9 Mohandas K. GandhiIn 1930, Gandhi led Indians in the disobedience of the British-imposed salt tax, known as Dandi Salt March
10 Mohandas K. Gandhi Gandhi's principles: Truth or Satya ________________VegetarianismBrahmacharya—spiritual and practical purity______________Faith—HinduismNonviolenceSimplicity
11 Mohandas K. GandhiGandhi Smriti (The house Gandhi lodged in the last 4 months of his life has now become a monument, New Delhi)
12 Mohandas K. GandhiStatue of Mahatma Gandhi in Union Square Park, New York CityHe was assassinated in January 1948.In India, he is often called Mahatma, meaning “___________”.great soul
13 New Words and Expressions Check the pronunciation (page 216)Check your acquaintanceWord derivationWord formationWord differentiation
14 New Words The bee turns n______ into honey. nectar This is only a passing i_________, not to be taken too seriously.She refused to make a statement until she had spoken to her a________.nectarinfatuationattorney
15 New Words cajole It is easy to c______ the little boy into doing this. He is so a_______ that however hard I tried to persuade him to join us he did not change his mind.The church was destroyed in the bombing but the altar survived i______.adamantintact
16 Word Derivation relief fancy accumulation relieved fancy accumulative accumulateN.Adj.remunerationbulkinfatuationrelieffancyaccumulationrelievedfancyaccumulativeremuneratebulkinfatuateinfatuatedremunerativebulky
19 Word Derivation requisite cost torrential overwhelm withdraw salve Adj.requisitecostlyV.depositoverwhelmingAnt.bondslaveSyn.requisitecosttorrentialoverwhelmwithdrawsalvenecessary
20 Word FormationCoworker co-author; co-pilot; co-education; co-exist; cooperation; cohabitLennon and McCartney co-wrote most of the Beatles’ songs.The two communities enjoyed a period of peaceful co-existence.
21 Word Formation forego = forgo for- = stop; no longer forgo = to not have or do sth enjoyableI shall have to forgo the pleasure of seeing you this week.No one was prepared to forgo their lunch hour to attend the meeting.forgive = to stop blaming/being angryforget = to be unable to remember放弃
22 Word Formation fore- = in advance; before fore-cast; foreclose; foresee; forestall; forewarn; foretell; foreshadowThe employees had been forewarned that the end-of-year financial results would be poor.I don’t foresee any difficulties so long as we keep within budget.事先告知
23 Word Differentiation =specify as compulsory This suggestion will require careful thought.To carry out this plan would require increasing our staff by 50%.Silence is required of all examination candidates.This record has been requested by Mrs Simpson of Potter Bar.All members of the club are requested to attend the annual meeting.The dissatisfied customer demanded to see the manager of the store.=specify as compulsory=politely or formally ask for=politely or formally ask to do=insist on having
24 Word Differentiation The hostages were bound hand and foot. We feel bound together by our past experiences.The dog bounded away/down the hill.The US is bounded in/on the north by Canada and in/on the south by Mexico.This new adhesive can bond metal to glass.=stick or tie tightly=join or be joined
25 Word DifferentiationChildren suffering from the illness had bathed in sea water contaminated by sewage.I bathed my feet in salt water.The Mediterranean Sea bathes the sunny shores of Italy.The fields were bathed in sunlight.He baths every morning.He is bathing the baby.=soak with liquid
26 Word Differentiation =taste and enjoy to the full A dish-washer is a great time-saver.A saver may also be a person who saves money regularly.She drank the wine slowly, savoring every drop.It was the first chocolate he’s tasted for over a year, so he savored every mouthful.In the Christian religion, Jesus Christ is called the/our Savior.=taste and enjoy to the full=a person who saves others
27 Word Differentiation =say in reply =join together again “No, I do not have time to help you,” he rejoined impatiently.He rejoined his regiment after a week’s leave.Rejoin the two wires.Everyone rejoiced at the news of his safe return.She rejoiced in her good fortune.I rejoiced to see that she had made such a quick recovery.=say in reply=join together again=feel or show great joy
28 Word DifferentiationThe requisite number of countries have now ratified the convention.He has exquisite taste in music.Look at this exquisite painting.She has exquisite taste.A good comedian needs to have an exquisite sense of timing.=required=keen=acute
29 Word Differentiation =obtain by force =urge; strongly encourage Police have not so far been able to extort a confession from the people accused of the bombing.They accused him of trying to extort money with menaces.He extorted a promise from her.The government exhorted the prisoners not to riot.The general exhorted his men to fight bravely.=obtain by force=urge; strongly encourage
30 Questions for Discussion Who are the public or civil servants?What is bribery?Why do people give and take bribes?What are the possible harms of bribery to our society?What do you think are the roots of bribery?What should we do to eliminate it?
31 What is a civil servant?A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public sector employee working for a government department or agency. The term explicitlyexcludes the armed services,although civilian officialswill work at “DefenseMinistry” headquarters.
32 Types of CorruptionIn broad terms, political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain.Forms of corruption include:Bribery（行贿；受贿）Embezzlement（挪用公款）Cronyism（任人唯亲）
33 Types of Corruption Nepotism（裙带关系） Graft（以权谋私） Money laundering / trafficking (洗黑钱)The end point of political corruption is a kleptoctacy（盗贼统治）, literally “rule by thieves”.
34 Reasons for Corruption Lack of government transparencyWeak accounting practicesDemocracy absenceWeak rule of lawWeak judicial independenceLacking protection of whistleblowers （举报人）
35 A Global Picture The text is a piece of autobiographic writing. What is the author’s purpose of writing?To tell that accepting costly gifts for one’s service violates the moral principle of a public worker.How many parts does the text fall into?
36 Structure of the Text Part I (para.1-6) Part II (para.7-11) A description of the situationPart II (para.7-11)The author’s worries and decisionPart III (para.12-22)His efforts made to persuade his familyPart IV (para.23-26)The final settlement of the gifts
37 Structure of the Text Part III consists of three stages: A preparatory stage: discussion with his childrenThe second stage: his wife’s argument and the author’s persuasionThe third stage: his wife’s assertion that she deserved the gifts for her contribution to the community (climax of the conflict)
39 Lesson 2: Overview Word review Text analysis Comprehension questions Language pointsSentence highlightsRhetorical devices
40 Can you spell the word?The money will be held in t______ until she is 18.The bank will act as t_______ for the estate until the child is 18.The t____________ should be prepared in triplicate.Mr. Brown is a defense a_______.He chose his study course in c________ with his parents and teachers.trusttrusteetrust-deedattorneyconsultation
41 Can you spell the word? He let out a t________ of angry words. She appeared on television to p_____ with the kidnappers.It was a title b_________ upon him by the king.The gang e________ money from over 30 local businesses.The party leader e_______ his members to start preparing for government.torrentpleadbestowedextortedexhorted
42 Match the word with its definition remunerationinfatuationincubuscajolethrustadamantrejoinrequisiteto persuade by praisefirm and immovablenecessarymoney paid for the work sb doesto say in replya very worrying problemvery strong feelings of love or attractionattack in words
43 Text Analysis Comprehension questions Language points Sentence highlights
44 Background Information Educated in India and in London, M. K. Gandhi was admitted to the English bar in 1889 and practiced law unsuccessfully in India for two years.In 1893 he went to South Africa, where he became a successful lawyer and leader of the Indian community and involved himself in the fight to end discrimination against the country's Indian minority.
45 Background Information In South Africa he read widely, drawing inspiration from such sources as the Bhagavad-Gita（印度教经典）, John Ruskin, Leo Tolstoy, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau, and his personal philosophy underwent significant changes.English art and social criticAmerican essayist and poet
46 Background Information He abandoned Western ways and thereafter lived a simple life; this became symbolized in his eschewal(=avoiding) ofmaterial possessionsand his dress ofloincloth and shawl.
47 Background Information While in South Africa he organized (1907) his first satyagraha [holding to the truth], a campaign of civil disobedience expressed in nonviolent resistance to what he regarded as unjust laws.So successful were his activities that he secured (1914) an agreement from the South African government that promised the alleviation of anti-Indian discrimination.
48 Comprehension Questions Read Paragraph 1 and 2:Why did the author want to return to his home country?How did the author feel when he considered leaving South Africa?
49 Language Points Not that… but that (para.1) He felt a bit worried, not that comrades were not working hard, but that they did not pay enough attention to safety.Not that I am willing to go with you, but that I am busy now.Not that I dislike the work, but I am unequal to it.
50 Language Points Pressing (para.2) He is ~ me for an answer.Can I press you further on this issue?The committee ~ed him to reveal more information.Relieve sb. of (para.2): to remove a burdenHe ~d her of her baggage.He ~d her of the plates she was holding.
51 Sentence HighlightsFriends at home were also pressing me to return, and I felt that I should be of more service in India. (para.2)Friends at home were also trying very hard to persuade me to return, and I felt that I should do more work in India.
52 Sentence HighlightsSo I requested my co-workers to relieve me. (para.2)So I asked my colleagues to relieve me of my work in South Africa and let me leave the community.
53 Comprehension Questions Read Paragraph 3 to 6:What does the author tell us in these paragraphs?Why is the poem quoted?
54 Mirabai ( )Mirabai（密罗白）is one of the most commemorated women in Indian history. Sometimes known asMeera, she was asixteenth century song-writer and poet.She wrote over 200poems.
55 A Poem by Mirabai Many of Mirabai's songs are still sung today in India andher spirit and rebelliousnature have been an inspira-tion for women in India.
56 Explanation I am His bondslave. (para.3) The word “bondslave” is a coinage that indicates the author’s close, even inseparable connection with God.By quoting the poem, Gandhi wants to reveal the love that bound him and the local community.
57 Language Points Bathe (para.5) Bestow (para.6) The park lay ~d in sunshine.The whole city is ~d in a festive atmosphere.Bestow (para.6)The trophy was ~ed upon the winner.The George Cross is a decoration that is ~ed on British civilians for acts of great bravery.
58 green with rich vegetation BackgroundThe province of KwaZuluNatal has a history filledwith romance and adventure.On 25 December 1497, whenPortuguese explorer Vasco da Gama first set eyes on the verdant shores of KwaZulu Natal in South Africa, he named his new discovery “Natal”, being the Portuguese word for Christmas.green with rich vegetation
59 Comprehension Questions Read Paragraph 7 to 9:What was the author’s initial response to all the costly gifts?What questions did he raise for himself?
60 Language Points Remuneration (para.7): [U] 酬金 Client (para.7): The total ~ package, including bonuses and stock options, is worth over $200,000.It’s a demanding job which deserves adequate ~.Client (para.7):A salesman needs to understand his clients’ needs.On behalf of my ~, I would like to remind you of your obligations in this matter.
61 Language Points Be meant for (para.8): design for a particular purpose Those rooms are ~ for the children’s center.I was ~ for you and you for me.Chaplin was ~ for an actor.Agitated (para.8): nervousHer ~ knocking at the window went unheeded.He sound very ~ on the phone.
62 Sentence Highlights Translate the following sentences: What right did I have to accept all these gifts? Accepting them, how could I persuade myself that I was serving the community without remuneration?我有什么权力接受所有这些礼品呢？接受这些礼品的话，我又如何说明自己是在为社区提供无偿服务呢？
63 Sentence Highlights Explain the following sentence: It was difficult for me to forego gifts worth hundreds, it was more difficult to keep them. (para.9)It was difficult for me to find a way to deal with those gifts which worth hundreds of guineas, but it was more difficult for me to keep them.
64 Virtue is its own reward. Comprehension CheckRead Paragraph 10-11:What did the author decide to do with these gifts? What were his reasons?Virtue is its own reward.有德便是有报。
65 Language Points Fast (para.11): firmly; with determination Bolt the door ~.His wheels were stuck ~.Hold fast to this rope, and I will pull you up.Infatuation (para.11): passion forHe was aware of his brother’s ~ with motorcycles.It’s only an ~; she’ll get over it soon enough.把门闩紧。
66 Language Points Trust (para.11): <n.> The farm is a ~ which he holds for his dead friend’s children.The wealthy old man established a ~ in behalf of his grandchildren.Incubus (para.11): nightmare; burdenDebt is a big ~ in developing countries.Efforts must be made to get rid of the ~ of inflation.为……代管的产业设立了一个财产托管机构
67 Sentence Highlights Translate the following sentences: We had been fast simplifying our life. How then could we afford to have gold watches?我们一直下决心要简化我们的生活，那么我们又怎能戴这些金表呢？
68 Sentence Highlights Explain the following sentence: Even then I was exhorting people to conquer the infatuation for jewellery. (para.11)Even then I was trying to persuade people to overcome the wild and foolish love for wealth.
69 Comprehension Questions Read Paragraph 12-15:How did the children respond to the author’s decision? What did they agree to do?
70 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence: So I decided to constitute the my attorneys. (para.12)So I decided to make my children my attorneys so that they could help me persuade their mother.
71 Language PointsConstitute (para.12): give sb authority to hold a position 委任；任命They ~d him chief adviser.We ~ you our spokesman.Part with (para.15): give upHe is willing to ~ with his right to vote.In order to raise money she had to ~ with some of her jewels.
72 Comprehension Questions Read Paragraph 17-18:Why did the author’s wife insist that they should keep the costly gifts?
73 Language PointsDance to one’s tune (para.17): comply completely with sb’s demandHe knows that if he screams or shouts or throws thing around he can make his parents ~ to his tune.Wouldn’t it be better if the home PC ~d to your tune?Dance to another tune:改弦易辙
74 Language PointsBe the last (para.17)：be the least willing/ likely or desirableShe is the ~ woman I would marry on the earth.That’s the ~ thing I should expect him to do.Torrent of (para.18): a large amount ofHe overwhelmed me with a ~ of abuse.他那连珠炮似的谩骂骂得我哑口无言。
75 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: Cajoled, they will dance to your tune. (para.17)As the children had been persuaded by praise and false promise, they will do whatever you tell them to do.
76 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: I would be the last person to part with gifts so lovingly given. (para.17)I would never part with gifts so lovingly given.
77 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: And thus the torrent of argument went on, reinforced, in the end, by tears. (para.18)My wife kept pouring out her argument in rather unpleasant language. As she asked, she became more and more emotional. In the end, she broke into tears.
78 Comprehension Check Read Paragraph 19-22: What points did the author make in his argument?How did the author’s wife respond to what he said?
79 Language Points Leave sb. in peace with (para.20) He just wants to be left in peace.How I wish to be left in peace with my pet dog?Make… of sb. (para.20): train…to beHis father wants to make a doctor of him.He’s trying to make a poet of himself, but I don’t think he’ll make it.
80 Language Points As good as (para.22): almost the same as They were as good as penniless by the time they returned home.Toil and moil (para.22): work extremely hard with little pleasureDon’t toil and moil every minute, otherwise your health will be dangerous.Who says we are to toil and moil for the capitalist in this hell on earth?
81 Language Points All and sundry (para.22): everyone I don’t want all and sundry knowing about our problems.They’ve invited all and sundry to the wedding. (=all kinds of people)Slave (para.22): work hard without restI slaved all day over a hot stove to produce this meal, and now they’ve hardly eaten any of it.We slaved always all week at the report.
82 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: You are trying to make sadhus of my boys from today! (para.20)You are trying to train my boys to be saints!
83 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: But service rendered by you is as good as rendered by me. (para.22)Your service to the community included my contribution, for I did all domestic chores to support you.
84 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: I have toiled and moiled for you day and night. (para.22)I have worked extremely hard with little pleasure for you day and night.
85 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: You forced all and sundry on me, making me weep bitter tears, and I slaved for them! (para.22)You forced everything/everyone on me, making me shed bitter tears, and I worked like a slave for them!
86 Comprehension Check Read Paragraph 23: Did the author get round his wife eventually?
87 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: These were pointed thrusts, and some of them went home. (para.23)These were sharp verbal attacks, some of which were very effective.
88 Language Points Go home (para.23): go to the right place The stone killed such a strong man because it went home.The president’s speech about the need for saving power went home and everyone started turning off lights.Cf: bring home to
89 Language Points Thrust (para.23): attack in words The ~ of his argument was that change was needed.He killed her with a ~ of the knife.Translate: I somehow succeeded in extorting a consent from her. (para.23)不管怎样，我总算勉强得到她的同意。
90 Comprehension Check Read Paragraph 24-26: What did the author think a public worker should do about costly gifts? Why?
91 Language Points Draw upon (para.24) Operate (para.24) I’ll have to ~ upon my savings to pay for the repairs.A writer has to ~ on his imagination and experience.Operate (para.24)A new late-night service is now operating.France ~s a system of subsidized loans to dairy farmers.
92 Language Points Go by (para.25) Save from (para.25) Two years went by. She let the chance ~ by.Save from (para.25)If you lend me a dollar, it will ~ me from having to go to the bank.Will you go to the shop for me? It’ll ~ me a trip.
93 Sentence Highlights Explain the sentence below: The fund is still there, being operated upon in times of need… (para.24)The fund is still there, and people can use the money in times of need…
94 Rhetorical DevicesThe Natal Indians bathed me with the nectar of love. (para.5)…I had a sleepless night. (para.9)Transferred epithet（移就）And thus the torrent of argument went on. (para.18)I have toiled and moiled… (para.22)metaphormetaphorSynonymous pairs
96 Lesson 3: Overview Translation practice Exercise highlight Oral practice
97 Translation Practice I hope his appointment will simplify matters. Efforts must be taken first to simplify the vast network of the government.The subject is immensely complex, and hard to simplify.我希望他被任命之后事情会好办一些。首先必须下大力气精简政府机构。这个课题极为复杂，很难简化。
98 Translation PracticeTry to simplify your explanation for the children.The application forms have now been simplified.This is an attempt made by the government to simplify the tax law.试着为了孩子们简化你的解释。这些申请表现在已经被简化了。这是政府为简化税法而进行的一次尝试。
99 Translation Practice You can deposit your valuables in the hotel safe. A large sum of money was deposited to his Swiss bank account.I deposited my luggage in a locker at the station.把贵重物品存放到旅馆的保险柜里。一笔巨款项存入了他的瑞士银行账户。我把行李存入了车站的一个寄存柜里。
100 Translation PracticeTenants are usually required to deposit $100 with the agent, in case of damage or default.You have to deposit $50 to reserve the room.He deposited $1000 on a new car.房客通常要向房地产代理商缴纳一百美元押金，以防东西损坏或拖欠房租。预订房间你得先付50美元押金。他先付了一千美元作为新车的定金。
101 Translation PracticeAs the river slows down it deposits rich soil at its bends.Every surface was covered in dust deposited by the desert winds.Sand was deposited which hardened into sandstone.河水流速减慢时，有大量的沃土沉积在河的转弯处。所有的表面都覆盖着由沙漠风吹积起的尘土。沙经沉积固结成沙岩。
102 Translation Practice Where shall I deposit this pile of books? Deposit a coin into the slot.She deposited herself in the nearest chair.The bus deposited me miles from anywhere.The cuckoo deposits her eggs in other birds’ nests.这堆书我该放在哪儿？把一枚硬币投入这个投币口。她一屁股坐进最近的一张椅子里。公交车把我撂在了一个前不着村后不着店的地方。那只布谷鸟把蛋下到了别的鸟的窝里。
103 Translation Practice The museum is going to be renovated extensively. The cultural palace of our city has been newly renovated.The small Arabian country has used its oil revenues to renovate the nation’s industrial structure.He renovated old houses and sells them at a profit.
104 Translation PracticeSelling your house can be a costly and time-consuming businessThis is indeed the costliest war in our history.Mining can be costly in terms of lives.Building this bridge has already been too costly in terms of lives.The six-month delay will be costly for the film studio.These teaching methods are too costly in terms of staff resources.
105 Translation Practice What time does the news come on/upon? When does the heating come on?Fear came upon him as he stood in the empty house.Bad luck came upon us ever since we bought that new car.I came upon this old photograph in the back of the drawer.I came upon this book in the attic --- would you like it?
106 Translation PracticeIt’s not easy to part with one’s favorite possessions.He is willing to part with his right to vote.He hated to part with his money, even to buy a house.It was sad to have to part with Grandmother’s lovely old furniture, but we needed the money.Make sure you read the contract before you part with any money.你得先看清合同再交钱。
107 Translation Practice I’ll have to part company with you on that point. Weber parted company with Marx on a number of important issues.Sadly, we parted company with our fellow travelers at the end of the voyage; they had been such good friends.The band have parted company with their manager.乐队和经理人已经散伙了。
108 Translation PracticeThe railways have been deprived of the money they need for modernization.They were imprisoned and deprived of their basic rights.Why should you deprive yourself of such simple pleasures?那次事故使他丧失了视力。He was deprived of his sight by the accident.
109 Translation Practice Worrying deprived him of sleep. 担心孩子使他无法入睡。 The hot sun deprived the flowers of water.He claimed that he had been deprived of his freedom.Many children are deprived of a good education simply because of poverty.担心孩子使他无法入睡。火热的太阳使得花儿失去了水分。他声称被剥夺了自由。许多孩子仅仅因为贫困而不能受到好的教育。
110 Translation PracticeAfter many years of toiling and moiling for other people, now he thinks is the time for him to enjoy his own life.Don’t toil and moil every minute, otherwise your health will be dangerous.Who says we are to toil and moil for the capitalist in this hell on earth?
111 Translation Practice The cheque has been drawn on the wrong account. I’ll have to draw on my savings to pay for the repairs.Feel free to draw on me for anything you need.The novelist draws heavily on her personal experiences.这位小说家以自己的亲身经历为素材。
112 Oral PracticeSuppose you were a public servant, what would you do about the bribes that had come upon you?Suppose you were a businessman, do you think you would try bribing an official so that he would act in your interests?Suppose you were a PhD candidate, would you try bribing your supervisor or a chief editor in order to get the degree?