2 Learning ObjectivesExplain the use of a budget as a tool for planning and performance evaluation.Explain how a budget can affect employee motivation.Compare the four types of responsibility centers.Describe the master budget.
3 Organizational Plan Consists of three parts Organization Goals - Broad objectives established by mgmt. that company employees work to achieveStrategic long-range plan - Intermediate and distant future plans stated in broad termsMaster Budget - Specific plan for the coming year
4 Master Budget Also known as the static budget Indicates sales, production and cost levels, income and cash flows anticipated for the following yearAlso includes an income statement and balance sheet based on budget data
5 Performance Evaluation Budgets provide estimates of expected performanceComparing budgeted with actual results provides a basis for evaluating performanceBudgets must be prepared for individual responsibility centers in order to use them to evaluate performance
6 Responsibility Centers (Slide 1 of 2) A responsibility center is a division or department responsible for managing a group of activities in the organizationResponsibility centers can be classified as follows:Cost centers - mgmt is responsible for managing costsRevenue centers - mgmt is responsible for managing revenues
7 Responsibility Centers (Slide 2 of 2) Responsibility centers can be classified as follows (continued):Profit centers - mgmt is responsible for both revenues and costsInvestment centers - mgmt is responsible for revenues, costs, and assets
8 Flexible Budgets Shows the expected relation between costs and volumes Has two components:Fixed cost - expected to be incurred regardless of the activity levelVariable cost - costs change in total as the activity level changes
9 Cost HierarchiesWhen preparing a master budget, it is important to understand how costs are affected by changes in activity levelsThe following cost hierarchy is helpful in understanding cost behavior:Unit-level activitiesBatch-level activitiesProduct-level activitiesCustomer-level activitiesFacility-level activities
10 Forecasting SalesDeveloping the master budget starts with forecasting salesVarious methods and sources used to obtain sales forecasts include:Sales staffMarket researchDelphi techniqueTrend analysisEconometric Models
11 Production Budget (Slide 1 of 2) The production budget is based on the sales budget and estimates of beginning and desired ending inventoriesProduction is calculated as follows:Number of Units to Be Sold+Units in Ending Inventory-Units in Beginning InventoryUnits to Be Produced
12 Production Budget (Slide 2 of 2) After determining the number of units to be produced, we can budget for the following:Direct materials - traceable to units produced and almost always a variable costDirect labor - traceable to units produced; usually a variable cost but could be a fixed costWe assume direct labor is a variable cost in this chapterManufacturing overhead - typically has both variable and fixed components; variable overhead varies with units produced, fixed overhead gives a firm production capacity
13 Marketing and Administrative Budgets Budgeted marketing costs might include the following:Facility-level activities - salaries, advertising, sales office costsUnit-level activities - sales commissions, shippingAdministrative costs include both fixed and variable costs
14 Discretionary Fixed Costs Many “fixed” costs are really discretionary costsThey are budgeted as fixed costs but if, for example, the economic conditions look bad, these costs can be reducedExamples: maintenance, advertisingDiscretionary fixed costs should be distinguished from committed fixed costs, like rent on a factory building, which are required to run the firm
15 Budgeted Income Statement Also called the profit planPrepared using a contribution margin formatIf management is satisfied with the budget, it is approvedIf not, management can look for ways to improve budget profits through, for example, sales increases or cost reductions
16 Accurate ForecastsAn accurate sales forecast is critical to the entire budget processIf forecast is too low, sales may be lost because purchasing and production have been planned at too low a levelIf forecast is too high, excess inventory may result
17 Using the Master Budget Master budget includes budgeted financial statements as well as other relevant budgetsOnce adopted, the master budget becomes a major planning toolEssentially, becomes authorization to produce and sell goods, purchase materials, hire employees
18 Comparison of Flexible and Master Budgets The flexible budget is based on actual sales and production volumesIndicates expected revenue and costs at the actual level of activityComparison of master budget to the flexible budget forms the basis for analyzing differences in planned and actual results
20 IntroductionBalanced Scorecards provide a framework for communicating strategy in operating terms (metrics, targets, etc.)You must communicate strategy in operating terms if you expect people to execute on your strategy.
21 Balanced Scorecard Robert Kaplan Harvard Business School David Norton Balanced Scorecards Collaborative"The Balanced Scorecard: Measures that Drive Performance." Harvard Business Review 70, no. 1 (January-February 1992)
22 OverviewBalanced Scorecards are constructed from strategic maps (sometimes referred to as straw models).Throughout the process, we will refer back to these maps, making sure everything is linked. This is very important since we want to capture a “cause and effect” relationship in building the scorecard.
23 Strategic GoalsEstablishing strategic goals is the first step in building the Balanced Scorecard.Strategic goals establish direction in concrete terms. For example: “By the year 2003, we will grow revenues by 45%.”Strategic goals anchor the rest of the process.Strategic goals should fit with the vision and mission of the organization.
24 Strategic ObjectivesOnce we establish our first anchor (goals), we can develop a set of strategic objectives.Strategic objectives define what actions must be taken to reach the strategic goals.Objectives are critical to future success. For example, in order to grow revenues, we must introduce new products and expand our market share.
25 Strategic ThemesBased on strategic goals, three to five strategic themes should emerge.From these themes, we will develop a strategic map.Four common strategic themes are: Operating Efficiencies, Customer Relations, Product Innovation, and Growing the Business.
26 Strategic Model Strategic Models can emerge from four principles: 1. Translate strategies into operating terms.2. Link strategies throughout the entire organization.3. Commit everyone to implementing strategy.4. Make strategizing a continuous process of learning and adjusting to change.
27 Four PerspectivesBefore we build strategic maps, we need to define four perspectives:Financial: Top layer in the map, represents financial outcomes (profits, revenues, etc.)Customer: Next layer down, enables financial results (service, image, price, quality, etc.)Internal Processes: The values added to customers, such as delivery, production, distribution, etc.Learning & Growth: The people, systems, and organization that enable processes.
28 Strategic MappingStrategic Maps are the foundation of the Balanced Scorecard.You will need one strategic map for each strategic theme.Maps are constructed over four perspectives.Strategic objectives are mapped over the four perspectives, linked together.
29 LinkingStrategic objectives need to be placed in the Strategic Map according to which perspective fits with the objective.Objectives may cross over more than one perspective.We usually start at the top with outcomes and work our way down, looking at what enables (drives) the outcome.
30 ApprovalOnce you have completed the strategic maps, you will need to get approval from executive management. Does this map accurately tell the “story” of our strategy?If management disagrees with the map, go back and redo the maps. We need to get this step right since it represents the foundation for the entire scorecard.
31 Measurements For each strategic objective, you need one measurement. Measurement provides us with feedback on meeting the strategic objective.Most organizations will use many of their existing measurements.Organizations requiring major change should include driver type measurements.
32 Measurement CriteriaMeasurements should drive change, providing teeth to our strategy.Measurements define objectives in specific terms. A good measurement should tell you what your objective is – this is an indicator of good linkage.Measurements should be repeatable, quantifiable, and verifiable.
33 TargetsOnce you establish measurements, you need to set a target for each measurement.Targets push the organization to a required level of performance.Targets put focus on the strategy, expressing the specifics of the strategy.When an organization hits its targets, then it has successfully implemented its strategy.
34 ProgramsIn order for things to happen in an organization, you must initiate major programs. For example, improving customer service may require a new customer management system.Once you put programs in place, you should be able to meet your strategic objectives.
35 ImplementationThe minimum time for developing a balanced scorecard is three months.Full deployment of scorecards throughout the entire organization can take more than one year.The best place to start building a scorecard is where all components of the value chain are in place: Customer, Innovation, Production, Delivery, Services, etc.