Are Migrants and their Children Politically Included? Associational and Political Participation in European Cities Dr. Laura Morales (University of Murcia.
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Presentation on theme: "Are Migrants and their Children Politically Included? Associational and Political Participation in European Cities Dr. Laura Morales (University of Murcia."— Presentation transcript:
Are Migrants and their Children Politically Included? Associational and Political Participation in European Cities Dr. Laura Morales (University of Murcia & University of Manchester) Sponsored by:
Notion of political integration is complex and multifaceted. Political integration includes more than just voting rights and electoral participation. It encompasses several forms of participatory engagement and attitudes and orientations to the main political ‘objects’.
Individual-level data: the survey to 1,200 individuals Telephone survey in Lyon, Milan (for autochthonous group), and Zurich/Geneva, 40 mins. F2F survey in Budapest, Madrid, Milan (for migrant groups), and London, 45-60 mins. Focusing primarily on political attitudes, political behaviour, and associational engagement. But with many sections on: SES, migration process, legal status, religion, language command, trust, perceptions about attitudes towards migrants, discrimination, inter-group tolerance, social contacts, transnational practices, feelings of identity, etc. An example: Migrants are generally less interested in the host-country politics than the native population. But cross-city and cross-group variations are relevant.
Interest in the politics of the country of residence: - Large differences across migrant groups mostly across cities, with relative similarity within cities (i.e. the local context matters most). - Migrant groups of the same national origin that live in different cities show substantially different levels of political interest (e.g. Ecuadorians, Moroccans and Turks). - In some cities the gaps between the levels of political interest of the autochthonous population and the migrant groups is very large (e.g. Milan,Oslo, Zurich, Geneva, and Stockholm).
Electoral availability (intention to vote in local elections if granted right): - Generally high and similar levels of interest in voting, but interesting that in some cities migrants find it of reduced appeal to vote (Budapest & Oslo). - Generally higher interest in voting in countries where they don’t have voting rights now (Spain, Switzerland) - Important gaps remain between autochthonous and migrant groups in some cities (e.g. Milan,Oslo, Budapest).
Confidence in political institutions (city government and national parliament): - Measured in a 0-10 scale. - Relatively similar levels of confidence in city government across cities and groups (average values between 5 and 7). In many cases migrant groups are more trusting than the autochthonous. - Very similar results for trust in the national parliament.
Non-electoral political participation (illustration with contacting and protesting): - Asked about participation in the previous 12 months. - Contacting: large variations across contexts in levels of contacting, usually migrants show similar propensities across groups within cities, but very often with large gaps with respect to the autochthonous population (esp. Oslo & Milan). - Protesting: similar patterns to contacting with regard to migrants having similar levels of protest within a city, but again large gaps with respect to autochthonous though not always in the same cities (Milan, Zurich & Geneva).
Associational involvement (membership or participation in activities): - Involvement in any type of association (from a long list of 12 types). - Very large differences across cities, and also substantial differences within cities across migrant groups in several cities. - Large gaps in several cities with autochthonous population (Milan, Geneva, Zurich, Oslo), moderate in Madrid, Lyon and Stockholm. - Important differences for the same group across cities: particularly Moroccans in Barcelona & Madrid, Turkish in Oslo & Stockholm.
In summary Political integration does not operate equally for all of its dimensions: migrants generally well integrated in terms of attitudes and orientations, but not so much in terms of participatory behaviour. The city context has a substantial impact in shaping the capacity of individual migrants to become integrated in the public arena. The same migrant groups behave very different across contexts and generally within the same city there are limited variations across the groups studied.