Presentation on theme: "Future neutrino experiments"— Presentation transcript:
1Future neutrino experiments The road-map…and a few itinerariesThree family oscillationsThe Japanese way: JPARC SK, HKThe alpine way: CERN-SPL … and beta-beam and FréjusNeutrino FactorySuperbeam Neutrino Factory and beta-beam R&DEMCOG statementsdesign studiesConclusions
2Roadmap You are here Where do we stand? Where do we go? Which way do we chose?Shortest?Cheapest?Fastest?Taking into accountpracticalities orpolitics?You want to go there
3leptonic CP & T violations Where are we?We know that there are three families of active, light neutrinos (LEP)Solar neutrino oscillations are established (Homestake+Gallium+Kam+SK+SNO+KamLAND)Atmospheric (nm -> ) oscillations are established (IMB+Kam+SK+Macro+Sudan+K2K)At that frequency, electron neutrino oscillations are small (CHOOZ)This allows a consistent picture with 3-family oscillationsq12 ~ Dm122~7 10-5eV q23 ~ Dm23 2~ eV q13 <~ 100with several unknown parameters q13, d, mass hierarchyleptonic CP & T violations=> an exciting experimental program for at least 25 years *)Where do we go?*)to set the scale: CP violation in quarks was discovered in 1964and there is still an important program (K0pi0, B-factories, Neutron EDM, LHCb, BTeV….)to go on for >>10 years…i.e. a total of >50 yrs.and we have not discovered leptonic CP yet!5. LSND ? ( miniBooNe)This result is not consistent with three families of neutrinos oscillating, and is not supported(nor is it completely contradicted) by other experiments.If confirmed, this would be even more excitingSee Barger et al PRD
4The neutrino mixing matrix: 3 angles and a phase d Dm223= eV2n2n1Dm212= eV2OR?n2n1Dm212= eV2Dm223= eV2n3q23 (atmospheric) = 450 , q12 (solar) = 300 , q13 (Chooz) < 130Unknown or poorly knowneven after approved program:13 , phase , sign of Dm132
5Consequences of 3 Family oscillation : Oscillation maximum Dm2 L / E =p/2Atmospheric Dm 2= eV Latm = GeVSolar Dm2 = eV Lsol = 1 GeVConsequences of 3 Family oscillation :I There will be nm ↔ ne and nt ↔ ne oscillation at L atmP (nm ↔ ne )max =~ ½ sin 22 q … (small)II There will be CP or T violationCP: P (nm ↔ ne) ≠ P (nm ↔ ne)T : P (nm ↔ ne) ≠ P (ne ↔ nm)III we do not know if the neutrino n1 which contains more neis the lightest one (natural?)or not.
6P(nenm) = ¦A¦2+¦S¦2 + 2 A S sin d P(nenm) = ¦A¦2+¦S¦2 - 2 A S sin d P(nenm) - P(nenm)sind sin (Dm212 L/4E) sin q12= ACP aP(nenm) + P(nenm)sinq13 + solar term…… need large values of sin q12, Dm212 (LMA) but *not* large sin2q13… need APPEARANCE … P(nene) is time reversal symmetric (reactors or sun are out)… can be large (30%) for suppressed channel (one small angle vs two large)at wavelength at which ‘solar’ = ‘atmospheric’ and for ne , t… asymmetry is opposite for ne and net
7(neutrino fact., beta beam !asymmetry isa few %and requiresexcellentflux normalization(neutrino fact., beta beamoroff axis beam withnot-too-nearnear detector)T asymmetry for sin = 1neutrino factoryJHFII-HKJHFI-SKNOTE:This is at first maximum!Sensitivity at low valuesof q13 is better for short baselines, sensitivity at large values of q13 may be better for longer baselines (2d max or 3d max.)This would desserve a more careful analysis!0.100.30103090
8m+ e+ ne nm and m- e- ne nm Road MapExperiments to find q13 :1. search for nmne in conventional nm beam (MINOS, ICARUS/OPERA)limitations: NC p0 background, intrinsic ne component in beam2. Off-axis beam (JHF-SK, off axis NUMI, off axis CNGS) or3. Low Energy Superbeam (BNL Homestake, SPL Fréjus)Precision experiments to find CP violation-- or to search further if q13 is too small1. beta-beam He++ 6Li+++ ne e- and 18Ne 10+ 18F 9+ ne e+2. Neutrino factory with muon storage ringfraction thereof will exist .m+ e+ ne nm and m- e- ne nm
9Where will this get us… X 5 0.10102.5050130Mezzettocomparison of reach in the oscillations; right to left:present limit from the CHOOZ experiment,expected sensitivity from the MINOS experiment, CNGS (OPERA+ICARUS)0.75 MW JHF to super Kamiokande with an off-axis narrow-band beam,Superbeam: 4 MW CERN-SPL to a 400 kton water Cerenkov in Fréjus (J-PARC phase II similar)from a Neutrino Factory with 40 kton large magnetic detector.
10T2K (JPARC Super-Kamiokande) 295 km baselineJ-PARC approvedneutrino beam under discussion but set as first priority by international committeeProposal to be submitted early 2004Super-Kamiokande:22.5 kton fiducialExcellent e/ IDAdditional 0/e ID(for En~ 500 MeV- 1 GeV)Matter effects smallneed near detector!European collaboration forming (mailing list: UK(5)-Italy(5)-Saclay-Gva-ETHZ- Spain(2))This experiment is at the right ratio ofEnergy to distanceLmax = 300 km at 0.6 GeV
11The (J-PARC-n) T2K Beamline 2 km295 kmNeutrino spectra at diff. dist1.5kmProblem with water Cerenkov:not very sensitive to details of interactions.Either 280 m or 2 km would be good locations for a very fine grained neutrino detectorPlanned: a scintillating fiber/water calorimeter.Liquid argon TPC would be a very good (better) candidate!Event numbers:near/SK = m(near[tons]) / (300/2)2 = m(near[tons])=> Need tons fiducial or so295km280m
12Schematic drawing of Hyper-Kamiokande Super-K40m1 Mton (fiducial) volume: Total Length 400m (8 Compartments)Other major goal: improve proton decay reachSupernovae until Andromedes, etc…Excavation will not start until 2011
14Motivations to go beyond this… Intrinsic limits of conventional neutrino beams (intensity, purity, only nm , low energy )Go back to Europe and try to establish a CERN-based program on the long runThe common source: SPLSPL physics workshop: May 2004 CERN SPSC Cogne meeting sept.2004Superbeam/neutrino Factory design studyNeutrino factoryThe ultimate toolfor neutrino oscillationsSPLHIPPISuperbeamEURISOL design studyAPEC design studyBeta beamVery large underground labWater Cerenkov, Liq.ArgEURISOL
15Fréjus underground lab. Possible step 0: Neutrino SUPERBEAM300 MeV n m Neutrinossmall contamination from ne (no K at 2 GeV!)Fréjus underground lab.A large underground water Cerenkov (400 kton) UNO/HyperKor/and a large L.Arg detector.also : proton decay search, supernovae events solar and atmospheric neutrinos. Performance similar to J-PARC IIThere is a window of opportunity for digging the cavern stating in 2008 (safety tunnel in Frejus)
17CERN: b-beam baseline scenario Nuclear PhysicsSPLDecay ringBrho = 1500 TmB = 5 TLss = 2500 mSPSDecayRingISOL target & Ion sourceECRCyclotrons, linac or FFAGFoer politiska skael har jag laatit bli att skriva EURISOL och valt att skriva Nuclear Physics istaellet. Energin foer jonerna aer laangt ifraan helt fast-staelld. Gamma=150 foer Helium aer inte ett “magiskt” tal men det aer mest kraevande utifraan accelerator synpunkt saa daerfoer har jag koncentrerat mig paa detta I fortsaettningen.Rapid cycling synchrotronPS
18Tunnels and MagnetsCivil engineering costs: Estimate of 400 MCHF for 1.3% incline (13.9 mrad)Ringlenth: 6850 m, Radius=300 m, Straight sections=2500 mMagnet cost: First estimate at 100 MCHFMed stoersta sannolikhet koster tunneln enbart 200 MCHF (inga stora kammrar foer detektorer och liten lutning) men vi behoever nog perngarna foer en PS ring istaellet.FLUKA simulated losses in surrounding rock (no public health implications)
19(400kton Water Cherenkov) DetectorsLiquid Ar TPC(~100kton)UNO(400kton Water Cherenkov)
20e m (+) (T) m e (p+) (CP) e m (-) (T) m e (p-) Combination of beta beam with low energy super beamUnique to CERN:need few 100 GeV accelerator (PS + SPS will do!)experience in radioactive beams at ISOLDEmany unknowns: what is the duty factor that can be achieved? (needs < 10-3 )combines CP and T violation testse m (+) (T) m e (p+)(CP)e m (-) (T) m e (p-)Can this work???? theoretical studies now on beta beam+ SPL target and horn R&D design study together with EURISOL
21DUTY FACTOR (this is an issue for low energy superbeam and beta beam) Sub-GeV Atmospheric Neutrino interactions are at rate ~100/kt/year.~ 50% ne and 50% nmFor a 500 kton detector this will give events of the wrong leptonAt this energy the directionality if poor (cuts will not be effective)It is necesary to discriminate with timing!Duty factor required < 10-3SPL (50 Hz), needs 20 microseconds every 20 ms. (accumulator)Betabeam : needs stacking of ions along the perimeter of the SR.(2 bunches of 10ns / 7km)(more bunches of same intensity OK)
25Neutrino fluxes m+ -> e+ ne nm nm/n e ratio reversed by switching m+/ m-ne nm spectra are differentNo high energy tail.Very well known flux (10-3)-- E&sE calibration from muon spin precession-- angular divergence: small effect if q < 0.2/g,-- absolute flux measured from muon currentor by nm e- -> m- ne in near expt.-- in triangle ring,muon polarization precesses and averages out(preferred, -> calib of energy, energy spread)Similar comments apply to beta beam, except spin 0 Energy and energy spread have to be obtained from the properties of the storage ring(Trajectories, RF volts and frequency, etc…)m polarization controls ne flux:m+ -X> ne in forward direction
26Detector Iron calorimeter Magnetized R = 10 m, L = 20 m Charge discriminationB = 1 TR = 10 m, L = 20 mFiducial mass = 40 kTAlso: L Arg detector: magnetized ICARUSWrong sign muons, electrons, taus and NC evts *->Events for 1 yearBaselinenm CCne CCnm signal (sin2 q13=0.01)732 Km3.5 x 1075.9 x 1071.1 x 105(J-PARC I SK = 40)3500 Km1.2 x 1062.4 x 1061.0 x 105
276 classes of eventsright sign muon nm -> nm -> m+electron/positron nm -> ne -> e+ or ne -> ne -> e- wrong sign muon ne -> nm -> m-right sign tau nm -> nt -> t+-> m+ nnwrong sign tau ne -> nt -> t--> m- nnno lepton NC & other taus
28ICARUS NB: additional potential wrt magnetized iron calorimeter: tau detection, sign of *low* energy electrons, if magnetized.May redefine the optimal parameters of neutrino factory
29compare ne to ne probabilities CP asymmetriescompare ne to ne probabilitiesm is prop matter density, positive for neutrinos, negative for antineutrinosHUGE effect for distance around 6000 km!!Resonance around 12 GeV when= 0
30CP violation (ctd) 40 kton L M D 50 GeV nufact 5 yrs 1021m /yr Matter effect must be subtracted. One believes this can be done with uncertaintyOf order 2%. Also spectrum of matter effect and CP violation is differentIt is important to subtract in bins of measured energy.knowledge of spectrum is essential here!5-10 GeV10-20 GeV20-30 GeV30-40 GeV40-50 GeV40 kton L M D50 GeV nufact5 yrs 1021m /yrIn fact, GeVIs enough!Best distance iskme.g. Fermilab or BNL-> west coast or …
31Silver channel at neutrino factory A. Donini et alHigh energy neutrinos at NuFact allow observation of net(wrong sign muons with missing energy and P). UNIQUELiquid Argon or OPERA-like detector at 3000 km.Since the sind dependence has opposite sign with the wrong sign muons, this solves ambiguitiesthat will invariably appear if only wrong sign muons are used.ambiguities withonly wrong sign muons (3500 km)associating taus to muons(no efficencies, but only OPERA mass)studies on-goingequal event number curvesmuon vs taus
32NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade Area of phase space in which CP violation can be seen (Mezzetto)NUFACTSuperbeam onlyBeta-beam onlyBetabeam+ superbeamUpgrade400kton-> 1 Mton
34NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade 400kton-> 1 MtonJ-PARC HK540 kton?
35The proposed RoadmapM. VretenarConsistently with the recent DG talk on the future of CERN, is in preparation a document (“Future Projects and Associated R&D”) to be presented at the December Council.The chapter “Upgrade of the Proton Injector Complex” presents a roadmap, consistent with 2 basic assumptions:construction of Linac4 2007/10 (before end of LHC payment)construction of SPL in 2008/15 (after end of LHC payments)Linac 4 approvalSPL approvalLHC upgrade
37Beta beam Some Critical issues Megaton detector Super beam & Neutrino FactorySPL cost, cleanliness, power limitscapability to handle different time structuresAccumulation of protonsTarget and target stationCollection (Horn at high radiation and high rep rate)Design/optimization of multihorn system and decay tunelMuon Cooling of large emittance muon beam (MICE + kickers)Fast and cheap accceleration (RF source, FFAG, kickers)Megaton detectorWhat size cavity can be dug?cost/time scalePhotosensitive devices!!!Other detector (Larg, other) safety….Beta beamIon yieldsActivationStackingDo we need a new PS?
38Motivations to go beyond this… Intrinsic limits of conventional neutrino beams (intensity, purity, only nm , low energy )Go back to Europe and try to establish a CERN-based program on the long runThe common source: SPLSPL physics workshop: May 2004 CERN SPC Cogne meeting sept.2004Superbeam/neutrino Factory design studyNeutrino factoryThe ultimate toolfor neutrino oscillationsSPLHIPPISuperbeamEURISOL design studyAPEC design studyBeta beamVery large underground labWater Cerenkov, L.ArgEURISOL
39EMCOG (European Muon Concertation and Oversight Group) FIRST SET OF BASIC GOALSThe long-term goal is to have a Conceptual Design Report for a European Neutrino Factory Complex by the time of JHF & LHC start-up, so that, by that date, this would be a valid option for the future of CERN.An earlier construction for the proton driver (SPL + accumulator & compressor rings) is conceivable and, of course, highly desirable.The SPL and targetry and horn R&D have therefore to be given the highest priority.Cooling is on the critical path for the neutrino factory itself; there is a consensus that a cooling experiment is a necessity.The emphasis should be the definition ofpractical experimental projects with a duration of 2-5 years.Such projects can be seen in the following four areas:
41Neutrino Factory studies and R&D USA, Europe, Japan have each their scheme. Only one has been costed, US study II:+ detector: MINOS * 10 = about 300 M€ or M$Neutrino Factory CAN be done…..but it is too expensive as is.Aim: ascertain challenges can be met + cut cost in half.
42Muon Ionization Cooling Never done! High intensity proton driver. Activities on the front end are ongoing in many laboratories in Europe, in particular at CERN, CEA, IN2P3, INFN and GSI. Progressive installation of a high intensity injector and of a linear accelerator up to 120 MeV at CERN (R. Garoby et al) would have immediate rewards in the increase of intensity for the CERN fixed target program and for LHC operation. This (HIPPI) has received funding from EU!2. Target studies problem at 4 MW!!This experimental program is underway with liquid metal jet studies. Goal: explore synergies among the following parties involved: CERN, Lausanne, Megapie at PSI, EURISOL, etc…Experiment at CERN under consideration by the collaboration. (H. Kirk et al)3. Horn studies. Problem at 50 Hz and 4 MWA first horn prototype has been built and pulsed at low intensity. Mechanical properties measured (S. Gilardoni’s thesis, GVA)5 year program to reach high intensity, high rep rate pulsing, and study the radiation resistance of horns. Optimisation of horn shape. IN2P3 Orsay has become leading house for this. Collaborations to be sought with Saclay, PSI (for material research and fatigue under high stress in radiation environment)Muon Ionization Cooling Never done!A collaboration towards and International cooling experiment MICE has been established with the muon collaboration in United States and Japanese groups. There is a large interest from European groups in this experiment. Following the submission of a letter of Intent to PSI and RAL, the collaboration has prepared a full proposal at RAL.Proposal has been strongly encouraged and large UK funding secured (10M£).PSI offers a solenoid for the muon beam lineCERN, which as already made large initial contributions in the concept of the experiment,has earmarked some very precious hardware that could be recuperated. (RF! Cryo?)More collaboration needed from European institutes outside UK.
43NUFACT R&D: Target station Speed of Hg disruptionMax v 20 m/s measuredv// 3 m/sjet remains intact for more than 20 microseconds.1 cmProtonsliquid jet of mercury
44US scheme: jet is inside a very high field tapered solenoid (20 T max) this was tested at the Laboratoire de Champs Intenses (Grenoble)A. Fabich et al– CERN-BNL-Grenoble
45Magnetic hornCurrent of 300 kApTo decay channelProtonsB = 0Hg TargetB1/R
46Horn design – not a finished issue Lateral reflector ….To do better : can one place a reflector on the axis – exposed to the 4 MW proton beam power?Question: what is the best proton energy? (can go up to 4 or 5 GeV protons with SPL ++)Probably would like to match the beta-beam energy (600 MeV)Contact S. Gilardoni (UniGe) J.E. Campagne LAL Orsay
47Liquid Hydrogen absorbers 1,2,3 measurement of emittance in and out 10% cooling of 200 MeV/c muons requires ~ 20 MV of RFsingle particle measurements =>measurement precision can be as good as D ( e out/e in ) = 10-3never done before either….Coupling Coils 1&2Spectrometersolenoid 1Matchingcoils 1&2Matchingcoils 1&2Spectrometersolenoid 2Focus coils 1Focus coils 2Focus coils 3mBeam PIDTOF 0CherenkovTOF 1RF cavities 1RF cavities 2Downstreamparticle ID:TOF 2CherenkovCalorimeterDiffusers 1&2Liquid Hydrogen absorbers 1,2,3Incoming muon beamExperiment is now APPROVEDAt RAL.Trackers 1 & 2measurement of emittance in and out
48COOLING RINGS Two goals: 1) Reduce hardware expense on cooling channel 2) Combine with energy spread reduction (longitudinal and transverse cooling)major problem: Kickers(Same problem occurs in Japaneseacceleration scheme with FFAG)
49Yoshi MoriNB: a standard cyclotron would be MUCH smaller and inexpensivebut would have much smaller acceptance and could not be scaled upto higher energies.
50SPL Physics workshop 24-25 May 2004 EMCOG recommended a study of SPL physics opportunities in the framework of the ECFA working groups and BENE(neutrinos + low energy muons + Eurisol + …)SuperBeam/neutrino Factory design studyEMCOG fully endorses the proposal and calls for proposals for the R&D experiments. It is stressed that support from the home countries and laboratories is essential to complete the EU funding.Beta-beam design studyEMCOG finds this possibility very promising and deserving a thorough study in the best conditions. The subject is very specific and pertinent to a particular site and would justify a separate design study. This has been accepted as a EURISOL work package.EU call for proposal 11 November 2003Dead line for submission 4 March 2004Full presentation to community: muon week February 2004
51Design studiesFP6 foresees funding for design studies of new infrastructures. Encouraged byEU in reference with the (approved) CARE.In preparation ( 4 March 2004)is the proposal for a European based Design study of aSuperbeam and Neutrino FactoryRAL as leading house. (Peach/Edgecock)Proton driver CERN in coll. with RAL, etc.,Target many interested. Still searching a leading house. (PSI not interested?)TTA at CERN under consideration. (pulsed beam important)Horn and collectors LAL orsayCooling; MICEAcceleration, FFAG Saclay, GrenobleDesignEurope alone does not have critical mass for all this.=> world collaboration with USA and Japan was launched at NUFACT03 in June 2003.
52Conclusions Neutrino Physics is alive an attractive. We have an exciting program for many years. discovery and studies of leptonic CP violationThis addresses very fundamental questions (GUTS, matter asymmetry, masses)from a completely different viewpoint than the energy frontier.1. We should not miss the opportunity to make a coherent contribution to JPARC-n!2. We must however make sure that there is a competitive long term program in EuropeSPL is a good start and we must support it very strongly.Without target, horns etc… it would be however useless for neutrino physicsthere is a strong physics program with a neutrino superbeam (2015 seems a goal date)and at a later stage beta-beamSPL makes full sense for particle physics as a driver for a neutrino factoryThere are several severe questions to solve before either can be proposed.design studies with the aim of Conceptual Design Reportat LHC/J-Parc start-up
53We see now positive signals: Conclusions IIAfter an exciting start in 1998/1999 (NUFACT99 and NFWG…)we had two difficult years inWe see now positive signals:-- approval of HIPPI and BENE inside CARE-- SPL seems well on the way-- strong supprt of Dapnia+IN2P3 – INFN for Fréjus Laboratory-- Support and scientific approval of MICE at RALNext big mountain is success in the Design Study Proposals and of the SPL workshop!good luck to us!