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Tobias Scheer & Guylaine Brun-Trigaud Université de Nice, UMR 6039 Lenition of Latin branching Onsets in Gallo-Romance (French, Occitan, Franco-Provençal)

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Presentation on theme: "Tobias Scheer & Guylaine Brun-Trigaud Université de Nice, UMR 6039 Lenition of Latin branching Onsets in Gallo-Romance (French, Occitan, Franco-Provençal)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tobias Scheer & Guylaine Brun-Trigaud Université de Nice, UMR 6039 Lenition of Latin branching Onsets in Gallo-Romance (French, Occitan, Franco-Provençal) Early European Languages in the Eyes of Modern Linguistics Brno, 28 September – 1 October, 2008

2 The Strong Position in Phonology the Strong Position (in Romance and elsewhere, Ségéral & Scheer 2001) - {#,C}__ = Strong Position: PORTA > porte TALPA > taupe - V__V = weak position A: FABA > fève - __{#,C} = weak position B (Coda): LUP(U) > l[u] RUPTA > route the mirror effect: {#,C}__ vs. __{#,C} are symmetric - with respect to their position: mirror image - with respect to their effect: strength vs. weakness

3 relevant consonants: the word-initial consonant the consonant that occurs after a coda the initial CV = # represents the morphological information « beginning of the word » analysis in CVCV (Lowenstamm 1996, Scheer 2004) The Coda Mirror: Government & Licensing initial consonant #__post-Coda consonant C.__ CV-CV……VCVCV… |||||| CVVRTV # Gvt Gouvernement inhibits the segmental expression of its target empty nuclei must be governed Lic Licensing promotes the segmental expression of its target P O RTA T A L P A consonants in Strong Position occur after an empty nucleus ø __ consonants in Strong Position are licensed but ungoverned

4 The Coda Mirror: Government & Licensing intervocalic position V__V CVCV ||| VCV Gvt Lic F A B A internal coda __.Cfinal coda __# …VCVCV...VCV # |||||| VRTVVC R U P T A L U P (U) intervocalic V__V: the consonant is not adjacent to any empty nucleus licencensed and governed in coda position: the consonant occurs before an empty nucleus: __ø is neither licensed nor governed Lic Gvt Lic Gvt

5 summary Strong Position= {#,C}__= ø__ = strength = -governed,+licensed Coda= __{#,C}= __ ø = weak A= -governed,-licensed intervocalic= V__V= V__V= weak B= +governed,+licensed The Coda Mirror: Government & Licensing

6 Locality in Syntax Relativized Minimality, Rizzi (1990) given two classes of items A and B, a relation between A 1 et A 2 is local iff no other A intervenes

7 Locality in Syntax three major classes of items in syntax: - verbs (heads) - arguments (A position) - quantifiers (A position) Could i John __ i have come ? head argument head John could have come argument head John could have come Have i John could __ i come ? head *

8 CVCVC V ||| | CTR V branching onsets a branching onset is a non-local structure: - major classes of items in phonology are: onset and nucleus - an internuclear relation exists whereby a third nucleus intervenes. Gvt Lic branching onset <== GI A M P L U S

9 CVCVC V ||| | CTR V making branching onsets local Gvt Lic branching onset <== GI the intervening nucleus could be the source of government Gvt instead of having a non-local government relation branching onsets

10 CVC VC V ||| | CTR V Lic TR in Strong Position <== in case the TR is in intervocalic position, the T will also be in intervocalic position (licensed and governed) when the TR is preceded by an empty nucleus (Strong Position), the T will also be in Strong Position (licensed but ungoverned) Gvt CVC VC V |||| | CVTR V TR in intervocalic positon <== Lic Gvt branching onsets

11 intervocalic position V__V CVCV ||| VCV Gvt Lic F A B A branching onsets CVC VC V |||| | CVTR V TR in intervocalic positon <== Lic Gvt

12 in other words: given a branching onset TR, T behaves like if R were not there hence the following predictions: -the T of a TR group behaves exactly like a simplex T -if the TR group is in Strong Position, T will be strong -if the TR group is in intervocalic position, T will be intervocalic branching onsets

13 testing the prediction typologically speaking, branching onsets are rare even rarer are languages that allow to test the reaction of TRs on lenition we examine 4 cases: - Celtic (in its prehistory) - Gorgia Toscana - French diachrony - Gallo-Romance dialects as witnessed by the ALF ==> the empirical situation is largely unexplored

14 test case 1: Celtic the classical scenario assumes 3 stages (e.g. McCone 1996) stage 1: IE b,d,g > v,,ɣ / V__V et V__RV 1.V__V IEProto-CelticOld Irishglose bkladibos*kla ivoskla i əvépée dkladibos*kla ivoskla i əvépée gtegos*teɣost i eɣmaison 2. V__RV bdubro-*duvro-dovəreau dwidwa:*wi wa:f i e vveuve gwegros*weɣrosfe:rherbe 3. but resistance in Strong Position {#,C}__ and in gemination N__*windosf i indblanc #__, gém*buggosbogmou

15 test case 1: Celtic stage 2: as stage 1, but now also across word boundaries 1.V__V Insular Celtic Proto-IrishOld Irishglose t*ehja teɣah*eja eɣaə i eɣsa maison k*inda: kloka:*inda: lo a:iŋ lo la pierre 2. V__RV t*bre:tra:*bre: rəbr i ia ərmot k*dakra*dæ rədie:rlarme 3. but resistance in Strong Position {#,C}__ and in gemination R__*eisko-*eiskiaskpoisson gém*mak w k w os*mak w k w ahmakgarçon stage 3: t,k >, / V__V and V__RV (there is no p)

16 test case 2: Gorgia Toscana Castellani (1960), Giannelli & Savoia (1978, 1979), Marotta (2000-01) 1.V__V Stand. It.Tuscanglose papɛrtoaɸɛrtoouvert tlaatolaaθocôté kbruukobruuxo, bruuho, bruuoworm 2. V__RV pla piegala ɸjɛɛɣale pli tliitroliiθrolitre kla krɛɛmala xɾɛɛma, la hrɛɛma la crème 3. but resistance in Strong Position {#,C}__ and in gemination R__pɔrtapɔrtaporte #__pjɛɛdepjɛɛ epied gém.gattogattochat p,b,t,d,k,g > ɸ,β,θ,,x/h/ø,ɣ / V__(R)V MAIS: *la øɾɛɛma

17 test case 3: French only labials and dentals are examined – the situation of velars is complicated by palatalizations (Bourciez 1967 etc.) #__Coda__V__V pr pl prunaprune plenuplein comprend(e)recomprendre purp(u)rapourpre amplusample *temp(u)latemple caprachèvre pip(e)repoivre dupludouble cap(u)luafr chable br bl brachiubras *blastimareblâmer umbraombre arb(o)rearbre germ *blādafr emblaver umb(i)licusafr umblil labralèvre rob(o)rerouvre fab(u)lafable labials in TR groups #__Coda__V__V pportaportetalpatauperiparive bbenebienherbaherbefabafève simplex Labials p p p p b b b b v v v v

18 #__Coda__V__V trtrestrois tractaretraiter capistru chevêtre alt(e)ru autre petrapierre it(e)rareerrer drdrappudrap *dras(i)cdrêche perd(e)re perdre quadratu carré rid(e)re rire dentals in TR groups #__Coda__V__V ttelatoilecantarechantervitavie ddentedentardoreardeurcodaqueue simplex dentals t t t dd ø d t d ø ø ø test case 3: French

19 test case 4: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF) prediction in a dialectal system T alone and in a group behave alike in every given system (dialect) examination of labials in intervocalic position dentals are inconclusive, cf. below. hence for each obstruent, the isoglosses of T alone and in a group are identical

20 test case 4: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF) goal: comparison of -P- with -PR- -B- with -BR- variation and its interpretation: only actual branching onsets (solidary TR groups) are an input for the comparison. Hence non-solidary groups are counted out: coda vocalisation betrays desolidarisation: V.TRV > VT.RV (grey-shaded on the maps below) example: solidary TR group: FEBREM > fièvre, TAB(U)LA > table non-solidary TR group: FEBREM > fewre, TAB(U)LA > tole

21 -B- ABANTIARE> avancer ABOCULUS> aveugle FABA> fève HIBERNU> hiver -BR- (primary) FEBREM> fièvre -BR- (secondary) BIB(E)RE> boire SCRIB(E)RE> écrire -BL- (primary) OBLITARE> oublier -BL- (secondary) SAB(U)LU> sable DIAB(U)LU> diable STAB(U)LA> étable syntheses lexical basis ALF level 0 BL 0 BR 0 B 0 level 1 BR 1 BL 1 B 1 level 2 BR 2 B 2 ? -B- vs. -BR- test case 4: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)

22 -P- CREPANT> crèvent NEPOTE> neveu *ARRIPARE> arriver TROPARE> trouver LUPA> louve SAPONE> savon SAPA> sève -PR- (primary) APRILE> avril -PR- (secondary) PIP(E)R> poivre LEP(O)RE> lièvre OP(E)RARIU> ouvrier -PL- (primary) DUPLU> double -PL- (secondary) CAP(U)LU> câble syntheses lexical basis ALF level 0 PL 0 PR 0 P 0 level 1 PR 1 PL 1 P 1 level 2 PR 2 P 2 ? -P- vs. -PR- test case 4: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)

23 -P- alone intervocalic

24 -P- in an intervocalic TR group

25 superposition: intervocalic -P- alone and in a group poitevin

26 -B- alone intervocalic

27 -B- in an intervocalic TR group

28 superposition: intervocalic -B- alone and in a group provençal

29 test case 4: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF) provençal - there is no *vl, *vr at all - hence -BL-, -BR- could not produce *vr, *vl (cf. *vl in oïl)

30 test case 4: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF) Dentals oïloc -T-ød -TR-ørjr -D-ød,z -DR-ør desolidarisation j is the regular result of k,g in coda postion: aqua > oc aigue agnellus > oïl agneau desolidarisation ? desolidarisation zero is the regular result of -D- in coda position: MOD(U)LU > oïl moule > oc mole ADLUMINARE > oïl, oc allumer RAD(I)CINA > oïl racine > oc racina

31 test case 4: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)

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37 References Bourciez, Edouard & J. Bourciez 1967. Phonétique française. 9e édition Paris: Klincksieck. Castellani, Arrigo 1960. Precisazioni sulla gorgia toscana. Boletin de de Filologia 19, 242-261. Giannelli, Luciano & Leonardo Savoia 1978. L'indebolimento consonantico in Toscana (I). Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia 2, 25-58. Giannelli, Luciano & Leonardo Savoia 1979-80. L'indebolimento consonantico in Toscana (II). Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia 3-4, 39-101. Lowenstamm, Jean 1996. CV as the only syllable type. Current trends in Phonology. Models and Methods, edited by Jacques Durand & Bernard Laks, 419-441. Salford, Manchester: ESRI. Marotta, Giovanna 2000-01. Non solo spiranti. La gorgia toscana nel parlato di Pisa. L'Italia Dialettale 62, 27-60. McCone, Kim 1996. Towards a relative chronology of ancient and medieval celtic sound change. Maynooth: St. Patrick's College. Rizzi, Luigi 1990. Relativized Minimality. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 16. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Scheer, Tobias 2004. A Lateral Theory of Phonology. Vol.1: What is CVCV, and why should it be? Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Ségéral, Philippe & Tobias Scheer 2001. La Coda-Miroir. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 96, 107-152.


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