Discovering Real Social Groups in Contemporary Russia Gordey Yastrebov Research Associate State University – Higher School of Economics Russia, Moscow.
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Discovering Real Social Groups in Contemporary Russia Gordey Yastrebov Research Associate State University – Higher School of Economics Russia, Moscow
Socio-Occupational Classification System restrictions Certain types of economic activity are historically less stable, than the social classes they are associated with Russian specifics: occupations are associated with certain character of labor and not particular status characteristics
Socio-Occupational Classification Classification criteria 1) balance of executive and organizational functions 2) level of creativity and diversification of functions 3) degree of labor self-organization 4) labor complexity (education required) 5) economic value of labor (income)
Social Stratification in Post-Soviet Russia Social strata199420022006 Entrepreneurs18.104.22.168 Officials and upper middle managers22.214.171.124 Middle managers1.31.6 Supervisors126.96.36.199 Highly skilled professionals188.8.131.52 Professionals with higher education18.614.312.5 Professionals with specialized secondary education184.108.40.206 White-collar workers (in trade and service sectors)3.510.99.8 Skilled and highly skilled workers25.226.832.4 Semi and unskilled workers12.716.714.1 Self-employed workers--1.2 Total100
Post-Soviet Russia Compared to Other European Countries CountriesSocial strata IIIIIIIVVVIVII Russia 6.321.220.92.05.029.514.9 Czech Republic 7.919.6220.127.116.117.419.2 Hungary 11.916.8 14.03.115.621.9 Poland 10.617.614.922.03.514.317.2 Slovenia 15.619.518.104.22.1685.613.0 Germany 10.822.214.171.124.313.312.4 Spain 8.219.416.713.42.713.626.2 Classes according to EGP scheme: I – higher-grade professionals, administrators, and officials, managers in large industrial establishments, large proprietors, II – lower-grade professionals, administrators, and officials, higher grade technicians, managers in small industrial establishments; supervisors of non-manual employees, III – routine non- manual workers, clerical workers, sales personnel, and other rank and file employees in services, IV – small proprietors, including farmers and smallholders, self employed artisans and all other ‘own account’ workers apart from professionals, V – supervisors of manual workers and lower grade technicians (to some extent manual work), VI – skilled manual workers in all branches of industry, VII – semi and unskilled manual workers in industry and agricultural workers.
Individual Private Property Distribution in Post-Soviet Russia Social strataShare of enterprise ownersShare of securities owners 199420022006199420022006 Enterpreneurs 42.657.082.620.54.721.8 Officials and upper middle managers 12.028.638.131.414.345.0 Middle managers 9.012.58.341.512.511.1 Highly skilled professionals 5.63.06.227.89.011.3 Professionals with higher education 126.96.36.199.98.78.5 White-collar workers (in trade and service sectors) 188.8.131.52184.108.40.206 Skilled and highly skilled workers 220.127.116.110.08.05.0 Semi and unskilled workers 10.10.71.4218.104.22.168
List of Properties Included in Entropy Analysis Groups of propertiesContent of properties Economic resource ownership of a firm/enterprise ownership of shares/bonds nature of primary income realty in property type of realty Human resource occupation education foreign language skills computer skills compliance with qualification health Authoritylevel of authority Values and motivation attempt to start up a business plans for further education desire for harder and more responsible work additional work
List of Properties Included in Entropy Analysis Groups of propertiesContent of properties Social resource social capital indicator mother’s occupation father’s occupation partner’s occupation friend’s occupation parents’ well-being Cultural resourceleisure variety indicator size of library Acquired resources income per family member housing space per family member general family well-being marketed services (parents) marketed services (children) Social environment sector of employment form of ownership (where employed) territorial environment (settlement type) gender
First 10 Combinations with Maximum Entropy №HNHN Combinations 10.730ownership of a firm/enterprise, ownership of a shares/bonds, nature of primary income 20.729attempt to start up a business, ownership of a firm/enterprise, ownership of a shares/bonds 30.706ownership of a firm/enterprise, ownership of a shares/bonds, level of authority 40.705attempt to start up a business, ownership of a firm/enterprise, nature of primary income 50.683ownership of a firm/enterprise, nature of primary income, level of authority 60.678attempt to start up a business, ownership of a firm/enterprise, level of authority 70.672foreign language skills, ownership of a firm/enterprise, ownership of a shares/bonds 80.667attempt to start up a business, ownership of a shares/bonds, nature of primary income 90.664additional work, ownership of a firm/enterprise, ownership of a shares/bonds 100.660ownership of a shares/bonds, nature of primary income, level of authority
Clusters in ‘Power-Property’ Set of Coordinates PropertiesCluster Centers 12345678910 Owners of a firm/enterprise No YesNo YesNo Owners of shares/bonds No YesNo YesNo Level of authority 0.007.055.522.844.430.002.065.676.783.59 Number of observations 184 4 2866601458736852488 % from total 74.01.12.62.22.214.171.124.40.13.5
Concluding Remarks Two alternative methods for constructing of real social groups used Entropy method: in contemporary Russia economic capital and authority (power) rather than occupations determine inequality and social structure Particular type of social stratification: estate hierarchy determined through authority with some elements of class differentiation