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C OMPUTING E SSENTIALS 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 Presentations by: Fred Bounds Timothy J. O’Leary Linda I. O’Leary.

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Presentation on theme: "C OMPUTING E SSENTIALS 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 Presentations by: Fred Bounds Timothy J. O’Leary Linda I. O’Leary."— Presentation transcript:

1 C OMPUTING E SSENTIALS 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 Presentations by: Fred Bounds Timothy J. O’Leary Linda I. O’Leary

2 7 7 The Internet and the Web CHAPTER

3 3 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Competencies After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe Internet providers, connections and protocols. 2. Discuss e-mail, mailing lists, newsgroups and chat groups. 3. Describe Internet services: Telnet, FTP, Gopher and the Web.

4 4 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Competencies 4. Describe electronic commerce including Web storefronts and electronic payment options. 5. Compare the two types of search tools: indexes and search engines. 6. Discuss the two types of Web utilities: plug-ins and helper applications. 7. Describe intranets, extranets and firewalls.

5 5 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Overview The Internet and the World Wide Web provide means for global communication, information retrieval, commerce and entertainment The Internet is a highway that moves ideas and information We’re travelling through cyberspace, the space of electronic movement of ideas and information

6 6 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Overview The Internet was born as the ARPANET in 1969 In the 1992, the World Wide Web was born

7 Internet Applications The most common Internet applications are communicating, shopping, researching and entertainment.

8 8 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Internet Applications Communicating - sending e-mail and discussion group participation Shopping - one of the fastest growing applications

9 9 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Cyber Mall

10 10 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Internet Applications Communicating - sending e-mail and discussion group participation Shopping - one of the fastest growing applications Researching - using virtual libraries

11 11 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Web Library

12 12 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Internet Applications Communicating - sending e-mail and discussion group participation Shopping - one of the fastest growing applications Researching - using virtual libraries Entertainment - music, movies, reading and games

13 Access Providers give access to the Internet. Internet connections are either direct, SLIP and PPP, or by terminal connection. Protocols are rules for exchanging information between computers.

14 14 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Providers Providers - already connected to the Internet, provide a pathway for other users –Colleges and universities –Internet service providers (ISP) - offering access for a fee; AT&T, Mindspring, etc. –Online services provider - provide numerous other services and content in addition to Internet access; AOL the biggest

15 15 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Connections Direct or dedicated - full time direct link, very fast access SLIP and PPP –Serial line Internet protocol (SLIP) –Point-to-point protocol (PPP) –Users become part of a giant client/server network –Reliable access at lower cost than dedicated arrangement

16 16 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Connections Terminal connection - becomes part of the network, not a client/server arrangement

17 17 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven TCP/IP Stands for transmission control protocol/Internet protocol Messages broken into packets Packets may take different routes over the network to reach the same destination At destination, packets are reassembled

18 E-Mail An e-mail message has three basic elements. Internet addresses use the domain name system.

19 19 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven E-Mail By far the most common Internet activity With Internet access and an e-mail program, one can reach anybody in the world similarly equipped Basic elements –Header - subject, address and attachments –Message –Signature

20 20 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven E-mailE-mail Microsoft Outlook Express e-mail client

21 21 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven E-Mail Addresses Internet uses the domain name system (DNS), which gives names and numbers to people and computers Address has three parts –Domain code - geographical location or organizational identification –Domain name - references a specific organization –User name - identifies unique user or computer in the domain

22 22 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Internet Address dcoats@usc.edu user namedomain code domain name

23 23 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven com Commercial org Other organizations gov Government Common Internet Domain Codes

24 Discussion Groups Mailing lists send e-mail to all members. Newsgroups use the Usenet. Chat groups support live conversations. Lurking is good.

25 25 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Discussion Groups Mailing lists –Members send messages to the list address –Message then copied and automatically sent to all members –Persons must subscribe to participate; some decide they want to unsubscribe

26 26 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Discussion Groups Newsgroups –Most popular discussion group –Located on a special network called UseNet Chat groups –Allow “live” communication in real time –Communication by typed messages

27 27 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Newsgroup Hierarchy rec.arts.cinema major topic further division of subtopic subtopic

28 28 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Discussion Groups Terms –Reading communications before contributing is called lurking –Helps potential participants understand the culture of the group

29 Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce is buying and selling over the Internet. Web storefronts offer goods and services. Electronic payment options include check, credit card and electronic cash.

30 30 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Electronic Commerce Web storefronts –Virtual stores –Web storefront creation packages or commerce servers help businesses establish the storefront, and help with numerous “behind the scenes” tasks

31 31 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Web storefront

32 32 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Electronic Commerce Electronic payment –Easy, secure payment method that people trust is a must for this business –Checks The safest right now, But the slowest and least convenient

33 33 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Electronic Commerce Electronic payment –Credit cards Easier to work with, Somewhat vulnerable to theft –Electronic cash or e-cash also known as cyber cash and digital cash Purchased from third party, used to pay online Seller redeems from third party More secure than credit cards

34 Internet Services Telnet runs programs on remote computers. FTP transfers files. Gopher provides menus for available resources. The Web provides a multimedia interface to available resources.

35 35 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Internet Services Telnet - to connect to another computer and run programs on it FTP - file transfer protocol, an Internet service for file transfer –Downloading - transmitting files from the host to client –Uploading - transmitting files from the client to host

36 36 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Internet Services Gopher - menu based information retrieval system The Web –The Internet is the physical network –The Web is the multimedia interface, with information arranged in pages

37 Browsers Browsers connect to Web sites using URL addresses.

38 38 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Browsers Software packages that allow users to navigate the Web, and read the multimedia formatted pages Locations of these pages or sites are called uniform resource locator or URL http://wwww.eatright.org protocol domain name

39 39 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven URLURL

40 Web Pages Browsers interpret HTML documents to display Web pages.

41 41 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Web Pages After browser makes contact, document is sent to user’s computer Document usually coded in HTML or hypertext markup language

42 42 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Web Pages The browser interprets the HTML and the result is a displayed page A dominant characteristic of most pages is the hyperlinks, which allow users to quickly connect to other pages or Web sites

43 43 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Web Pages Applets - special programs written in the Java programming language –Quick to download –Easy for browsers to interpret –Used for animations, graphics display, interactivity

44 Search Tools Indexes are organized by categories. Search engines are organized like a database.

45 45 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Search Tools Finding the right information on the Web can be frustrating and time-consuming, the solution: search tools Indexes - like directories, organized by category and subcategory

46 46 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Yahoo index

47 47 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Search Tools Search engines - or Web crawlers or Web spiders –Information organized in a database –Key word or words used to access addresses for related information –Database kept current by automated programs that travel the Web and collect information –Some popular programs: HotBot, WebCrawler and Alta Vista

48 48 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven HotBot search engine

49 Web Utilities Plug-ins are automatically loaded by your browser. Helper applications are independent programs executed from your browser.

50 50 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Plug-ins Automatically work with your browser for functionality; some examples include –Macromedia’s Shockwave for dynamic animations –Apple’s Quicktime for viewing video files –Silicon Graphics’ Cosmos for 3-D graphics and virtual reality

51 51 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Helper Applications Independent programs launchable from your browser Off-line browsers retrieve Web pages and store them for viewing after an online session

52 52 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Helper Utility from InContext

53 53 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Helper Applications Information pushers –User selects topic areas or channels of interest –Program retrieves relevant information from the Web and stores it for viewing at the convenience of the user –PointCast Network and BackWeb are two well known information pushers

54 54 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Information Pusher: BackWeb

55 55 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Helper Applications Off-line search utilities –Standard search method requires connection to Web while search is conducted –Off-line search utilities accept instructions from the user, conducts the search, and compiles a non-duplicating index –WebFind, WebCompass and EchoSearch are some examples

56 56 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Helper Applications Filters –The Web is an amazing collection of content, some of which is considered inappropriate for youngsters –Filters can limit access to various sites, set time limits for access time and report usage statistics –Cyber Patrol, Cybersitter and Net Nanny are some examples

57 Organizational Internets: Intranets and Extranets Intranets are private networks within an organization. Extranets are private networks connecting organizations. Firewalls use proxy servers to provide security.

58 58 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Intranets Private networks within an organization Like the Web outside, browsers, web pages and web sites are employed Prime objective is information availability and flow for company employees

59 59 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Extranets Private networks connecting two or more organizations Increases efficiency and reduces costs by facilitating information flow between firms that do a lot of business with each other

60 60 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven Firewalls Information security is very important to businesses Firewalls are designed to control access to the company network from the outside Key component is the proxy server, which acts as a gatekeeper

61 61 Computing Essentials 1999 - 2000 Chapter Seven


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