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Chapter 14 Simulation and Other Applications Nell Dale John Lewis

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14-2 Chapter Goals Define simulation Give examples of complex systems Distinguish between continuous and discrete event simulation Explain how object-oriented design principles can be used in building models

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14-3 Chapter Goals (cont.) Name and discuss the four parts of a queuing system Explain the complexity of weather and seismic models Explain the concept of embedded systems and give examples from your own home Distinguish between two-dimensional and three-dimensional CAD systems

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14-4 What Is Simulation? Simulation: a model of a complex system and the experimental manipulation of the model to observe the results –Systems that are best suited to being simulated are dynamic, interactive, and complicated A model is an abstraction of a real system –It is a representation of the objects within the system and the rules that govern the interactions of the objects

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14-5 Constructing Models Continuous simulation –Treats time as continuous and expresses changes in terms of a set of differential equations that reflect the relationships among the set of characteristics –Meteorological modeling falls into this category

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14-6 Constructing Models Discrete event simulation –Made up of entities, attributes, and events –An entity represents some object in the real system that must be explicitly defined –An attribute is some characteristic of a particular entity –An event is an interaction between entities

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14-7 Queuing Systems A queuing system is a discrete-event model that uses random numbers to represent the arrival and duration of events –made up of servers and queues of objects to be served –The objective of a queuing system is to utilize the servers as fully as possible while keeping the wait time within a reasonable limit

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14-8 Queuing Systems To construct a queuing model, we must know the following four things –The number of events and how they affect the system in order to determine the rules of entity interaction –The number of servers –The distribution of arrival times in order to determine if an entity enters the system –The expected service time in order to determine the duration of an event

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14-9 Meteorological Models Meteorological models are based on the time-dependent partial differential equations of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics Initial values for the variables are entered from observation, and the equations are solved to define the values of the variables at some later time

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14-10 Meteorological Models Computer models are designed to aid the weathercaster, not replace him or her –The outputs from the computer models are predictions of the values of variables in the future –It is up to the weathercaster to determine what the values mean

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14-11 Hurricane Tracking The modules for hurricane tracking are called relocatable models, because they are applied to a moving target The Geophysical and Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) developed the most recent hurricane model in order to improve the prediction of where a hurricane would make landfall

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14-12 Hurricane Tracking Figure 14.2 Improvements in hurricane models

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14-13 Graphics and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Graphics is the language of communications for engineers, designers, and architects Computer-aided design (CAD) refers to a system that uses computers with advanced graphics hardware and software to create precision drawings or technical illustrations

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14-14 Graphics and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) CAD systems can be broadly classified as two- dimensional (2-D) CAD and three-dimensional (3-D) CAD There are three methods of modeling in three dimensions –Wireframe modeling –Surface modeling –Solid modeling

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14-15 Graphics and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Figure 14.3 Geometric modeling techniques

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14-16 Embedded Systems Embedded systems are computers that are dedicated to perform a narrow range of functions as part of a larger system –Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor chip with the programs stored in ROM –Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface— watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars—utilize embedded systems –In fact, the term embedded system is nebulous because it encompasses about everything except desktop PCs

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14-17 Ethical Issues: Online Gambling While most businesses have received unanimous praise for their online services, Internet casinos have garnered a mixed response –Anyone with access to the Internet and a credit card can go online and gamble –This ease of access is likely to lead to the problem of gambling addictions. –Online casinos, approximately 15, were in operation in 1997 compared to more than 1,000 in 2002

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