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College Knowledge College adds over $1Million to your lifetime family income… But only if you grow up now to take advantage of this opportunity! Your Middle.

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Presentation on theme: "College Knowledge College adds over $1Million to your lifetime family income… But only if you grow up now to take advantage of this opportunity! Your Middle."— Presentation transcript:

1 College Knowledge College adds over $1Million to your lifetime family income… But only if you grow up now to take advantage of this opportunity! Your Middle and High School teachers are there to help you open this door… You need to accept their help! Heed their advice! If it is to be, it is up to me!

2 Im Ross Koning Professor of Biology at Eastern Connecticut State University Biology Department PhD 1981 University of Michigan I teach the introductory biology course for biology majors here. Notice, like you, I have TWO EYES! Are they identical?

3 Use both eyes…at arms length, center target within finger OK sign Lock hand in position…see which eye is still aligned by closing the other The eye with good alignment is your dominant eye! content/uploads/whose-plate-4-tips-table-manner-03- af.jpg

4 Figure 46-7 Ommatidia are the functional units of insect eyes. Ommatidia contain receptor cells that send axons to the CNS. Lens Receptor cells Ommatidia Axons Insects appear to have two eyes also, but they are compound! Each ommatidium sends separate information to their brain.

5 Human vs Insect Vision Copyright Norton Presentation Manager

6 Spiders have up to 8 eyes looking in different directions!! It makes you wonder what exactly they see!

7 Vertebrate Eye blind spot Copyright Norton Presentation Manager controls light focuses image senses image sends image to brain What?

8 Use right eye only (close left eye)…focus only on the target for this test! Lock head in position…hold one finger up at arms length to cover view of target Move arm slowly outwards from target (to right for right eye) Find your blind spot for that eye…is it only off to ONE side? try the other side! Does the blind spot extend upwards or downwards? Try with your left eye…is its blind spot on the same side or on the other? Try with BOTH eyes open…do you have a blind spot now? Why not? h3d / woman-hand-with-index-finger-pointing- up-or-showing-number-one.jpg

9 Use right eye only (close left eye)…our target is a row of numbers Focus on each number in turn, until the break in the blue lines is in your blind spot. What is different when the blind spot holds a blank area?

10 blind spot

11 Figure 46-8 The structure of the vertebrate eye.In the retina, cells are arranged in layers. Ganglion cellsConnecting neuronsPhotoreceptor cells Pigmented epithelium Retina Direction of light Fovea Optic nerve (to brain) Sclera Iris Pupil Cornea Lens Axons to optic nerve

12 Figure 46-9 CorneaLens Retina (photoreceptors are on the inside surface) Sensory nerves to brain The Cephalopod Eye This design is more intelligent than that of mammals (humans) because it lacks the blind spot and maximizes light exposure to receptors

13 Eye Evolution

14 Vertebrate Retina cone rod light

15 Figure Rods and cones contain stacks of membranes. Rhodopsin is a transmembrane protein complex. Cone Rod Light Rhodopsin Retinal (pigment) Opsin (protein component) The retinal molecule inside rhodopsin changes shape when retinal absorbs light. Light trans conformation (activated) Opsin cis conformation (inactive) 0.5 µm Opsin

16 Use both eyes, stare at area shown in blue for 15 seconds or so

17 What do you see on this blank white slide? Blink if needed! This is called an after image Does it move around as you move your gaze?

18 Light: An Energy Waveform With Particle Properties Too wavelength (nm) meter meter! nm wavelength visible spectrum

19 Vertebrate Retina cone rod light

20 Figure Visible spectrum S opsin 420 M opsin 530 L opsin 560

21 Use both eyes, stare at the parrots eye for 15 seconds or so

22 What color is the bird in the cage? Blink if needed

23 Use both eyes, stare at the parrots eye for 15 seconds or so

24 What color is the bird in the cage? Blink if needed

25 Use both eyes, stare at the parrots eye for 20 seconds or so

26 What color is the bird in the cage? This color is a bit harder to visualize

27 Use both eyes, stare at the white dot for 20 seconds or so

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