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Lecture 5, Slide 1EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White Notes 1.Be sure to take your completed Pre-Lab sheet to each lab! 2.Here are some useful books in the Engineering Library: On 2-hr reserve for EE40: “The Art of Electronics” by Horowitz and Hill “Electrical Engineering Uncovered” by White and Doering In the Reference section with Dictionaries: “Newton’s Telecom Dictionary” TK5102 N486 2002 3.Course grading weightings: Labs 30%, Midterm 1 15%, Midterm 2 15%, Final 35%, Homework 5%

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Lecture 5, Slide 2EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White Lecture #5 OUTLINE Node Analysis, examples Node Analysis with dependent sources Mesh Analysis Reading Chapter 2

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Lecture 5, Slide 3EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White 1.Choose a reference node (“ground”) Look for the one with the most connections! 2.Define unknown node voltages those which are not fixed by voltage sources 3.Write KCL at each unknown node, expressing current in terms of the node voltages (using the I-V relationships of branch elements) Special cases: floating voltage sources 4.Solve the set of independent equations N equations for N unknown node voltages Node-Voltage Circuit Analysis Method

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Lecture 5, Slide 4EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White 1.Choose a reference node. 2.Define the node voltages (except reference node and the one set by the voltage source). 3.Apply KCL at the nodes with unknown voltage. 4.Solve for unknown node voltages. R 4 V 1 R 2 + - ISIS R 3 R1R1 Nodal Analysis: Example #1

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Lecture 5, Slide 5EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White V 2 V 1 R 2 R 1 R 4 R 5 R 3 I 1 VaVa Nodal Analysis: Example #2

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Lecture 5, Slide 6EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White A “floating” voltage source is one for which neither side is connected to the reference node, e.g. V LL in the circuit below: Problem: We cannot write KCL at nodes a or b because there is no way to express the current through the voltage source in terms of V a -V b. Solution: Define a “supernode” – that chunk of the circuit containing nodes a and b. Express KCL for this supernode. Incorporate voltage source constraint into KCL equation. R 4 R 2 I 2 V a V b + - V LL I 1 Nodal Analysis w/ “Floating Voltage Source”

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Lecture 5, Slide 7EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White supernode Eq’n 1: KCL at supernode Substitute property of voltage source: R 4 R 2 I 2 V a V b + - V LL I 1 Nodal Analysis: Example #3

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Lecture 5, Slide 8EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White

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Lecture 5, Slide 9EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White Node-Voltage Method and Dependent Sources If a circuit contains dependent sources, what to do? Example: –+–+ –+–+ 80 V 5i5i 20 10 200 2.4 A ii

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Lecture 5, Slide 10EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White Node-Voltage Method and Dependent Sources Dependent current source: treat as independent current source in organizing and writing node eqns, but include (substitute) constraining dependency in terms of defined node voltages. Dependent voltage source: treat as independent voltage source in organizing and writing node eqns, but include (substitute) constraining dependency in terms of defined node voltages.

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Lecture 5, Slide 11EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White –+–+ –+–+ 80 V 5i5i 20 10 200 2.4 A ii Example:

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Lecture 5, Slide 12EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White

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Lecture 5, Slide 13EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White NODAL ANALYSIS (“Node-Voltage Method”) 0) Choose a reference node 1) Define unknown node voltages 2) Apply KCL to each unknown node, expressing current in terms of the node voltages =>N equations for N unknown node voltages 3) Solve for node voltages => determine branch currents MESH ANALYSIS (“Mesh-Current Method”) 1) Select M independent mesh currents such that at least one mesh current passes through each branch* M = #branches - #nodes + 1 2) Apply KVL to each mesh, expressing voltages in terms of mesh currents =>M equations for M unknown mesh currents 3) Solve for mesh currents => determine node voltages Formal Circuit Analysis Methods *Simple method for planar circuits A mesh current is not necessarily identified with a branch current.

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Lecture 5, Slide 14EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White 1.Select M mesh currents. 2.Apply KVL to each mesh. 3.Solve for mesh currents. Mesh Analysis: Example #1

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Lecture 5, Slide 15EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White

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Lecture 5, Slide 16EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White Problem: We cannot write KVL for meshes a and b because there is no way to express the voltage drop across the current source in terms of the mesh currents. Solution: Define a “supermesh” – a mesh which avoids the branch containing the current source. Apply KVL for this supermesh. Mesh Analysis with a Current Source iaia ibib

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Lecture 5, Slide 17EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White Eq’n 1: KVL for supermesh Eq’n 2: Constraint due to current source: Mesh Analysis: Example #2 iaia ibib

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Lecture 5, Slide 18EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White

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Lecture 5, Slide 19EECS40, Fall 2004Prof. White Mesh Analysis with Dependent Sources Exactly analogous to Node Analysis Dependent Voltage Source: (1) Formulate and write KVL mesh eqns. (2) Include and express dependency constraint in terms of mesh currents Dependent Current Source: (1) Use supermesh. (2) Include and express dependency constraint in terms of mesh currents

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