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Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves & Reflexes

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Presentation on theme: "Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves & Reflexes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves & Reflexes
Exercise 21 & 22 Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves & Reflexes

2 Structure of a Nerve Figure 13.3b

3 Spinal Nerves Thirty-one pairs of mixed nerves arise from the spinal cord and supply all parts of the body except the head They are named according to their point of issue 8 cervical (C1-C8) 12 thoracic (T1-T12) 5 Lumbar (L1-L5) 5 Sacral (S1-S5) 1 Coccygeal (C0)

4 Spinal Nerves Figure 13.6

5 Spinal Nerves: Roots Each spinal nerve connects to the spinal cord via two medial roots Each root forms a series of rootlets that attach to the spinal cord Ventral roots arise from the anterior horn and contain motor (efferent) fibers Dorsal roots arise from sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and contain sensory (afferent) fibers

6 Spinal Nerves: Roots Figure 13.7a

7 Spinal Nerve Innervation
Figure 13.7b

8 Cervical Plexus Figure 13.8

9 Sacral Plexus Figure 13.11

10 Lumbar Plexus Figure 13.10

11 Brachial Plexus: Distribution of Nerves
Figure 13.9c

12 Brachial Plexus Figure 13.9a

13 Reflexes A reflex is a rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus
Reflexes may: Be inborn (intrinsic) or learned (acquired) Involve only peripheral nerves and the spinal cord Involve higher brain centers as well

14 Reflex Arc There are five components of a reflex arc
Receptor – site of stimulus Sensory neuron – transmits the afferent impulse to the CNS Integration center – either monosynaptic or polysynaptic region within the CNS Motor neuron – conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector Effector – muscle fiber or gland that responds to the efferent impulse

15 Reflex Arc Spinal cord (in cross-section) Stimulus Integration center
2 Sensory neuron 3 Integration center 1 Receptor 4 Motor neuron Skin 5 Effector Interneuron Figure 13.14

16 Crossed Extensor Reflex
Figure 13.19

17 Golgi Tendon Reflex Figure 13.18

18 Stretch Reflex Figure 13.17

19 Dermatomes A dermatome is the area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve All spinal nerves except C1 participate in dermatomes

20 Dermatomes Figure 13.12


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