# 5:1 Overhead Set #5: Typical Downtown Office Building--1986 4 Size: 450,000 ft 2 4 Land: 15% of total property value 4 Depreciation: straight-line over.

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5:1 Overhead Set #5: Typical Downtown Office Building--1986 4 Size: 450,000 ft 2 4 Land: 15% of total property value 4 Depreciation: straight-line over 19 years 4 Debt: 75% loan-to-value; interest only; 9% 4 Price: \$170.78/ft 2 4 Effective Gross Rent: \$21.73/ft 2 4 Net Operating Income: \$14.17/ft 2

5:2 Gross Potential Income----------- -Vacancy/Bad Debt----------- Effective Gross Income9,778,500 -Operating Expenses3,402,000 Net Operating Income6,376,500 -Debt Service5,187,443 Before-Tax Cash Flow1,189,059 +Principal Repayment 0 -Depreciation3,438,071 Taxable Income (Loss)(2,249,014) Tax Bill (Savings)(1,124,507) After-Tax Cash Flow2,313,564

5:3 Important Calculations 1. Effective Gross Rent: \$21.73*450,000 = \$9,778,500 2. Net Operating Income: \$14.17*450,000 = \$6,376,500 ==> note that operating expenses are the difference between these two figures (approximately 35% of effective gross) 3. Debt Service a. Property Value: \$170.78*450,000 = \$76,851,000 b. Mortgage Amount: \$.75*\$76,851,000 = \$57,638,230 c. Interest Payment: \$.09*\$57,638,230 = \$5,187,443 ==> you now know before-tax cash flow; it is positive at \$1.2 million

5:4 Important Calculations 4. Principal Repayment: \$0, as loan is interest only 5. Depreciation Deduction a. Depreciable Basis:.85*\$76,851,000 = \$65,323,350 b. Annual deduction: \$65,323,350/19 = \$3,438,071

5:5 Important Calculations ==> while actual before-tax cash is positive, the large depreciation deduction allows the owner to claim the project is losing money; the taxable loss is \$2.2 million ==> at the 50% top marginal bracket then in effect, the value of this taxable loss is \$1.1 million ==> after-tax cash flows attributable to ownership of this building is \$2.3 million, assuming full use of loss offsets

5:6 Treatment of Activities That Increase the Depreciable Basis 1. Original Depreciation--i.e., no new tenant improvements a. Depreciable Basis=(.85)*(76,851,000)=\$65,323,350 as computed above b. Annual Deduction=\$65,323,350/19 = \$3,438,071 (in 1986) 2. Now consider the impact of \$1,000,000 in new tenant improvements that increase the depreciable basis a. New Basis: +\$1,000,000 b. 1,000,000/19=\$52,632 ==>new line #9 = \$3,438,071+\$52,632=\$3,490,703

5:7 Gross Potential Income--- -Vacancy/Bad Debt--- Effective Gross Income9,778,5009,778,500 -Operating Expenses3,402,0003,402,000 Net Operating Income6,376,5006,376,500 -Debt Service5,187,4435,187,443 Before-Tax Cash Flow1,189,0591,189,059 +Principal Repayment 0 0 -Depreciation3,438,0713,490,703 Taxable Income (Loss)(2,249,014)(2,301,644) Tax Bill (Savings)(1,124,507)(1,150,822) ATCF 2,313,5641,339,881 where \$1,339,881=\$1,189,059+1,150,822-\$1,000,000

5:8 Note: actual BTCF is \$1,189,059, but do not let that affect the taxable income calculation if the item cannot be immediately expensed so that the base for taxation is reduced on a dollar-for-dollar basis Note: this is not a real estate specific issue; cash flow is \$1,000,000 lower in any industry; real estate specific rules apply to what is immediately expensible and what must be capitalized or amortized.

5:9 Impact of Taxes: –Depreciation –Loan Points –Effective Tax Rate = [1 - BTIRR/ATIRR] Impact of Leverage –Positive or Negative –Breakeven Interest Rate ATIRR Debt = ATIRR Property ATIRR Debt = BTIRR Debt (1-  ) BTIRR Debt = [ATIRR Property / (1-  )]

5:10 Investment Analysis 4 Should a property be purchased? 4 How long should it be held? 4 How should it be financed? 4 What are the tax implications? 4 How risky is the investment?

5:11 Measure of Investment Performance 1. Price/SF 2. Cap Rate = NOI / Sale Price 3. Break-even Ratio = (Operating Exp + Debt Serv)/Gross Inc 4. Equity Dividend Rate = BTCF / Equity 5. Debt Coverage Ratio = NOI / Debt Service 6. Net Present Value (NPV) 7. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) BEWARE:(BTCF + Principal Repayment) / Equity (BTCF + Tax Effect) / Equity

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