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1 •Lecture 2 •Paul Flynn Switching and the Local Loop.

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Presentation on theme: "1 •Lecture 2 •Paul Flynn Switching and the Local Loop."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 •Lecture 2 •Paul Flynn Switching and the Local Loop

2 2 Loop Start Loop (Local or Station) + – + – AC + – StationPBX or Central Office DC Current Ringing Switch Switch Switch

3 3 Balanced and Unbalanced Electrical Circuit

4 4 Terminology •AWG - American Wire Gauge •Bridge Tap - an unused, open- circuited, parallel-connected cable pair on a loop Bridge Tap

5 5 Cable Color Codes • Pair (2 wires) • Binder (25 pair) • Super Unit Binder (24 Binders) –1-600 White –601-1200 Red –1201-1800 Black –1801-2400 Yellow –2401-3000 Violet –3001-3600 Blue –3601-4200 Orange

6 6 Cable Construction •Sheath –Armored (gopher protection) - lead/steel –Dielectric •Fill –Air filled (pressurized?) –Gel-filled (icky-PIC) •Insulation –Paper pulp –Plastic

7 7 Loading Coils •Used to extend useful length of loops for voice service •Counteracts the effects of cable capacitance •BAD NEWS for high-speed digital services - causes excessive attenuation at frequencies above voice-band

8 8 Wire Centers and Cable Plant Wire Center 18kft Carrier Serving Area Political Boundary

9 9 Carrier Systems •How do we serve customers outside the loop limits? –Range extenders –Carrier systems (Subscriber Loop Carrier) Analog (frequency division multiplexing) Digital (time division multiplexing) Digital Repeater

10 10 Analogue Amplifier

11 11 Regenerative Repeater Section

12 12 Carrier System Block Diagram 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24.... Common Equipment CORLR Common Equipment 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24.... LR COR

13 13 Digital Hierarchies

14 14 T1 versus E1 Two different Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) standards T1, or DS1 PCM hierarchy North American standard E1, or “the European System” E1 is used as close as Mexico Japan uses a hybrid system

15 15 Transmission Media

16 16 Electromagnetic Spectrum

17 17 Guided Transmission Media •Twisted Pair •Coaxial cable •Optical fiber

18 18 Twisted Pair

19 19 Twisted Pair - Applications •Most common medium •Telephone network –Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop) •Within buildings –To private branch exchange (PBX) •For local area networks (LAN) –10Mbps or 100Mbps

20 20 Twisted Pair - Pros and Cons •Cheap •Easy to work with •Low data rate •Short range

21 21 Twisted Pair - Transmission Characteristics •Analog - Amplifiers every 5km to 6km •Digital –Use either analog or digital signals –repeater every 2km or 3km •Limited distance •Limited bandwidth (1MHz) •Limited data rate (100MHz) •Susceptible to interference and noise

22 22 Unshielded and Shielded TP •Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) –Ordinary telephone wire –Cheapest –Easiest to install –Suffers from external EM interference •Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) –Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference –More expensive –Harder to handle (thick, heavy)

23 23 UTP Categories •Cat 3 –up to 16MHz –Voice grade found in most offices –Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm •Cat 4 –up to 20 MHz •Cat 5 –up to 100MHz –Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings –Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm

24 24 Near End Crosstalk •Coupling of signal from one pair to another •Coupling takes place when transmit signal entering the link couples back to receiving pair •i.e. near transmitted signal is picked up by near receiving pair

25 25 Coaxial Cable

26 26 Coaxial Cable Applications •Most versatile medium •Television distribution –Ariel to TV –Cable TV •Long distance telephone transmission –Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously –Being replaced by fiber optic •Short distance computer systems links •Local area networks

27 27 Coaxial Cable - Transmission Characteristics •Analog –Amplifiers every few km –Closer if higher frequency –Up to 500MHz •Digital –Repeater every 1km –Closer for higher data rates

28 28 Optical Fiber

29 29 Optical Fiber - Benefits •Greater capacity –Data rates of hundreds of Gbps •Smaller size & weight •Lower attenuation •Electromagnetic isolation •Greater repeater spacing –10s of km at least

30 30 Optical Fiber - Applications •Long-haul trunks •Metropolitan trunks •Rural exchange trunks •Subscriber loops •LANs

31 31 Optical Fiber - Transmission Characteristics •Act as wave guide for 10 14 to 10 15 Hz –Portions of infrared and visible spectrum •Light Emitting Diode (LED) –Cheaper –Wider operating temp range –Last longer •Injection Laser Diode (ILD) –More efficient –Greater data rate •Wavelength Division Multiplexing

32 32 Optical Fiber Transmission Modes

33 33 Wireless Transmission •Unguided media •Transmission and reception via antenna •Directional –Focused beam –Careful alignment required • Omnidirectional –Signal spreads in all directions –Can be received by many antennae

34 34 Frequencies •2GHz to 40GHz –Microwave –Highly directional –Point to point –Satellite •30MHz to 1GHz –Omnidirectional –Broadcast radio •3 x 10 11 to 2 x 10 14 –Infrared –Local

35 35 Terrestrial Microwave •Parabolic dish •Focused beam •Line of sight •Long haul telecommunications •Higher frequencies give higher data rates

36 36 Satellite Microwave •Satellite is relay station •Satellite receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency •Requires geo-stationary orbit –Height of 35,784km •Television •Long distance telephone •Private business networks

37 37 Broadcast Radio •Omnidirectional •FM radio •UHF and VHF television •Line of sight •Suffers from multipath interference –Reflections

38 38 Telecom Systems Circuit Switching –Review Services vs. Operations –Origins / Background of Circuit Switching –Switch Stages –Switch Dimensions –Matrix Control –Complexity

39 39 Circuit Switching System Components TERMINALS A B Circuit Switch Access Line Cross- Connections TRUNK GROUPS

40 40 Circuit Switching Background: A.G. Bell / Manual Switching

41 41 Circuit Switching Background: Almon Strowger / Automatic Switching

42 42 Manual Switch Basic Components Input/Output Channels Channel Terminations Manually Operated Cross-Connections

43 43 Non-Blocking Switch Matrix Output Lines 12345789106 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Switch i,j and j,i operate together Input Lines

44 44 Progressive Control Register Progressive Control System Line Circuit Line Finder Control Switch Control RegisterTranslation Called Line Calling Line

45 45 Stored Program Control Switching Network Customer Lines Other Offices Call Store Program Store Maintenance Center Central Control Scanner Address Call Processing Registers Temp Memory Stored Programs Translations Semi-Permanent Memory Address Distributor

46 Packet Switching Store and Forward 46

47 47 Virtual Circuit vs. Datagram Service vs. Operation

48 48 Switching Services: - Connectionless (Datagram) - Connection Oriented (Virtual Circuit) Operations: - Circuit Switching - Store and Forward - Packet - Message

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