Lec 31, Handout: Public passenger transport (objectives) Be familiar with mass transit classifications and characteristics Know how urban transport demands.
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Lec 31, Handout: Public passenger transport (objectives) Be familiar with mass transit classifications and characteristics Know how urban transport demands are classified Know typical bus route network types
What we discuss in class today… Mass transit classifications Transit system operations, service and characteristics Urban transport demand classifications Transit service network types Video: The extensive bus transit system in Curitiba, Brazil (An example of using an exclusive bus route system one reason for its success)
Three ways to classify mass transit systems Right of wayROW = the strip of land on which the transit vehicle operates: Category A: “Grade separated” or “exclusive” NY Subways, DC’s Metro, Monorail in Las Vegas, Bullet train systems in Japan, Guided buses (BRT) in Germany TRAX LRT between Sandy & 1300S (except some at-grade crossing) Category B: “Longitudinally fully separated” but “may have grade crossing” TRAX LRT between Delta Center & 1300S Category C: “surface streets with mixed traffic” UTA buses Directly affected by traffic delays TechnologyMechanical features of the vehicles and the riding surface. (1) Support between the vehicle and the riding surface (rubber tires vs. steel wheels), (2) Steering of vehicles (driver vs. guided path), (3) Propulsion method (gasoline, electricity, LPG gas, gasoline/electricity hybrid, hydrogen) and (4) Means of controlling vehicles longitudinally (driver stay in a lane vs. rail follow the guided rails) Type of service (1) Short haul in CBD (Shuttles), (2) City transit (medium haul), and (3) Regional transit (long haul)
Transit system operations, service, and characteristics Operations (service supply) Bus scheduling, crew rostering (assignment), running and supervision of vehicles, fare collection, and system maintenance ServiceThe transit system as experienced by its actual and potential users Characteris tics Transit system characteristics are classified in four categories 1. System performance 2. Level of service 3. (Operational and service) impacts to the community they serve: short-term (less congestion, pollution, noise, etc.) and long-term impacts (land values, economic activities, social environment, etc.) 4. Costs: investment (capital) costs and operating costs
Performance and LOS measures System performance Service frequency (departures/hr) Operating speed (Average travel speed) Reliability (% of vehicle arrivals with less than a fixed- time deviation from schedule) Safety (No. of fatalities, injuries & property damages per xxx passenger-miles) Line capacity (Max no. of persons that transit vehicles can carry past a point along the line like a flow rate) Productive capacity = Operating speed x line capacity Productivity (veh-km, space-km, operating cost, etc.) Utilization = the ratio of output to input (person- km/space-km) Level of service (term project data) Performance elements affecting users, such as operating speed, reliability, and safety Service quality, such as convenience and simplicity of using the system, comfort, aesthetics, cleanliness, and behavior of passengers
Travel demand classifications FUN DOME FASHION PLACE SLC CBD 2. Trips along circumferential routes 4. Trips within CBD 3. Trips between and within local areas 5. Trips connecting major activity centers 1. Trips along the radial routes to CBD This is a topic of CE565.
Public transport system classified by routing and scheduling types Scheduling (frequency of service) Routing (degree of coverage and access
Transit modes related to residential density ModeServiceMin. necessary residential density (DU/acre) Remarks Local bus Min., 20 buses/day Intermediate, 40 Frequent, 120 4 7 15 Varies as a function of downtown size and distance from residential area to downtown Express bus 5 buses during 2-hr peak period 5-10 buses during 2-hr peak period 15 (avg density over 2- mi 2 ) 3 (avg density over 20-mi 2 ) From 10 to 15 mi away to largest CBD From 10-20 mi away to CBD larger than 20 million ft 2 non residential space Light rail5-min headways or better during peak hour 9 (avg for a corridor of 25 to 100 mi 2 ) To CBD of 20 to 50 million ft 2 of non residential space
Network types Grid networksRadial networks Circumferential connections Territorial networks No connection between the lines in the suburbs
Let’s check UTA’s system maps (cont) Provo-Orem area (grid & territorial) Major transfer points
Let’s see how some large systems look like… DC Metro (Radial)
New York City Subway (radial) Basically all lines go through mid/downtown Manhattan. Not much interaction between other boroughs.
Tokyo Rail Systems map Yamonote Line (loop line) connects major business centers in Tokyo.