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Eli Piasetzky Tel Aviv University, ISRAEL Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect Work done in collaboration with: L. B. Weinstein (ODU) D. Higinbotham, J. Gomez (JLab) O. Hen, R. Shneor (TAU)

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Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) E E` (,q)(,q) nucleon Final state Hadrons W2W2 Incident lepton E, E’ 5-500 GeV Q 2 5-50 GeV 2 w 2 >4 GeV 2 0 ≤ X B ≤ 1 x B gives the fraction of nucleon momentum carried by the struck parton Information about nucleon vertex is contained in F 1 (x,Q 2 ) and F 2 (x,Q 2 ), the unpolarized structure functions scattered lepton Electrons, muons, neutrinos

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DIS is a hard process that has the resolving power required to probe the partonic structure of hadrons Scale: several tens of GeV Nucleons Nucleon in nuclei are bound by ~MeV Naive expectation : DIS off a bound nucleon = DIS off a free nucleon (Except some small Fermi momentum correction)

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The European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect DIS cross section per nucleon in nuclei ≠ DIS off a free nucleon

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SLAC E139 Data from CERN SLAC JLab 1983- 2009 Theoretical interpretations: hundreds of papers G. Miller: EMC = Every Model is Cool

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J. Seely et al. PRL 103, 202301 (2009) JLab / Hall C EMC is a local density effect, not a bulk property of nuclear medium

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E, E’ 3-5 GeV Q 2 2 GeV 2 0 ≤ X B ≤ A Nucleons 2N-SRC x B counts the number of hadrons involved 2N-SRC 3N-SRC E E` (,q)(,q) Incident electron scattered electron nucleus Inclusive electron scattering A(e,e’) A hard process that has the resolving power required to probe the partonic structure of nuclei

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Inclusive A(e,e’) measurements At high nucleon momentum, distributions are similar in shape for light and heavy nuclei: SCALING. Can be explained by 2N-SRC dominance. Within the 2N-SRC dominance picture, one can get the probability of 2N-SRC in any nucleus, from the scaling factor. Deuterium Q 2 =2 GeV 2 For fixed high Q 2 and x B >1, x B determines a minimum p i Prediction by Frankfurt, Sargsian, and Strikman: Adapted from Ciofi degli Atti

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Observed “scaling” means that electrons probe high- momentum nucleons in 2(3) - nucleon phase. The scaling factors determine the per- nucleon probability of the 2(3) N-SRC phase in nuclei with A>3, relative to 3 He. K. Sh. Egiyan et al. PRL. 96, 082501 (2006) The probabilities for 3N SRC are smaller by one order of magnitude relative to the 2N SRC. JLab. CLAS A(e,e') Result K. Sh. Egiyan et al. PRC 68, 014313 (2003) For 12 C 2N-SRC (np, pp, nn) = 20 ± 4.5%. More r(A,d) data: SLAC D. Day et al. PRL 59,427(1987) JLab. Hall C E02-019

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New Preliminary Results from JLab Hall C (E02-019) 3 He2.08±0.01 4 He3.47±0.02 Be4.03±0.04 C4.95±0.05 Cu5.48±0.05 Au5.43±0.06 a 2N (A/d) Q 2 =2.5GeV 2

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: EMC slope SRC scaling factor Comparing the magnitude of the EMC effect and the SRC scaling factors Frankfurt, Strikman, Day, Sargsyan, Phys. Rev. C48 (1993) 2451.Q 2 =2.3 GeV/c 2 Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. D49, 4348 (1983). Q 2 =2, 5, 10, 15 GeV/c 2 (averaged ) SLAC data:

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EMC Slopes 0.35 ≤ X B ≤ 0.7SRCScaling factors X B ≥ 1.4

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0.079±0.06 Deuteron is not a free np pair SRC=0 free nucleons A EMC SRC bound to free n p pairs (as opposed to bound to deuteron) The slopes for 0.35 ≤ X B ≤ 0.7

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For 0.35 ≤ X B ≤ 0.7 The free neutron structure function SLAC Data, J. Arrington et al. JPG 36(2009)205005. World parameterization of Fd, Fp Corrected for the EMC effect as calculated in a PLC model Extracted from this work Fermi smearing using relativistic deuteron momentum density With medium correction

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Where is the EMC effect ? High local nuclear matter density, large momentum, large off shell. large virtuality ( ) Largest attractive force Mean field SRC Nuclei are optimized to yield the strongest EMC effect possible OR 80% nucleons (20% kinetic energy) 20% nucleons (80% kinetic energy) np pp nn

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How large is EMC effect in dense nuclear systems? What are the consequences of a large EMC in these systems? Central HI collisions n stars

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Summary The magnitude of the EMC effect and SRC scaling factor are linearly related. We speculate that observed correlation arises because both EMC and SRC are dominated by high momentum (large virtuality) nucleons in nuclei. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract: DIS cross section for a free neutron. ratio of deuteron to free n p pair cross sections. F 2 n (x,Q2), the free neutron structure function. ( For 0.35 < X B < 0.7 ) The EMC is a local density effect not a bulk property of the nuclear medium. EMC SRC 0.079±0.06 SRC=0

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I thanks the organizers for the invitation arXiv:1009.5666 [hep-ph]

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A triple – coincidence measurement E01-015 / Jlab p p p n EVA / BNL (E07-006) K 1 > K F, K 2 > K F K 1 K 2 K 1 -K 2 SRC: pair with “large” relative momentum between the nucleons and small CM momentum. “Redefine” the problem in momentum space K F ~250 MeV/c Hard exclusive measurements

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F e (e,e’pp) P b (e,e’pp) JLab / CLAS Data Mining, EG2 data set, Or Chen et al. Q 2 =2GeV/c 2 Ein =5.014 GeV X>1.2

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BNL / EVA 12 C(e,e’pn) / 12 C(e,e’p) [ 12 C(e,e’pp) / 12 C(e,e’p)] / 2 [ 12 C(e,e’pn) / 12 C(e,e’pp)] / 2 R. Subedi et al., Science 320, 1476 (2008).

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At 300-500 MeV/c, there is excess strength in np momentum distribution due to strong correlations induced by the tensor NN potential. 3 He V18 Bonn np pn pp pp/np 3 He Schiavilla, Wiringa, Pieper, Carson, PRL 98,132501 (2007). Sargsian, Abrahamyan, Strikman, Frankfurt PR C71 044615 (2005). Ciofi and Alvioli PRL 100, 162503 (2008).

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80 ± 4.5 % - single particle moving in an average potential. 20 ± 4.5 % - 2N SRC. 18 ± 4.5 % - SRC np pairs. 0.95±0.2% - SRC pp pairs. 0.95±0.2 % - SRC nn pairs. Small ~1% - SRC of “more than 2 nucleons”. 60-70 % - independent particle in a shell model potential. 10-20 % - shell model long range correlations Deduced short range 12 C structure is: (e,e’) (e,e’p) (p,2pn) (e,e’pN) ? ~1% -non nucleonic degrees of freedom 10-20% 20±5% 60-70% 74-92 % 4.75±1% n-p pairs p-p pairs n-n pairs 2N-SRC

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What did we learn recently about SRC ? The probability for a nucleon to have momentum ≥ 300 MeV / c in medium nuclei is ~25% More than ~90% of all nucleons with momentum ≥ 300 MeV / c belong to 2N-SRC. Probability for a nucleon with momentum 300- 600 MeV / c to belong to np-SRC is ~18 times larger than to belong to pp-SRC. Three nucleon SRC are present in nuclei.. PRL. 96, 082501 (2006) PRL 162504(2006); Science 320, 1476 (2008). CLAS / HALL B EVA / BNL and Jlab / HALL A Dominant NN force in the 2N-SRC is tensor force. 1243 1 623 6 4 PRL 98,132501 (2007). Standard model for short distance structure of nuclei ~80% of kinetic energy of nucleon in nuclei is carried by nucleons in 2N-SRC. 12

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n-p pairs p-p pairs n-n pairs C 12 Single nucleons 60-70% 2N-SRC 74-92 % 10-20% 20±5% 4.75±1% 2N-SRC A(e,e‘p) A(e,e‘) γ p n Egiyan et al. PRC 68, 014313. Egiyan et al. PRL. 96, 082501 (2006) Tang et al. PRL 042301 (2003) Piasetzky, Sargsian, Frankfurt, Strikman, Watson PRL 162504(2006). 12 C(p,2p n) A(e,e‘pN) 4.75±1% Long range (shell model) correlations Summary of Results R. Subedi et al., Science 320, 1476 (2008).

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SRC EMC Slope 0.3 ≤ X B ≤ 0.7 J. Gomez et al. Phys. Rev.D49, 4348 (1983) EMC data N. Fomin Ph. D thesis, UVA (2007) arXiv:0812.2144 SRC data J. Seely et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103,202301 (2009) K. Egiyan et al. Phys. Rev Lett. 96,082501 (2006). Scaling factors X B ≥ 1.2

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SRC EMC Slope 0.3 ≤ X B ≤ 0.7

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Q 2 dependence of the EMC effect J. Seely et al. PRL 103, 202301 (2009) EMC data: Gomez et al. : average over 2, 5, 10, 15 GeV/c 2 Seely et al. : 5.3 GeV/c 2 Q 2 for a2: Nadia: 2.71 Egiyan: 1.4 - 2.6 Day: 1 - 3

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J. Seely et al. PRL 103, 202301 (2009) The average density is calculated from the ab initio Greens Function Monte Carlo calculation of the spatial distributions of Pieper and Wiringa, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 51, 53 (2001). Hall C preliminary data,N. Fomin Ph. D thesis, UVA (2007) arXiv:0812.2144

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probability for a nucleon to have momentum ≥ 300 MeV / c in medium nuclei is ~25% more than ~90% of all nucleons with momentum ≥ 300 MeV / c belong to 2N-SRC. probability for a nucleon with momentum 300- 600 MeV/c to belong to np-SRC is ~18 times larger than to belong to pp-SRC. Three nucleon SRC are present in nuclei.. PRL. 96, 082501 (2006) PRL 162504(2006); Science 320, 1476 (2008). CLAS / HALL B EVA / BNL and Jlab / HALL A dominant NN force in the 2N-SRC is tensor force. 1243 1 623 6 4 PRL 98,132501 (2007). ~80% of the kinetic energy of nucleon in nuclei is carried by nucleons in 2N-SRC. 12 We know more about SRC from Hard exclusive measurements

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