3 INTRODUCTIONOwners, designers, and contractors make the decisions, provide the services, and perform the work to deliver constructed projects. These activities are known collectively as project delivery.The generic term “project delivery system” describes how the participants are organized to interact, transforming the owner’s project goals and objectives into a finished facility.
4 INTRODUCTION (CONT.)The owner usually considers the following factors to decide how project resources are to be organized:Past practices, traditions, and experience;The advice of consultants;Funding sources and constraints;The effective use of staff and working capital;The interests of other project stakeholders.
5 OWNER-PROVIDED DELIVERY Mostly applicable to projects where the scope of the work is within the owner’s range of skills, experience, and resources.Owners perform some or all of the design services and construction work themselves.E.g. simple modifications to an existing facility, projects with limited cost or complexity, repetitive projects.
6 TRADITIONAL DESIGN BID-BUILD (DBB) For many years, DBB has been the most common method of project delivery for public projects, and for many private projects as well.Design Bid-Build is effective on projectswhere the owner needs both professional design services and construction serviceswhere the designer does not require detailed knowledge of the means and methods of construction.
7 TRADITIONAL DBB (cont.) DBB provides the owner with a high degree of control. That’s why it is the preferred project delivery system for owners who:Wish to closely monitor projectsAre public owners and must account in detail for expenditures.Are obligated by statute to procure professional design services by qualifications-based selection (QBS) regulations and constructors by competitive bidding.
8 TRADITIONAL DBB (cont.) The owner defines project goals and objectives, secures the financing, and specifies the standards and contract terms.The owner may perform planning, conceptual design and full design, or may engage an outside design professional (designer) for some or all of these tasks.During this planning and preliminary stage, owner and designer work as a team to obtain required permits and conduct necessary site investigations.
9 TRADITIONAL DBB (cont.) The designer prepares the construction bid documents to reflect the owner’s project goals and objectives, the project’s site conditions, and sound engineering practices.Prospective contractors prepare their bids from these complete and specific bid documents.The bidders submit their proposals to the owner (often w/ designer) , who determines the most responsive (typically the lowest) bid meeting project requirements.In certain circumstances, owner may be justified in selecting a contractor outright and negotiating contract terms directly.
10 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Many owners engage construction managers (CMs) to assist in developing bid documents and overseeing project construction.CM:Is a professional or a firm trained in the management of construction processes.Is generally interposed between the owner and some or all of the other participants.There are two general types of CM:Agency Construction Managers (ACM)Construction managers-at-risk (CM-at-risk)
11 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (cont.) ACM acts as an agent of the owner and extends the owner’s internal capabilities in performing traditional owner responsibilities.The level of service by the ACM can range from on-call advice to full project management.In some cases, the owner hires the ACM before design begins and ACM may participate in the selection of and contracting with the designer or might even be the designer.
12 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (cont.) CM-at-risk arrangement increases significantly owner’s delegation of control and risk.CM-at-risk typically contracts with the owner in two stages.First, CM-at-risk manages and undertakes services during conceptual & preliminary design phases with the design professional.When design is complete, owner and CM-at-risk then agree on a price and schedule for the completion of the construction work.CM-at-risk is popular for owners of private projects.
13 DESIGN-BUILDThe owner contracts with a single entity to provide the design and to construct the project according to that design.The contract might be negotiated with a single design-builder or result from competitive proposals.The selection can be based on low price or on a set of value criteria (experience, staff, bonding capacity, etc.).
14 DESIGN-BUILD (cont.)Design-build provides the owner with a single point of contact for project responsibilities, eliminating the need to assist in resolving designer-contractor disputes.With the contractor playing a major role in design, costs are typically defined and maintained to a greater degree, and the coordination of fast-track management to achieve early completion is greatly simplified.The design-builder makes many decisions that owner would make under DBB, due to delegation of greatly increased authority.
15 DESIGN-BUILD (cont.)For many owners, delegation of responsibilities leads to satisfactory projects. However, if the parties are inexperienced and do not cooperate, the transfer of control and risk can be disappointing.The owner may need to restructure his/her internal procedures to accommodate design-build approach.Compared to DBB, this involves a significantly different set of requirements and expectations for process, timelines and communications.A clear understanding and documentation of design-build processes enhances the quality of design-build projects.
17 Funding Option Variations Private capital and developer participation offer private owners several variations on design-build.Lease-develop-operate arrangement: The owner gives a private operator a long-term lease to use, operate, and expand an existing facility.Public-private partnership or wrap around: Ownership of or fiduciary responsibility for a project is assigned to a private party. That party designs, builds, and may even own, operate and maintain the new facility.
18 TurnkeyTurnkey adds to the design-builder’s responsibilities the operation and/or maintenance of the completed project.Turnkey delivery has the potential for bringing a new project on line more quickly.Three forms of turnkey project delivery:Design-build-operate-transferDesign-build-operate-maintainDesign-build-own-operate-transfer
19 Developer-Financed Projects For highly specialized projects and circumstances, financing from a private or public developer or other third parties can offer additional variations on design-build and turnkey project delivery, each with new roles for owners, designers, and contractors.
20 Turnkey VariationsVariations on turnkey add financing as a key component. While financing arrangements are unique for each project, developer financed projects generally resemble one of the turnkey delivery methods:FDBT (Finance, design, build, transfer)FDBOT (Finance, design, build, operate, transfer)FDBOOT (Finance, design, build ,own, operate, transfer)In each case, the transfer of the project occurs only after the developer’s interests and financial obligations have been satisfied.
21 FAST-TRACKINGFast-track approach compresses the schedule by sequencing the start of construction on underlying project elements (e.g. foundation, basic supporting structures) before final design is complete for interior or adjacent elements.Fast-tracking is not a method of delivery, rather, it’s a management strategy within delivery methods.While often successful in achieving schedule reductions, problems on fast-track contracts can create a domino effect on follow-on contracts for the project.Fast-track is more successful on projects that are straightforward and have a high level of predictability.