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PSYCO 105: Individual and Social Behaviour Lecture 1: The Ways and Means of Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "PSYCO 105: Individual and Social Behaviour Lecture 1: The Ways and Means of Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 PSYCO 105: Individual and Social Behaviour Lecture 1: The Ways and Means of Psychology

2 What is psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behaviour The scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also the application of the findings of psychological research to the solution of problems (Carlson et al., 2000)

3 Fields of Psychology Biological Foundations Individual and Social Behaviour Applied Psychology

4 Biological Foundations Physiological Psychology Psychophysiology Comparative Psychology Behaviour Analysis Behaviour Genetics Cognitive Psychology Experimental Neuropsychology

5 Individual and Social Behaviour Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Personality Psychology Cross-Cultural Psychology Clinical Psychology

6 Applied Psychology Organizational Psychology Educational Psychology Health Psychology Community Psychology Engineering Psychology (Human Factors)

7 Ways of Knowing Tenacity (Faith) Authority Consensus Reason Observation

8 Goals of Psychology To “understand” human behaviour Describe Explain Predict Control

9 Research Strategies Experimentation Correlational Studies Descriptive Studies

10 Experimentation Independent Variable The factor that is systematically manipulated so that the researcher can examine its effect on a dependent variable. Dependent Variable The variable (usually a behaviour) that is affected by the independent variable.

11 Research Settings Laboratory Studies Field Studies

12 Data Collection Methods Self-Report Questionnaires Interviews Observational Methods Naturalistic Observation Participant Observation Tests

13 Ethics Informed Consent Risks and Benefits Deception Privacy, Confidentiality, and Anonymity Special Groups

14 Informed Consent A description of the study should be provided in advance, including mention of: the purpose of the research; expected benefits of the research; methods (tasks to be performed); any effects, risks or inconveniences of the procedure; rights of the participant; and any possible alternative procedures.

15 Risks and Benefits The onus is on the researcher to avid or minimize risks to the subjects, both in carrying out the research and in publication of the results.

16 Deception Deception is a situation in which subjects have essential information withheld and/or are intentionally misled about procedures and purposes. A thorough debriefing is particularly important in studies involving deception.

17 Privacy, Confidentiality and Anonymity Personal information given by the subject will be confidential. Wherever possible, the researcher will take steps to ensure the anonymity of the subjects.

18 Vulnerable Groups Special care must be taken with vulnerable groups to ensure ethical treatment (e.g., prisoners, people with mental disabilities, other cultures, etc.)

19 Bias in Psychological Research Random Error Causes random variability in DV Systematic Error or Bias Causes nonrandom variability in DV other than that caused by the IV.

20 Types of Bias Sample Bias Measurement Bias Observer’s (Researcher’s) Bias Subject’s Bias

21 Sample and Measurement Biases Sample Biases Random assignment Measurement Biases Validity Reliability

22 Observer’s and Subject’s Biases Observer- Expectancy Effects Single-blind studies Subject-Expectancy Effects Double-blind studies Placebo

23 Descriptive Statistics Central Tendency Mean Median Variability Standard deviation

24 Assessing Relations Correlation Coefficient A measurement of the degree to which two variables are related. Scatterplot A graphic representation of a correlation; one value is plotted against the horizontal axis and the other against the vertical axis.

25 Inferential Statistics Statistical Significance The likelihood that an observed relation or difference between two variables is not due to chance factors

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