3 Nanotechnology is receiving a lot of attention of late across the globe. The term nano originates etymologically from the Greek, and it means “ dwarf. ” The term indicates physical dimensions that are in the range of one- billionth of a meter. This scale is called colloquially nanometer scale, or also nanoscale. One nanometer is approximately the length of two hydrogen atoms. Nanotechnology relates to the design, creation, and utilization of materials whose constituent structures exist at the nanoscale; these constituent structures can, by convention, be up to 100 nm in size. Nanotechnology is a growing field that explores electrical, optical, and magnetic activity as well as structural behavior at the molecular and submolecular level.
6 The term nanotechnology was introduced by Nori Taniguchi in 1974 at the Tokyo International Conference on Production Engineering. He used the word to describe ultrafine machining: the processing of a material to nanoscale precision. This work was focused on studying the mechanisms of machining hard and brittle materials such as quartz crystals, silicon, and alumina ceramics by ultrasonic machining.
7 Nanotechnology allows the design of new materials with desirable properties. They could be biological - as a targeted cure for a specific cancer; or mechanical - to provide great strength; or electronic, - to make much more powerful computers, or environmental – to save energy in lighting, or to increase the effectiveness of catalysts
9 Nanoguitar – Cornell University Ten microns (10 x 10-6 m) long, about the size of a red blood cell. –Thickness of a human hair is about 20 times the length of this guitar. The "strings" (rods of silicon) are 50 nm wide or about 100 atoms across.
21 Smallest object ever created by humans was sculpted by two laser beams focused across resin. The resin solidified only where the lasers crossed. Created by a team of researchers at Osaka University in Japan, the bull measures 10 microns from horns to tail, and seven microns across (1 micron = 1000 nm).
28 Environmental Studies Studying how nano-structured membranes could screen pesticides and harmful bacteria from water supplies. Other scientists are developing low- cost, nano-scale iron hydroxide granules to remove arsenic from drinking water. Still others have suggested that nano- sized sensors could help detect pollutants or monitor and correct changes in the ozone layer.
29 Some Areas of Focus Nanotechnology Plastics Ceramics Epoxies Medications Manufacturing Transportation Textiles Metals Electronics Energy Sensors Disease Treatment Organ Growth Weapons WasteSurgery
30 Nanomaterials give impetus to new applications of the (nano)technology becausethey exhibit novel optical, electric,and/or magnetic properties. The first generation of nanotechnology (late 1990s – early 2000s) focused on performance enhancements to existing micromaterials; the second generation of nanotechnology
31 Nanomaterials with structural features at the nanoscale can be found in the form of clusters, thin films, multilayers, and nanocrystalline materials often expressed by the dimensionality of 0,1,2 and 3; the materials of interest include metals, amorphous and crystalline alloys, semiconductors, oxides, nitride and carbide ceramics in the form of clusters, thin films, multilayers, and bulk nanocrystalline materials.
32 The Vision In the next 50 years, machines will get increasingly smaller--so small that thousands of these tiny machines would fit into the period at the end of this sentence.