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Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Three family oscillations The Japanese way: JPARC SK, HK The alpine way: CERN-SPL … and beta-beam.

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Presentation on theme: "Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Three family oscillations The Japanese way: JPARC SK, HK The alpine way: CERN-SPL … and beta-beam."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Three family oscillations The Japanese way: JPARC SK, HK The alpine way: CERN-SPL … and beta-beam and Fréjus Neutrino Factory Superbeam Neutrino Factory and beta-beam R&D EMCOG statements design studies Conclusions Future neutrino experiments The road-map… and a few itineraries

2 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Roadmap You are here You want to go there Where do we stand? Where do we go? Which way do we chose? Cheapest? Shortest? Fastest? Taking into account practicalities or politics?

3 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre We know that there are three families of active, light neutrinos (LEP) 2.Solar neutrino oscillations are established (Homestake+Gallium+Kam+SK+SNO+KamLAND) 3.Atmospheric ( ) oscillations are established (IMB+Kam+SK+Macro+Sudan+K2K) 4.At that frequency, electron neutrino oscillations are small (CHOOZ) This allows a consistent picture with 3-family oscillations ~30 0 m 12 2 ~ eV 2 ~45 0 m 23 2 ~ eV 2 ~ 10 0 with several unknown parameters mass hierarchy Where are we? *)to set the scale: CP violation in quarks was discovered in 1964 and there is still an important program (K0pi0, B-factories, Neutron EDM, LHCb, BTeV….) to go on for >>10 years…i.e. a total of >50 yrs. and we have not discovered leptonic CP yet! 5. LSND ? ( miniBooNe) This result is not consistent with three families of neutrinos oscillating, and is not supported (nor is it completely contradicted) by other experiments. If confirmed, this would be even more exciting See Barger et al PRD Where do we go? leptonic CP & T violations => an exciting experimental program for at least 25 years *)

4 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 The neutrino mixing matrix: 3 angles and a phase Unknown or poorly known even after approved program: 13, phase, sign of m 13 OR? m 2 23 = eV 2 m 2 12 = eV 2 23 (atmospheric) = 45 0, 12 (solar) = 30 0, 13 (Chooz) < m 2 12 = eV 2 m 2 23 = eV 2

5 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Consequences of 3 Family oscillation : I There will be e and e oscillation at L atm P ( e ) max =~ ½ sin … (small) II There will be CP or T violation CP: P ( e ) P ( e T : P ( e ) P ( e III we do not know if the neutrino which contains more e is the lightest one (natural?) or not. Oscillation maximum 1.27 m 2 L / E = /2 Atmospheric m 2 = eV 2 L atm = GeV Solar m 2 = eV 2 L sol = 1 GeV

6 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 = A CP sin solar term… sin sin ( m 2 12 L/4E) sin … need large values of sin m 2 12 (LMA) but *not* large sin 2 … need APPEARANCE … P( e e ) is time reversal symmetric (reactors or sun are out) … can be large (30%) for suppressed channel (one small angle vs two large) at wavelength at which solar = atmospheric and for e, … asymmetry is opposite for e and e P( e ) - P( e ) P( e ) + P( e ) P( e ) = ¦A¦ 2 +¦S¦ A S sin P( e ) = ¦A¦ 2 +¦S¦ A S sin

7 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 T asymmetry for sin = JHFI-SK ! asymmetry is a few % and requires excellent flux normalization (neutrino fact., beta beam or off axis beam with not-too- near near detector ) JHFII-HK neutrino factory NOTE: This is at first maximum! Sensitivity at low values of 13 is better for short baselines, sensitivity at large values of q 13 may be better for longer baselines (2d max or 3d max.) This would desserve a more careful analysis!

8 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Road Map Experiments to find : 1. search for e in conventional beam (MINOS, ICARUS/OPERA) limitations: NC background, intrinsic e component in beam 2. Off-axis beam (JHF-SK, off axis NUMI, off axis CNGS) or 3. Low Energy Superbeam (BNL Homestake, SPL Fréjus) Precision experiments to find CP violation -- or to search further if is too small 1. beta-beam 6 He ++ Li +++ e e and 18 Ne F 9+ e e 2. Neutrino factory with muon storage ring fraction thereof will exist. e + e and e - e

9 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Where will this get us… comparison of reach in the oscillations right to left: present limit from the CHOOZ experiment, expected sensitivity from the MINOS experiment, CNGS (OPERA+ICARUS) 0.75 MW JHF to super Kamiokande with an off-axis narrow-band beam, Superbeam: 4 MW CERN-SPL to a 400 kton water Cerenkov in Fréjus (J-PARC phase II similar) from a Neutrino Factory with 40 kton large magnetic detector Mezzetto X 5

10 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 T2K (JPARC Super-Kamiokande) z295 km baseline zJ-PARC approved zneutrino beam under discussion but set as first priority by international committee zProposal to be submitted early 2004 zSuper-Kamiokande: y22.5 kton fiducial yExcellent e/ ID yAdditional 0 /e ID (for E ~ 500 MeV- 1 GeV) zMatter effects small zneed near detector! zEuropean collaboration forming (mailing list: UK(5)-Italy(5)- Saclay-Gva-ETHZ- Spain(2)) This experiment is at the right ratio of Energy to distance L max = 300 km at 0.6 GeV

11 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 p 140 m0 m280 m2 km295 km Problem with water Cerenkov: not very sensitive to details of interactions. Either 280 m or 2 km would be good locations for a very fine grained neutrino detector Planned: a scintillating fiber/water calorimeter. Liquid argon TPC would be a very good (better) candidate! Event numbers: near/SK = m(near[tons]) / (300/2) 2 = m(near[tons]) => Need tons fiducial or so The (J-PARC- T2K Beamline 1.5km 295km Neutrino spectra at diff. dist 280m

12 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Schematic drawing of Hyper-Kamiokande 1 Mton (fiducial) volume: Total Length 400m (8 Compartments) Super-K 40m Other major goal: improve proton decay reach Supernovae until Andromedes, etc… Excavation will not start until 2011

13 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 This will be the case in =

14 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 APEC design study Motivations to go beyond this… 1.Intrinsic limits of conventional neutrino beams (intensity, purity, only, low energy ) 2.Go back to Europe and try to establish a CERN-based program on the long run SPL Superbeam Neutrino factory The ultimate tool for neutrino oscillations Beta beam Very large underground lab Water Cerenkov, Liq.Arg The common source: SPL EURISOL SPL physics workshop: May 2004 CERN SPSC Cogne meeting sept.2004 Superbeam/neutrino Factory design study EURISOL design study HIPPI

15 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre MeV Neutrinos small contamination from e (no K at 2 GeV!) A large underground water Cerenkov (400 kton) UNO/HyperK or/and a large L.Arg detector. also : proton decay search, supernovae events solar and atmospheric neutrinos. Performance similar to J-PARC II There is a window of opportunity for digging the cavern stating in 2008 (safety tunnel in Frejus) Possible step 0: Neutrino SUPERBEAM Fréjus underground lab.

16 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Europe: SPL Frejus Geneve Italy 130km 40kt 400kt CERN CERN 2.2GeV, 50Hz, 2.3x10 14 p /pulse 4MW Now under R&D phase

17 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 CERN: -beam baseline scenario PS Decay Ring ISOL target & Ion source SPL Cyclotrons, linac or FFAG Decay ring Brho = 1500 Tm B = 5 T L ss = 2500 m SPS ECR Rapid cycling synchrotron Nuclear Physics

18 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Tunnels and Magnets zCivil engineering costs: Estimate of 400 MCHF for 1.3% incline (13.9 mrad) yRinglenth: 6850 m, Radius=300 m, Straight sections=2500 m zMagnet cost: First estimate at 100 MCHF FLUKA simulated losses in surrounding rock (no public health implications)

19 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Detectors UNO (400kton Water Cherenkov) Liquid Ar TPC (~100kton)

20 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Combination of beta beam with low energy super beam Unique to CERN: need few 100 GeV accelerator (PS + SPS will do!) experience in radioactive beams at ISOLDE many unknowns: what is the duty factor that can be achieved? (needs < ) combines CP and T violation tests e ( +) (T) e ( + ) (CP) e ( -) (T) e ( - ) Can this work???? theoretical studies now on beta beam + SPL target and horn R&D design study together with EURISOL

21 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 DUTY FACTOR (this is an issue for low energy superbeam and beta beam) Sub-GeV Atmospheric Neutrino interactions are at rate ~100/kt/year. ~ 50% e and 50% For a 500 kton detector this will give events of the wrong lepton At this energy the directionality if poor (cuts will not be effective) It is necesary to discriminate with timing! Duty factor required < SPL (50 Hz), needs 20 microseconds every 20 ms. (accumulator) Betabeam : needs stacking of ions along the perimeter of the SR. (2 bunches of 10ns / 7km) (more bunches of same intensity OK)

22 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 L. Mosca

23 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre Neutrino Factory -- CERN layout e + e _ interacts giving oscillates e interacts giving WRONG SIGN MUON p/ s s = yr e yr yr yr

24 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Where do you prefer to take shifts ?

25 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Neutrino fluxes + -> e + e / e ratio reversed by switching e spectra are different No high energy tail. Very well known flux ( ) -- E& calibration from muon spin precession -- angular divergence: small effect if < 0.2/ - - absolute flux measured from muon current or by e -> e in near expt. -- in triangle ring, muon polarization precesses and averages out (preferred, -> calib of energy, energy spread) Similar comments apply to beta beam, except spin 0 Energy and energy spread have to be obtained from the properties of the storage ring (Trajectories, RF volts and frequency, etc…) polarization controls e flux: + -X> e in forward direction

26 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Detector zIron calorimeter zMagnetized yCharge discrimination yB = 1 T zR = 10 m, L = 20 m zFiducial mass = 40 kT Baseline 3500 Km 732 Km 3.5 x x x x x x 10 5 CC e CC signal (sin 2 13 =0.01) Events for 1 year Also: L Arg detector: magnetized ICARUS Wrong sign muons, electrons, taus and NC evts *-> (J-PARC I SK = 40)

27 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre classes of events right sign muon electron/positron e e or e e e - wrong sign muon e right sign tau wrong sign tau e no lepton NC & other taus

28 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 ICARUS NB: additional potential wrt magnetized iron calorimeter: tau detection, sign of *low* energy electrons, if magnetized. May redefine the optimal parameters of neutrino factory

29 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 CP asymmetries compare e to e probabilities is prop matter density, positive for neutrinos, negative for antineutrinos HUGE effect for distance around 6000 km!! Resonance around 12 GeV when = 0

30 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 CP violation (ctd) Matter effect must be subtracted. One believes this can be done with uncertainty Of order 2%. Also spectrum of matter effect and CP violation is different It is important to subtract in bins of measured energy. knowledge of spectrum is essential here! 5-10 GeV GeV GeV GeV GeV 40 kton L M D 50 GeV nufact 5 yrs /yr In fact, GeV Is enough! Best distance is km e.g. Fermilab or BNL -> west coast or …

31 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 channel at neutrino factory High energy neutrinos at NuFact allow observation of e (wrong sign muons with missing energy and P ). UNIQUE Liquid Argon or OPERA-like detector at 3000 km. Since the sin dependence has opposite sign with the wrong sign muons, this solves ambiguities that will invariably appear if only wrong sign muons are used. ambiguities with only wrong sign muons (3500 km) equal event number curves muon vs taus associating taus to muons (no efficencies, but only OPERA mass) studies on-going A. Donini et al

32 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade 400kton-> 1 Mton Area of phase space in which CP violation can be seen (Mezzetto)

33 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade 400kton-> 1 Mton

34 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade 400kton-> 1 Mton J-PARC HK 540 kton?

35 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 The proposed Roadmap Consistently with the recent DG talk on the future of CERN, is in preparation a document (Future Projects and Associated R&D) to be presented at the December Council. The chapter Upgrade of the Proton Injector Complex presents a roadmap, consistent with 2 basic assumptions: construction of Linac4 2007/10 (before end of LHC payment) construction of SPL in 2008/15 (after end of LHC payments) Linac 4 approval SPL approval LHC upgrade M. Vretenar

36 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 L. Mosca This fits very well!

37 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Some Critical issues Super beam & Neutrino Factory SPL cost, cleanliness, power limits capability to handle different time structures Accumulation of protons Target and target station Collection (Horn at high radiation and high rep rate) Design/optimization of multihorn system and decay tunel Muon Cooling of large emittance muon beam (MICE + kickers) Fast and cheap accceleration (RF source, FFAG, kickers) Beta beam Ion yields Activation Stacking Do we need a new PS? Megaton detector What size cavity can be dug? cost/time scale Photosensitive devices!!! Other detector (Larg, other) safety….

38 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 APEC design study Motivations to go beyond this… 1.Intrinsic limits of conventional neutrino beams (intensity, purity, only, low energy ) 2.Go back to Europe and try to establish a CERN-based program on the long run SPL Superbeam Neutrino factory The ultimate tool for neutrino oscillations Beta beam Very large underground lab Water Cerenkov, L.Arg The common source: SPL EURISOL SPL physics workshop: May 2004 CERN SPC Cogne meeting sept.2004 Superbeam/neutrino Factory design study EURISOL design study HIPPI

39 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 EMCOG (European Muon Concertation and Oversight Group) FIRST SET OF BASIC GOALS The long-term goal is to have a Conceptual Design Report for a European Neutrino Factory Complex by the time of JHF & LHC start-up, so that, by that date, this would be a valid option for the future of CERN. An earlier construction for the proton driver (SPL + accumulator & compressor rings) is conceivable and, of course, highly desirable. The SPL and targetry and horn R&D have therefore to be given the highest priority. Cooling is on the critical path for the neutrino factory itself; there is a consensus that a cooling experiment is a necessity. The emphasis should be the definition of practical experimental projects with a duration of 2-5 years. Such projects can be seen in the following four areas:

40 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Superbeam & Beta Beam cost estimates

41 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Neutrino Factory studies and R&D USA, Europe, Japan have each their scheme. Only one has been costed, US study II: Neutrino Factory CAN be done…..but it is too expensive as is. Aim: ascertain challenges can be met + cut cost in half. + detector: MINOS * 10 = about 300 M or M$

42 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre High intensity proton driver. Activities on the front end are ongoing in many laboratories in Europe, in particular at CERN, CEA, IN2P3, INFN and GSI. Progressive installation of a high intensity injector and of a linear accelerator up to 120 MeV at CERN (R. Garoby et al) would have immediate rewards in the increase of intensity for the CERN fixed target program and for LHC operation. This (HIPPI) has received funding from EU! 2. Target studies problem at 4 MW!!. This experimental program is underway with liquid metal jet studies. Goal: explore synergies among the following parties involved: CERN, Lausanne, Megapie at PSI, EURISOL, etc… Experiment at CERN under consideration by the collaboration. (H. Kirk et al) 3. Horn studies. Problem at 50 Hz and 4 MW A first horn prototype has been built and pulsed at low intensity. Mechanical properties measured (S. Gilardonis thesis, GVA) 5 year program to reach high intensity, high rep rate pulsing, and study the radiation resistance of horns. Optimisation of horn shape. IN2P3 Orsay has become leading house for this. Collaborations to be sought with Saclay, PSI (for material research and fatigue under high stress in radiation environment) 4.Muon Ionization Cooling Never done! A collaboration towards and International cooling experiment MICE has been established with the muon collaboration in United States and Japanese groups. There is a large interest from European groups in this experiment. Following the submission of a letter of Intent to PSI and RAL, the collaboration has prepared a full proposal at RAL. Proposal has been strongly encouraged and large UK funding secured (10M£). PSI offers a solenoid for the muon beam line CERN, which as already made large initial contributions in the concept of the experiment, has earmarked some very precious hardware that could be recuperated. (RF! Cryo?) More collaboration needed from European institutes outside UK.

43 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 NUFACT R&D: Target station zSpeed of Hg disruption zMax v 20 m/s measured zv // 3 m/s zjet remains intact for more than 20 microseconds. Protons 1 cm liquid jet of mercury

44 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 A. Fabich et al– CERN-BNL-Grenoble US scheme: jet is inside a very high field tapered solenoid (20 T max) this was tested at the Laboratoire de Champs Intenses (Grenoble)

45 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Magnetic horn Protons Current of 300 kA To decay channel Hg Target B 1/R B = 0

46 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Lateral reflector …. To do better : can one place a reflector on the axis – exposed to the 4 MW proton beam power? Question: what is the best proton energy? (can go up to 4 or 5 GeV protons with SPL ++) Probably would like to match the beta-beam energy (600 MeV) Contact S. Gilardoni (UniGe) J.E. Campagne LAL Orsay Horn design – not a finished issue

47 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Incoming muon beam Diffusers 1&2 Beam PID TOF 0 Cherenkov TOF 1 Trackers 1 & 2 measurement of emittance in and out Liquid Hydrogen absorbers 1,2,3 Downstream particle ID: TOF 2 Cherenkov Calorimeter RF cavities 1RF cavities 2 Spectrometer solenoid 1 Matching coils 1&2 Focus coils 1 Spectrometer solenoid 2 Coupling Coils 1&2 Focus coils 2Focus coils 3 Matching coils 1&2 10% cooling of 200 MeV/c muons requires ~ 20 MV of RF single particle measurements => measurement precision can be as good as out / in ) = never done before either…. Experiment is now APPROVED At RAL.

48 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 COOLING RINGS Two goals: 1) Reduce hardware expense on cooling channel 2) Combine with energy spread reduction (longitudinal and transverse cooling) major problem: Kickers (Same problem occurs in Japanese acceleration scheme with FFAG)

49 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Yoshi Mori NB: a standard cyclotron would be MUCH smaller and inexpensive but would have much smaller acceptance and could not be scaled up to higher energies.

50 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 SPL Physics workshop May 2004 EMCOG recommended a study of SPL physics opportunities in the framework of the ECFA working groups and BENE (neutrinos + low energy muons + Eurisol + …) SuperBeam/neutrino Factory design study EMCOG fully endorses the proposal and calls for proposals for the R&D experiments. It is stressed that support from the home countries and laboratories is essential to complete the EU funding. Beta-beam design study EMCOG finds this possibility very promising and deserving a thorough study in the best conditions. The subject is very specific and pertinent to a particular site and would justify a separate design study. This has been accepted as a EURISOL work package. EU call for proposal 11 November 2003 Dead line for submission 4 March 2004 Full presentation to community: muon week February 2004

51 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Design studies FP6 foresees funding for design studies of new infrastructures. Encouraged by EU in reference with the (approved) CARE. In preparation ( 4 March 2004) is the proposal for a European based Design study of a Superbeam and Neutrino Factory RAL as leading house. (Peach/Edgecock) Proton driver CERN in coll. with RAL, etc., Target many interested. Still searching a leading house. (PSI not interested?) TTA at CERN under consideration. (pulsed beam important) Horn and collectors LAL orsay Cooling; MICE Acceleration, FFAG Saclay, Grenoble Design Europe alone does not have critical mass for all this. => world collaboration with USA and Japan was launched at NUFACT03 in June 2003.

52 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Conclusions Neutrino Physics is alive an attractive. We have an exciting program for many years. discovery and studies of leptonic CP violation This addresses very fundamental questions (GUTS, matter asymmetry, masses) from a completely different viewpoint than the energy frontier. 1. We should not miss the opportunity to make a coherent contribution to JPARC- 2. We must however make sure that there is a competitive long term program in Europe SPL is a good start and we must support it very strongly. Without target, horns etc… it would be however useless for neutrino physics there is a strong physics program with a neutrino superbeam (2015 seems a goal date) and at a later stage beta-beam SPL makes full sense for particle physics as a driver for a neutrino factory There are several severe questions to solve before either can be proposed. design studies with the aim of Conceptual Design Report at LHC/J-Parc start-up

53 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 Conclusions II After an exciting start in 1998/1999 (NUFACT99 and NFWG…) we had two difficult years in We see now positive signals: -- approval of HIPPI and BENE inside CARE -- SPL seems well on the way -- strong supprt of Dapnia+IN2P3 – INFN for Fréjus Laboratory -- Support and scientific approval of MICE at RAL Next big mountain is success in the Design Study Proposals and of the SPL workshop! good luck to us!

54 Alain Blondel, journée neutrinos Jussieu 27 Novembre 2003 RESERVE


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