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River Engineering Stream Restoration Canals

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Presentation on theme: "River Engineering Stream Restoration Canals"— Presentation transcript:

1 River Engineering Stream Restoration Canals
Channel Design River Engineering Stream Restoration Canals

2 References Chapter 12 Stable Channel Design Functions in the HEC-RAS Hydraulic Reference FISRWG (10/1998). Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. By the Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG) Chapter 4 in Water Resources Engineering by David Chin (2000)

3 Outline Sediment transport Stable unlined channel design Bed forms
Effects Suspended and Bed load Stable unlined channel design Tractive Force method Bed forms Channel forms River Training Stream Restoration Principles

4 Problems of Sediment Transport
Impingement of Sediment Particles damage to bridge abutments by boulders huge boulders (up to several tons) can be set in motion by torrential flood flows in mountain streams sand-sized particles damage turbines and pumps Sediment in Suspension fish don’t like muddy water municipal water treatment costs are related to amount of sediment in the water

5 Problems of Sediment Deposition
Flood Plain Deposits may bury crops deposition of infertile material (like sand) may reduce fertility Urban areas may receive deposition on streets, railroads, and in buildings irrigation ditches reduce carrying capacity require extensive maintenance drainage ditches raise the water table fine sediments are usually fertile - increase vegetation growth - increase Manning n

6 Problems of Sediment Deposition
channels, waterways, and harbors requires extensive dredging to maintain navigation decrease carrying capacity and thus increase flooding lakes and reservoirs in lakes with no outlets all of the incoming sediment is deposited converts beaches to mud flats fine sediment can encourage prolific plan growth storage capacity is lost by % of reservoirs built prior to 1935 in the Great Plain states and the Southeast had lost all usable storage!

7 Sediment Load Mass of sediment carried per unit time by a channel
Sediment load is carried by two mechanisms Bed load: grains roll along the bed with occasional jumps primarily course material Suspended load: material maintained in suspension by the _________ of flowing water primarily fine material turbulence

8 Suspended Load Sediment suspended by fluid turbulence
Concentration can be substantial in cases of high flows and fine sediment (up to 60% by weight!) Vertical distribution higher concentration near bottom coarse fractions - concentration decreases rapidly above bed fine fractions - concentration may be nearly uniform no theory for concentration at the interface with the bed given sediment concentration at one elevation above the bed it is possible to derive sediment concentration as a function of depth (compare local fall velocity with local turbulent transport)

9 Suspended Sediment Upward Transport
z upward transport is due to diffusion flux (Fick’s first law) The diffusion coefficient is a function of depth! D D = Velocity * Distance Dt k = von Kármán’s universal constant k = 0.4 for clear fluids

10 Suspended Sediment Concentration Profile
at steady state we have: upward transport = downward transport where boundary condition: c = z = a by convention: a = 0.05h sedimentation velocity Result after integration

11 Suspended Sediment Equilibrium Profile
Why? z 1 0.8 0.6 D Depth/D 0.4 0.2 v a Dt 5 10 15 20 sediment concentration

12 Bed Load Dependent on Bed Load Equations sediment size distribution
bed shape (ripples, dunes, etc.) sediment density shear stress at the bed Bed Load Equations many researchers have proposed equations each equation only applies to the data that was used to obtain the equation!

13 Total Sediment Carrying Capacity
Power law relations between sediment flux (Js) and specific discharge (q) fit the data when the exponent (n) is between 2 and 3 Consequences: as q decreases Js decreases abstraction of flow from a river for irrigation, water supply or flood relief sediment carrying capacity decreases river channel tends to clog with sediment to reach new equilibrium greatest transport of sediment occurs during floods rivers below reservoirs tend to erode

14 Sediment Rating Curve:
10Q yields 100Js

15 Causes of Stream Erosion
What can increase the rate of erosion? Increased stream flow Increased runoff Decreased flood plain storage Decrease in sediment from upstream

16 Channel Design: Identify the Parameters
Channel Geometry Channel Slope Cross section Roughness Meander Soil Grain size Cohesive/uncohesive Lining type Lined Unlined Grass Design Flow Bank full Or based on a recurrence interval

17 Stable Unlined Channel Design
Threshold of movement Will determine minimum size of sediment that will be at rest Can be used as basis for stable bed design Based on Shield’s diagram Modified to include the effect of side slope

18 Basic Mechanism of Bed Load Sediment Transport
drag force exerted by fluid flow on individual grains retarding force exerted by the bed on grains at the interface particle moves when resultant passes through (or above) point of support V h force of drag will vary with time Fd Fg Grains: usually we mean incoherent sands, gravels, and silt, but also sometimes we include cohesive soils (clays) that form larger particles (aggregates) point of support

19 Threshold of Movement Force on particle due to gravity
Force on particle due to shear stress Force balance We expect movement when dimensionless parameter

20 Shields Diagram (1936) inertial Re* _____________ = Shear Reynolds
at the bed! viscous d = particle diameter 1 Suspension Saltation 0.1 0.056 Threshold of movement No movement 0.01 1 10 100 1000 Laminar flow of bed Turbulent flow of bed

21 Shear Velocity Bottom shear From force balance
u* = shear velocity = From force balance Shear velocity is related to _________ velocity turbulent

22 Magnitude of Shear Velocity in a River
Example: moderately sloped river Susquehanna at Binghamton S = 10-4 d =Rh= 1 m Manning Eq. (SI) units assume n of 0.03 Velocity fluctuations in rivers are typically ­ _____ 0.1V

23 Application of Shield’s Diagram
Find minimum particle size that will be at rest Often bed is turbulent quartz sediment Example (Susquehanna River at Binghamton) 1 m deep, S = 10-4 Therefore 1.1 mm diameter sand will be at rest. Result is “armoring” of river bed with large gravel as smaller sediment is flushed out.

24 Application to Channel Stability
Assumed uniform shear stress distribution  = max angle of repose ­ 35° river max to prevent erosion of bottom

25 Channel Side Slope Stability
Takes into account the shear stress, force of gravity and coefficient of friction Meandering (sinuous) canals scour more easily than straight canals (see Table 4.15 in Chin) Critical shear stress on the side slope Critical shear stress on the bed Side slope angle Tractive force ratio Angle of repose Ch 12 in HEC-RAS Hydraulic Reference

26 HEC-RAS Hydraulic Design: Stable Channel Design
Copeland* Regime* Tractive Force Doesn’t account for input sediment Utilizes critical shear stress to determine when bed motion begins Particle size (d) Depth (D) Bottom Width (B) Slope (S) Uses shear stress and Manning equations Given any two can solve for the other two *Require input sediment discharge

27 Implications How could you reduce erosion in Wee Stinky Creek?
Are we managing causes or treating symptoms? Decrease slope Decrease depth (increase width or decrease flow) Increase particle size

28 Vertical Stabilizing Techniques
Aggradation Degradation stabilizing eroding channels upstream controlling erosion on the watershed installing sediment traps, ponds, or debris basins narrowing the channel, although a narrower channel might require more bank stabilization flow modification grade control measures other approaches that reduce the energy gradient

29 Bank Stabilizing Techniques
Indirect methods extend into the stream channel and redirect the flow so that hydraulic forces at the channel boundary are reduced to a nonerosive level dikes (permeable and impermeable) flow deflectors such as bendway weirs, stream “barbs,” and Iowa vanes Surface armor Armor is a protective material in direct contact with the streambank Stone and other self-adjusting armor (sacks, blocks, rubble, etc.) Rigid armor (concrete, soil cement, grouted riprap, etc.) Flexible mattress (gabions, concrete blocks, etc.) Vegetative can function as either armor or indirect protection and in some applications can function as both simultaneously.

30 Bed Formation Variety of bed forms are possible
may be 3 dimensional may vary greatly across a river or in the direction of flow Bed forms depend on Froude number and affect ____________ Bed forms result from scour and deposition deposition occurs over the crests and scour occurs in the trough Bed forms are the consequence of instability a small disturbance on an initially flat bed can result in formation of crests and troughs roughness

31 Bed Forms low velocity, fine sediment sand wave moves down stream
wavelength less than 15 cm Ripples, Fr << 1 intermediate between ripples and dunes weak boil Dunes with superposed ripples, Fr < 1 larger and more rounded than ripples boil Dunes, Fr < 1

32 Bed Forms (2) Dunes are eroded at Froude number close to 1
Note reduction in friction factor or Manning n! Flat bed, Fr = 1 Standing waves in phase with water waves Standing waves, Fr > 1 Sand waves move upstream wavelength is incipient breaking and moving upstream Antidunes, Fr >> 1

33 River Channels Alluvial soils river can form its own bed
river will meander in time and space steep slopes braided channel intermediate slopes riffle pool formation mild slopes meandering channel

34 Meandering Channel L rc B flow centerline scour
surprisingly small variation!

35 Bed Forms in Meandering Channels
Channel is deepest on the outside of the curves

36 River Training Prevent shifting of river bed!
navigation want the docks to be on the river! flood control want river to be between the levees! bridges want bridges to cross the river! Canalize - straighten out meanders cutoff meander - increases slope increases erosion deposition further downstream

37 Changes to Mississippi River
Braided channel Arkansas Mississippi Former Oxbow

38 River Training Modern practice - “Stabilize” in natural form
bank protection rip-rap (armoring) Groins (indirect)

39 Stream Corridor Condition Continuum
At one end of this continuum, conditions may be categorized as being natural, pristine, or unimpaired by human activities At the other end of the continuum, stream corridor conditions may be considered severely altered or impaired

40 Common Impaired or Degraded Stream Corridor Conditions
Stream aggradation—filling (rise in bed elevation over time) Stream degradation—incision (drop in bed elevation over time) Streambank erosion Impaired aquatic, riparian, and terrestrial habitat Increased peak flood elevation Increased bank failure Lower water table levels Increase of fine sediment in the corridor Decrease of species diversity Impaired water quality Altered hydrology Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, Practices p 227

41 Design of Open Channels
The objective is to determine channel shape that will carry the design flow Reasonable cost Limit erosion Limit deposition Efficient Hydraulic Section Freeboard to prevent overtopping Return to “natural state”

42 Most Efficient Hydraulic Sections
A section that gives maximum discharge for a specified flow area Minimum perimeter per area No frictional losses on the free surface Analogy to pipe flow Best shapes best best with 2 sides best with 3 sides

43 Why isn’t the most efficient hydraulic section the best design?
Minimum area = least excavation only if top of channel is at grade Cost of liner Complexity of form work Erosion constraint - stability of side walls Freeboard is also required

44 Freeboard and Superelevation
Freeboard: vertical distance between the water surface at the design flow and the top of channel Rational design could be based on wave height, risk of flows greater than design flow, and potential damage from overtopping Empirical design – 0.5 m to 0.9 m Superelevation at bends T is top width rc is radius of curvature of the centerline Valid for rc > 3T

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