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Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The quest for UHECR and ν from.

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Presentation on theme: "Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The quest for UHECR and ν from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The quest for UHECR and ν from space Andrea Santangelo IAAT, Eberhard Karls Universität & IASF-CNR Sez. Palermo

2 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Outline UHECR and ν in a nutshell (see Monday Afternoon for details) Why from space ? How from space ? The actual idea and proposals EUSO The Future: toward a Cosmic Vision 2015- 2025 Mission for Particle Astronomy (?)

3 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe E > 5×10 19 eV (~10 16 keV) Their origin, nature and even their route to the Earth presents an extraordinary puzzle UHECR

4 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe One Piece of the Puzzle, the GZK feature the GZK effect p + h n+ p + h p+ (p + h p+ e + +e - ) Greisen (1966) and, independently, Zatsepin and Kuzmin (1966) A + h (A-1) + N A + h (A-2) + 2N A + h A+ e + +e - Photopion production! Photodisintegration (Puget et al., 1976) Pair production (Blumenthal, 1970) E 2*10 20 eV (nuclei)

5 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Energy (eV) Radio CMB Visible GeV -rays 1 TeV = Fermilab Flux IRB ////////////////////// Ressell & Turner X-rays e + e -

6 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe cosmic rays Halzen, Ressell & Turner Energy (eV) e + e -

7 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Physics with Astroparticles Battiston, 2002

8 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The Observational Scenario is still uncertain and still under debate

9 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Several Observations… Tens of events at energies > 5×10 19 eV have been detected so far… Six ground based experiments have reported ~ 20 events at E>10 20 eV Flux of 1 particle per km 2 per century!! 3.2X10 20 eV Flys eye (Bird et al. 1995) 3.4X10 20 eV AGASA (M. Teshima, 2000)

10 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe HiRes collaboration, astro-ph/0208301 This discrepancies call for a study with a new approach: may need an experiment combining ground array with fluorescence such as the Auger project to resolve this issue..

11 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe AGASA HiRes GZK-Hypothesis Extended spectrum Super-GZK ~2.4 σ (~2.0 σ) ~3.0 σ (~1.5σ) ~ 0 σ ~2.3 σ ( ) --- AGASA -10% Statistics M. Teshima, 2002 De Marco et al., 2003

12 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The Pierre Auger Observatory (South…) 1600 (600 op.) water Cherenkov detectors 4 stations with 24 fluorescence telescope (6+6 op.) Jan 2005 68% AGASA

13 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe John Linsley in 1979 in the Field Committee Report of NASA Call for Projects and Ideas in High Energy Astrophysics for the 1980s The concept to observe, by means of Space Based devices looking at Nadir Nighttime, the fluorescence light produced by an EAS proceeding in the atmosphere In 1995 Yoshi Takahashi of UHA rediscovered the original idea and proposed the MASS program wich later became a reality with the OWL and EUSO studies

14 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Large distance > 400 km Large FOV A. Bunner, 1967Kakimoto et al., 1996

15 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Large Target Mass of the atmosphere Large Distance R but small proximity effect Full sky coverage looking at both North and South sky Large encircled area: A Space Device (…EUSO) Small encircled area: AUGER

16 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Full sky coverage By A.Kravtsov Matter and Galaxies within 93 Mp South and North Sky are very different Great Attractor, Local Void, Galactic Center South Local Super Cluster North The base of the Scientific Rationale of Auger North Decision June 2005 A. Olinto, 2003

17 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Comparison of UHECRs Experiments

18 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Ongoing Studies/Concepts

19 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

20 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe A Main UV Telescope + LIDAR

21 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe

22 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe

23 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Number of events expected in five years of operation EUSO Red Book, 2004

24 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe FLUORESCENCE CHERENKOV ? Bottai, 2004 Neutrino Observations in atmosphere

25 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe EUSO AUGER GZK gives only granted flux of cosmic neutrinos (Kalashek, Kuzmin, Semokov, Sigl) Phys. Rev. D66 2002 Region of safe neutrino astronomy EUSO Red Book, 2004; Bottai, 2004 Speculative models

26 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe skimming downward Paolo Lipari, 2004 ~GZK(A)

27 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The trigger efficiency

28 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up Mission

29 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe TUS main figures Mission is planned for 2007-2009R&D to be completed within 2005

30 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Between Present and future: OWL

31 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe The future

32 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Opening Particle Astronomy to probe and understand the evolving Universe A scientific Theme proposed in response to the ESA D-Sci Call for themes for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

33 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Opening Particle Astronomy This will open up the field of "Particle Astronomy" and its correlations with radio, photo, X and astronomy. To Search for UHE neutrinos A powerful enough detector will allow to study (within the GZK neighbourhood) : Source densities, Source intensities, Individual source spectra. … Blasi & De Marco, 2003 Effective Aperture 50-100 times Auger 10 times EUSO Energy threshold close to 10 18 eV 2 Main Requirements

34 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Plagnol, 2005 Code provided by E. Parizot, 2005

35 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Conclusion : A precise study of individual source spectrum (, Emax) would benefit strongly from an increase of efficiency : UHECR Astronomy Based on the analysis of Blasi & De Marco, 2003 source density of 10 -5 sources/Mpsec (in fact, 10 -4 to 10 -6 ). Plagnol, 2005

36 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe EUSO AUGER q.e=50% Eth=3EeV D=7.5m FOV= EUSO X 3 GZK(A)~ 40 events/year GZK(A)~0.3 events/year in EUSO

37 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe

38 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Task 1: Optics Large Area (pupil 2m 5-7m) and Large field of view ( 90° full angle) Optical systems Deployability/Assembling in space Materials (High Throughput, Light weight, contaminants…) Filter (coatings multilayers…)

39 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Design of a mirror optics, based on the Schmidt camera principle, with FOV up to 25° Entrance pupil MUST be in the mirror centre of curvature Mirror is then larger than EPD (depending on FOV) Light shield is anyway necessary for stray light reduction The correcting plate greatly improves performances F/# investigated as low as 0.6 Detector diameter smaller than any other proposed solution Weight saving solution (both for optics and detector) Obscuration acceptable for FOV up to 25° Vignetting almost constant for all FOV Low sensitivity to misalignment (except decenter) Optical system design scalable to any dimension A proposed 5 m EPD mirror system correcting plate and/or filter mirror light shield focal plane FEATURES Piero Mazzinghi, Vojko Bratina (INOA)

40 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Fresnel-Maksutov Optics D. Lamb et al., NASA/MSFC University of Alabama, Huntsville 0.1 o Pixel Angular Resolution in UV ~ 10 4 away from Diffraction Limit Maksutov-Mangin (Pitalo-Lamb) makes =0.02 FOV=50, Ro/R = 0.7

41 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Assembling in space … By robots on the launchers On the ISS stay there or move as a free flyer

42 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe

43 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Task 2: Sensors Detectors High Efficiency Sensors; Compact and light-weight (solid state ?) High Efficiency detectors (how high ? The highest…) –Large area, large number of pixels (channels) 10 6 ? –Maximizing filling factor, cooling system –Light collector/filter SiPM at MPI R&D goals: increase SiPM size from 1 mm up to (3-5)mm increase in QE up to 70%

44 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Task 3: Electronics Front End (fast, low power, miniaturized, mixed analogue/digital) Smart Triggering systems (efficient, highly selective, configurable, adaptive) OBDH electronics (fast analysis of large amount of data, compliant with usually limited telemetry resources; interaction with the Atmosphere Monitoring System)

45 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Task 4: Mission Concept (?) Formation flights Stereo operation Variable Orbits

46 Andrea Santagelo, IAAT Le Thuile, March 13 th 2005XXXXth Rencontres de MORIOND Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe Conclusions Space-Based observation of UHECR can provide a breakthrough in the field EUSO can be consider a pathfinder in the field, and the studies associated have provided unvaluable info for new developments To succeed, the support of the entire HEAP community is mandatory A solid and realistic R&D program must be developed, already started… Convince the High Energy Astrophysics Community that UHECR studies could provide a step forward in our understanding of the Universe…


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