broad themes that absorbed the poet: 1 America, "my land" (typified by its great President)2 Death, "the dark mother" of all of us.
21 Symbols In the text we find three symbols largely developed: 1 the star (Lincoln)2 the lilac (in Eastern symbolism; a connection with manly love)3 the hermit thrush (the poet singing of death).
22 The symbol of LilacsThe lilacs symbolize the poet's love and homage. As a true romantic symbol, they draw fully on the natural characteristics of the flower to create meaning; that meaning develops with repetition throughout the poem, which can be traced by following the links from the first reference. The flower is extremely aromatic, with a scent that carries a distance. Lilac bushes can live for hundreds of years,It symbolizes the love for the great president will last for ever.
23 The Symbol of StarVenus, which often appears as the "evening star," brightest at twilight in the Western sky before it drops into the west, is earth's planetary "twin." April is also the month of Venus. Note that when the planet is lowest on the horizon, like the rising moon, it appears larger and orange because of the earth's atmosphere. President Lincoln was assassinated and died on April 15, 1865, at a time when Venus appeared as the "evening star," and for Whitman, this statesman from the west is represented by Venus.
24 The Symbol of ThrushAs you trace this symbol, note that the bird is closely paralleled with the poet, "tallying" his soul with his song. Its song, is an elegy which confronts and accepts death. This is a lyric within a lyric and is a structure that resembles music as an emotional experience rather than music for its own sake.
25 Emily Dickinson( )Dickinson's poetic accomplishment was recognized from the moment her first volume appeared in 1890, but never has she enjoyed more acclaim than she does today. Once Thomas H. Johnson made her complete body of 1,775 poems available in his 1955 variorum edition, The Poems of Emily Dickinson, interest from all quarters soared. Readers immediately discovered a poet of immense depth and stylistic complexity whose work eludes categorization.
29 The Theme in Dickinson’s poetry Poetry of NaturePoetry of Ecstasy and DespairPoetry of Death and immortalityPoetry of Art and WordPoetry of love
30 Poetry of Nature A Bird came down the Walk – He did not know I saw – He bit an Angleworm in halvesAnd ate the fellow, raw,And then he drank a DewFrom a convenient Grass –And then hopped sidewise to the Wall To let a Beetle pass –He glanced with rapid eyes That hurried all around –They looked like frightened Beads, I thought –He stirred his Velvet HeadLike one in danger, Cautious,I offered him a CrumbAnd he unrolled his feathers And rowed him softer home -- Than Oars divide the Ocean, Too silver for a seam –Or Butterflies, off Banks of NoonLeap, plashless as they swim.
32 The Theme of “A Bird”The relationship between man and nature---alienation exists between man and nature.
33 Rhyme and Meter"A Bird Came Down the Walk." is an excellent example of how poets use varying styles of rhyme and meter to bring a poem to life. Dickinson expertly uses meter to show how the bird acts on the ground and in the air. The poem is five quatrains long. In each stanza, except for the fourth, uses iambic trimeter in every line but the fourth line which uses iambic tetrameter. The fourth stanza uses iambic trimeter in all four lines.
34 Poetry of Ecstasy and Despair The Soul selects her own Society -- Then -- shuts the Door –To her divine Majority –Present no more –Unmoved -- she notes the Chariots -- pausing –At her low Gate –Unmoved -- an Emperor be kneelingUpon her Mat –I've known her –from an ample nation –Choose One –Then -- close the Valves of her attention -- Like Stone --
35 Analysis Soul- a woman of high rank Society-companion ,either her lover ,Wadsworth or her poetry
36 Poetry of Death and immortality I died for Beauty -- but was scarceAdjusted in the TombWhen One who died for Truth, was lainIn an adjoining room –He questioned softly "Why I failed"?"For Beauty", I replied –"And I -- for Truth -- Themself are One –We Brethren, are", He said –And so, as Kinsmen, met a Night –We talked between the Rooms –Until the Moss had reached our lips –And covered up -- our names --
37 and then I could not see to see -- I heard a Fly buzz -- when I died –The Stillness in the RoomWas like the Stillness in the Air –Between the Heaves of Storm –The Eyes around -- had wrung them dry -- And Breaths were gathering firmFor that last Onset –when the King Be witnessed –in the Room -- I willed my Keepsakes -- Signed away What portion of me be Assignable –and then it was There interposed a Fly –With Blue -- uncertain stumbling Buzz -- Between the light –and me -- And then the Windows failed –and then I could not see to see --
38 Analysis The image of “fly” is used successfully By combining the “color” and “voice”the poet creates the state of mind in chaos when one is dying.The poem describes the process of dying.The poem shows the poet’s suspicion towards immortality.
43 Because I Could Not Stop for Death The poem is a dramatic representation of the passage from this world of the living to afterlife. The school,the fields of gazing grains, setting sun summarize the process and passage of a lifetime.Death –courtly suitorfraudulent seducerThe poem reflects a basic ambiguity about death and immortality.
44 Poetry of Art and Word I taste a liquor never brewed – From Tankards scooped in Pearl –Not all the Vats upon the Rhine Yield such an Alcohol! Inebriate of Air -- am I –And Debauchee of Dew -- Reeling –thro endless summer days –From inns of Molten Blue –When "Landlords" turn the drunken Bee Out of the Foxglove's door –When Butterflies -- renounce their "drams" –I shall but drink the more!Till Seraphs swing their snowy Hats –And Saints -- to windows run –To see the little Tippler Leaningagainst the -- Sun --
45 AnalysisDickinson believes that the inspiration comes from nature, and only if a poet had inspiration can he write a perfect poem.
50 Poetry of Love Wile Nights-Wild Nights! Were I with thee Wild Nights should beOur luxury!Futile-the Wilds-To a Heart in port-Done with the Compass-Done with the Chart!Rowing in Eden-Ah, the Sea!Might I but moor- Tonight-in Thee!
52 Analysis The speaker reveals all her innermost feeling to her lover. Love is expressed in an unabashed manner.The boat and sea are used as symbols of the lovers.
53 Features of her StyleFull of images- the precursor of Imagist Movement.Deviation-Graphological Deviation-dash and capitalization were frequently used.Syntactic Deviation-departure from normal grammar.Economy of expression
54 Differences between Whitman and Dickinson Whitman –world at large;Dickinson-inner lifeWhitman- national;Dickinson-regionalWhitman-endless and all-inclusive;Dickinson-concise ,direct and simple