Presentation on theme: "Information Gathered from Hugh Ross’s"— Presentation transcript:
1 Information Gathered from Hugh Ross’s Books about God of the Universe as wellas the Science that runs the Universe(1) The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Revealthe Unmistakable Identity of the Creator(2) The Genesis Question: Scientific Advances and the Accuracyof Genesis(3) Creation and Time: A Biblical and Scientific Perspective onthe Creation-Date Controversy(4) The Creator and the Cosmos: How the latest ScientificDiscoveries Reveal God(5) Beyond The Cosmos: The Extra-Dimensionality of God:What Recent Discoveries inAstrophysics Reveal about the Gloryand Love of God
2 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day One In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And theearth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface ofthe deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of thewaters. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. AndGod saw that the light was good; and God separated the light fromthe darkness. And God called the light day, and the darkness Hecalled night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.Initially, there was nothing, and then light was created. As it movedout, away from the creation point, it became mass as electromagneticradiation was converted into mass in the form of the elementary particlessuch as electrons, protons and neutrons. This is the “Big Bang” eventthat is believed to have occurred at the beginning of time. As thingswere formed, they all began moving away from the creation point andoutward in three dimensions. All scientists agree that Life on planetearth originated in the oceans, where the Spirit of God was hovering, ormoving over the waters.
3 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Two Then God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, andlet it separate the waters from the waters.” And God made the expanse,and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waterswhich were above the expanse; and it was so. And God called the expanseheaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.This is the beginning of the hydrological cycle that dominated the weatheron Earth, the condensation and evaporation of water gives the storms theirenergy.
4 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Three Then God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, andfruit trees bearing after their kind, with seed in them, on the earth”; and itwas so. And the earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed aftertheir kind, and trees bearing fruit, with seed in them, after their kind; andGod saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning,a third day.This is the proper order of how life began on earth. There were plants beforeany animals could be present as they were the food for the animals, whichinitially were all herbivores living on plants. Note that it specifically stated thatseeds were present so that the plants could reproduce and spread after theirkind, in other words one species of plant could not change into anotherspecies of plant.
5 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Four Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens toseparate the day from the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons,and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the expanse of theheavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. And God made the twogreat lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to governthe night; He made the stars also. And God placed them in the expanse ofthe heavens to give light on the earth, and to govern the day and the night,and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good.And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.The sun and stars had been created earlier, but from our viewing point onearth nothing could be seen due to the heavy dense atmosphere. So at thispoint the atmosphere was made transparent so that sun light could reachthe surface where plants needed the sun light for photosynthesis. The moonwas also created at this point, and that explains the atmosphere clearing,from the collision that formed the moon. This would place the timing of thefourth day about 4.25 billion years ago (slide 7).
6 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Five Then God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, andlet birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.” And Godcreated the great sea monsters, and every living creature that moves, withwhich the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after itskind; and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, “Befruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiplyon the earth.” And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.We know that life began in the oceans not on land, so it makes sense thatGod would create creatures in the oceans first as well. The Great SeaMonsters could be the dinosaurs, as they began first in the oceans, andthen moved on to land. When God saw how much they ate, and dominatedthe earth, God did not want them to destroy His prized creation, so heexterminated them by Flood Basalt volcanism (Daccon Flood Basalts, 65 MYr).Note that with creatures of the sea God used the same wording, that theywould reproduce “after their kind”.
7 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Six Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind:cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth after their kind”; and itwas so. And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattleafter their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; andGod saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image,according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and overthe birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over everycreeping thing that creeps on the earth.” And God created man in His ownimage, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.And God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, andfill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birdsof the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” Then Godsaid, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surfaceof all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be foodfor you; and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and everygreen plant for food”, and it was so. And God saw all that He made, andbehold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, theSixth day.
8 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Six Animals were created before man, who was introduced later to rule over andcontrol the other animals. Man has been responsible for many species goingextinct and is not controlled or threatened by any animal, Man is in charge ofPlanet Earth. This is an assumed responsibility, and it is hard to live up to, andas a species, we have failed!
9 The Six Genesis Creation Days – Day Seven Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. And bythe seventh day God completed His work which He had done; and He restedon the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessedthe seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His workwhich God had created and made. This is the account of the heavens andthe earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made earthand heaven.Biologically we find that we are not discovering any new species, whichwould agree with the statement that God’s creating of different life forms hasceased completely. All we see are slight variations occurring to compensatefor changes in our environment, which is what Darwin’s idea of evolutionstates. We are still in the seventh day, which also tells us that the use of Yomdid mean long time periods not 24 hr days. God is waiting for his return toEarth his creation; this will occur at the return of Jesus as foretold in thebook of revelation.
10 Young or Old Earth?In 1642 Cambridge University Vice-Chancellor John Lightfoot calculated a date forthe creation of the universe of September 17, 3928 BC, based upon the genealogiesin Genesis, Exodus, 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 and 2 Chronicles. This was corrected in1650 by James Ussher, an Anglican archbishop in Ireland, making itOctober 3, 4004 BC. These dates and time scale were widely backed by the churchfor many years, driving many scientists and other people away from God!In 1961 Henry Morris, a civil engineering Professor and John Whitcomb, a theologyProfessor, published a book entitled The Genesis Flood, in 1963 the CreationResearch Society (CRS) was formed to push the young-earth teaching. By 1970the teaching of evolution became legal in all states, the Institute for CreationResearch was established in 1972 to push the idea of a young earth and God’screation of the earth. With these dates, the Earth must be 6,000 years old in 2004!The Hebrew word yom is used in Genesis for day, and in Hebrew it has threemeanings; (a) sunrise to sunset, (b) sunset to sunset, (c) a segment of time withoutany reference to solar days (anywhere from weeks to a year to several years to anage or epoch). It cannot be used for infinite time, but only for a specific time period.How do the ages that are found by Science agree with these “ideas of young age”that are being pushed by the young earth creationists?
11 Age of the Universe Expansion of the Universe from the “Big Bang”! Astronomers have been able to measure the motion and speed of Galaxiesand the even older, more power-packed bodies called quasars. What theysee is that the farther away the object, the faster it is moving away. This setof facts tells us that the universe is expanding outward from a starting pointin space and time. Confirmation of this expansion time measurementcomes from observations of the temperature and smoothness of thecosmic background radiation. The latest results give dates accurate towithin 15%.2. Stellar Burning!The color and brightness of a star will tell how long it has been burning ifwe know it’s mass. This is based upon models of stellar formation andupon nuclear physics experiments and theories. These estimates of theages of the stars should be accurate to within 5%.3. Abundances of Radioactive Elements!Heavy elements are produced only during fast neutron capture in supernovaeexplosions. These giant exploding stars produce the heavy elements byneutron capture on a rapid time scale. Since we still have some of theselong lived isotopes on earth, we can tell the age of the earth. Since shorterisotopes are not present, we also know that the earth is old and not young.
12 Components of MatterAll Matter consists of Elementary Particles, called Atoms, whichare composed of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. (P+, N or n, e-)(A proton is normally designated as 1H)Neutrons are unstable outside of the Nucleus, where they arecombined with protons and held together by the strong NuclearForce, without being combined with a proton, a Neutron isunstable, and decays by a “Radioactive Decay” process.n P+ + e- + Energy or n H + e- + EnergyThis process is called Beta decay and occurs when ever thereare too many protons in the nucleus of an atom. A “Beta” particleis nothing more than a high speed (Energy!) electron, normallytraveling at a speed of a fraction of the speed of light( 3.7 x 108m/s) with an energy of millions of electron volts.
13 How are Elements Produced? - I Neutron Capture – Long Time Scale – Star – Hydrogen BurningThis process is called Nuclear Fusion and is the source ofEnergy in Stars such as our sun!1H + 1H H + b+( b+ = a positive electron, or positron, a particle of anti-matter!)( 2H = Deuterium, a “Heavy” isotope of Hydrogen, containingone Proton and one Neutron)When anti-matter and normal matter come into contact with eachother, they destroy each other, producing energy in the form ofGamma-rays!e- + b g ( 511 kev)
14 How are Elements Produced? - II The process continues until nearly all of the hydrogen has beenused up producing Helium (several hundred billion years), andthen the star undergoes the second phase of stellar burning,helium fusion.1H + 1H H + b H + 2H He (He = Helium)2H + 2H He + 1n H + 3H He + 1n3He + 3He He + 2 1H He + 1H He + b+This is where our Star, the Sun obtains it’s energy currently, andthese Nuclear reactions are occurring producing energy (light andheat) as well as Helium. This will continue for several billion years.
15 How are Elements Produced? - III Radioactive decay – There are several forms of radioactivedecay, we will only consider two:Alpha decay – Heavy elements, Uranium and Thorium etc.238U a + 234Th +EnergyBeta decay – Neutron rich Isotopes14C b- + 14N + Energy
16 How are Elements Produced? - IV The Neutrons that are produced by the previous nuclear reactionsare captured by other isotopes producing neutron rich isotopes.Some of these isotopes are not stable due to the large numbers ofNeutrons and they undergo beta decay, where a neutron decaysinto a proton, producing a new element! Several examples aregiven below, and on the following slides.12C(n,g)13C (Stable)13C(n,g)14C (Radioactive, 5730 year T1/2) C b- + 14N14N(n,g)15N (Stable)15N(n,g)16N (Radioactive, 7.1 sec T1/2) N b- + 16O16O(n,g)17O (Stable)17O(n,g)18O (Stable)18O(n,g)19O (Radioactive, 26.9 sec T1/2) O b- + 19F19F(n,g)20F (Radioactive, 11.0 sec T1/2) F b- + 20Ne20Ne(n,g)21Ne (Stable)
17 How are Elements Produced? - V 21Ne(n,g)22Ne (Stable)22Ne(n,g)23Ne (Radioactive, 37.2 sec T1/2) Ne b- + 23Na23Na(n,g)24Na (Radioactive, 15.0 hr T1/2) Na b- + 24Mg24Mg(n,g)25Mg (Stable)25Mg(n,g)26Mg (Stable)26Mg(n,g)27Mg (Radioactive, 9.4 min T1/2) Mg b- + 27Al27Al(n,g)28Al (Radioactive, 2.3 min T1/2) Al b- + 28Si28Si(n,g)29Si (Stable)29Si(n,g)30Si (Stable)30Si(n,g)31Si (Radioactive, 2.6 hr T1/2) Si b- + 31P31P(n,g)32P (Stable)32P(n,g)33P (Radioactive, 14.3 d T1/2) P b- + 33S33S(n,g)34S (Stable)34S(n,g)35S (Radioactive, 87.2 d T1/2) S b- + 35Cl35Cl(n,g)36Cl (Radioactive, 3.01 x 105yr T1/2) Cl b- + 36Ar36Ar(n,g)37Ar (Radioactive, 35.0 d T1/2) Ar + e Cl
18 How are Elements Produced? - VI 37Cl(n,g)38Cl (Radioactive, 37.2 min T1/2) Cl b- + 38Ar38Ar(n,g)39Ar (Radioactive, 369 yr T1/2) Ar b- + 39K39K(n,g)40K (Radioactive, 1.28 x 109yr T1/2) K b- + 40Ca40Ca(n,g)41Ca (Radioactive, 1.03 x 105yr T1/2) 41Ca + e K41K(n,g)42K (Radioactive, 12.4 hr T1/2) K b- + 42Ca42Ca(n,g)43Ca (Stable)43Ca(n,g)44Ca (Stable)44Ca(n,g)45Ca (Radioactive, d T1/2) Ca b- + 45Sc45Sc(n,g)46Sc (Radioactive, 83.8 d T1/2) Sc b- + 46Ti46Ti(n,g)47Ti (Stable)47Ti(n,g)48Ti (Stable)48Ti(n,g)49Ti (Stable)49Ti(n,g)50Ti (Stable)50Ti(n,g)51Ti (Radioactive, 5.76 min T1/2) Ti b- + 51V51V(n,g)52V (Radioactive, 3.76 min T1/2) V b- + 52Cr52Cr(n,g)53Cr (Stable)
19 How are Elements Produced? - VII Because of gaps in Nuclear Stability, and the binding energy perNucleon, it is impossible to make elements above Iron by simpleNeutron capture and Beta decay! The only way to produceelements heavier than Iron is by neutron capture on a fast timescale before any of the short lived intermediaries can decay. Thismust occur during a super Novae explosion, where many neutronscan be captured in a very short time scale (~ 10-6sec). Sinceelements above Iron are very common on earth, we must havebeen cycled through at least one super Novae explosion.Followed by subsequent beta decay until we reach Nuclearstability.Example: 55Fe(n,g)56Fe(n,g)57Fe(20n,20g)87Fe87Fe b- + 87Co b- + 79Br
20 How are Elements Produced? - VIII Since there are no Stable elements above the mass of Bismuth,we must have neutron capture on a fast time scale to makeelements such as Uranium, which do exist on earth!For example:209Bi n b UThe existence of heavy elements on earth with long half-livesshows that every thing on Earth was at least once cycledthrough a supernovae explosion.
22 Clarification of some fine Points! On some of the previous slides, I was using Scientific notation,and it needs to be explained! In Scientific notation, a number thatis very large, or very small can be indicated in an abbreviated form.A number is given as a number between 1 & 10 followed by afactor of 10 multiplier. N x 10n Examples:100 = 1 x one hundred1,000 = 1 x one thousand1,000,000 = 1 x one million1,000,000,000 = 1 x one billion1,000,000,000,000 = 1 x one trillion= 1 x one thousandth= 1 x one millionth= 1 x one billionth= 1 x one trillionth
23 Natural Decay Series of Existing Isotopes 40K Ar + b-T1/2 = 1.29 x 109yrs87Rb Sr + b-T1/2 = 4.8 x 1010yrs232 Th PbT1/2 = 1.4 x 1010yrs235U PbT1/2 = 7 x 108yrs238U PbT1/2 = 4.5 x 109yrs
24 Radiogenic Dating methods The Parent radioisotope decays to the daughter in the timeindicated as the half-life. In all changes of this type, ½ of the atomsdecays to the daughter in the time indicated. By measuring thequantity of the parent isotope present and the quantity of thedaughter present one can calculate the quantity of time that haselapsed since the material being tested has been isolated fromoutside interference.In the case of the Long lived Uranium and Thorium decay series,there are elements in the decay series that are Noble gases, andbeing a gas could be lost, but if they are lost, the apparent decaytime would be shorter, not longer!Models of Element production by the “S” and “R” processes areused to know how much was initially formed in the PrimordialUniverse.
25 Figure 21.3: The decay of a 10.0-g sample of strontium-90 over time.
26 Radioactive Dating Methods The most common dating method is 14C which has a Half-life of 5730 years decays byBeta emission (a high energy electron), in which a neutron changes into a proton toproduce the product 14N.Professor Willard Libby developed the 14C dating method, and received the Nobel prizefor developing the technique in This method has been used for many years,and as long as representative samples are used, the method delivers excellent data, onsamples with ages up to approximately 50,000 years.To measure the very long times needed in the ages of the Earth and Universe, we usethe very long lived naturally occurring isotopes such as:235U, T1/2 = 7.04 x 108 yrs (704,000,000 yrs); Eventually forming 207Pb238U, T1/2 = 4.47 x 109 yrs (4,470,000,000 yrs); “ “ Pb232Th, T1/2 = 1.40 x 1010 yrs (14,000,000,000 yrs) “ “ PbOne Stable Isotope of Lead is 204Pb which is have not found in any radioactive decayseries of a naturally occurring Isotope; indicating that it was formed in the original“big bang” event, and represents premordial formation.Each of these decays to a different lead isotope which can be measured, giving a datingmethod that can be used to date the ages of not only the Earth, but almost any physicalobject that contains matter.
27 Natural Decay series for Uranium 238 238U Th234Pa234U Th Ra Rn Po Pb218At Bi Tl214Po Pb Hg= decay Bi Tl= decay Po Pb238U decays and 6 decays leaves you with Pb
28 Age of the UniverseRelaxation times of star clusters > 4 Billion YearsErosion on Mercury, Mars, and the Moon > 4 Billion YearsStar stream interactions in galaxies > 8 Billion YearsExpansion of the Universe Billion YearsColor-Luminosity fitting of Stars “ “Nucleochronology (Radioisotopes) “ “Deuterium abundance and mass density “ “Anthropic Principles “ “Mean age = Billion Years
29 The Greatest Discovery of the Century-I Fact: The universe is only billions of years old, not quadrillionsor a nearly infinite number of years.Theological significance: Religious and philosophical systemsdepending on infinite or near infinite age have nofoundation in reality.2) Fact: The universe can be traced back to a single, ultimateorigin of matter, energy, time and space (with thedimensions of length, width, and height).Theological significance: The cause of the universe – i.e., theEntity (Creator) who brought the universe into existence –existed and created from out-side (independent) of thematter, energy, and space-time dimensions of theuniverse.
30 The Greatest Discovery of the Century-II 3) Fact: The universe, our galaxy, and our solar system exhibitmore than sixty characteristics that require exquisitefine-tuning for their very existence, and also for theexistence of life (any kind of physical life, not just life aswe know it).Theological significance: The Entity (Creator) who brought theuniverse into existence must be personal, intelligent,powerful, and caring, for only a super-intelligent,super-powerful Person could design and manufacturewhat we see, including life; caring, for only care couldexplain the enormous investment of creative effort, theattention to intricate detail, and the comprehensiveprovision for needs.Observations by the COBE satellite of tiny ripples in the radiationleft over from the “Big Bang”. Evidence for the birth of the universe!
31 Age of the Solar SystemThe Nucleochronology dating methods use the half-lives of long livedradioisotopes and their daughters to measure the long time periods involved in the ages of the Earth, Moon, and Universe.Age of the Universe Billion YearsAge of the Earth Billion YearsAge of the moon Billion Years-
32 Ages in the Earth-Moon system Based upon Earth’s position relative to the sun, it should have an atmosphere 40 timesas dense as it has! What happened to the atmosphere? The answer is our over sizedmoon! Something happened about 4.25 billion years ago.The moon is moving away from Earth at a rate of several cm per year! This implies thatthe moon was in contact with the Earth approximately 4.25 billion years ago.The moon is younger than the earth. Radioisotopic dating methods show that the Earth is4.57 billion years old, and from Apollo samples brought back from the moon, it is only4.25 billion years old.The size of the moon also puts a drag on the earth’s rotational velocity, and the Earth’srotation is definitely slowing down.The moon also has a slightly, but significantly different chemical and Isotopic compositionthan does the Earth, proving that they did not form from the same dust cloud orbitingaround the sun.It is postulated that an impactor approximately the size of Mars (nine times the mass ofthe moon, and one-ninth the mass of Earth), hit the earth and blew the atmosphere(containing methane and ammonia) into space, but retaining the water, which is heavier.
33 The Response of Young Earth Creationists Challenge 1: Astronomers are wrong about the distance to stars and galaxies.Reply: The implication is that astronomers determine the distances of cosmic objects byonly one method: the red-shifts of spectral lines. And because red-shift measurements ofdistances may possibly be off by a large percentage, the distances reported byastronomers are considered unreliable. This, however, is not true. Astronomers use awide variety of distance measuring tools. While disagreement does exist over which arethe most reliable, the uncertainties hover around 10 to 15 percent.Challenge 2: God could have created the light waves already in transit.Reply: This argument obviously belongs to the appearance-of-age category. Theoverlooked fact here is that star light and galaxy light give direct indications of their traveldistances. The spectral lines (light waves at various frequencies) of stars and galaxiesare broadened in direct proportion to the distance they travel. The random motions ofgas clouds in space cause this effect. The radiation between spectral lines, called thecontinuum, grows redder as it travels through interstellar and intergalactic dust. Thisreddening, like the effect of forest fire smoke on our view of the sun, is directlyproportional to the distance the light has traveled. Both theory and observations confirmthat the broadening and reddening effects are reliable indicators of light-travel time anddistance, even up to billions of light years.
34 The Response of Young Earth Creationists Challenge 3: Light may have traveled faster a few thousand years ago.Reply: The work of two Australian creationists has been widely publicized amongproponents of a young universe. Barry Setterfield and Trevor Norman teamed up topropose that the reason the universe appears old is that light used to travel much fasterthan it does today. Given decay in light’s velocity, the present value of the velocity of lightwould yield an inaccurate measure of the size and age for the universe.The basis for this claim is a misinterpretation of data from speed-of-lightmeasurements made over many years. What the data actually show is the increasingrefinement of measurements, not a change in velocity. The first calculation of the speedof light was attempted in 1675 by Olaus Romer, a Danish astronomer. His figure wasabout 3% higher than the modern measurements show. But the uncertainty in hismeasurements exceeded 3%. If Romer had had more precise data for one part of hiscalculation, his speed-of-light figure would have agreed with modern measurements towithin 0.5%. Apparently the article describing this research was misunderstood by theAustralians, and they took the 1675 speed figure as evidence for the speed-of-lightdecreasing by 0.5%.
35 The Response of Young Earth Creationists Challenge 4: Light may take a shortcut through space.Reply: This argument arises from the work of young-universe creationistHarold Slusher, who picks up the idea proposed in 1953 by Parry Moon and DominaSpencer who were trying to overthrow Einstein’s theory of relativity. Their theory wasthat light could travel in a different type of space, a highly curved type of space, andtherefore travel faster than its fixed speed. They backed up their theory with nomathematics, or facts, and Slusher did not know how well proven Einstein’s theory ofrelativity is accepted and understood by scientists.
36 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - I Sample Evidence A: The continents are eroding too quicklyErosion measurements show that the continents are lowered by wind, rain, etc., at a rateof about 0.05 millimeters per year. At this rate, the continents (averaging about800 meters in elevation) would disappear in about 16 million years. Since continents dostill have considerable elevation, the earth must be younger than 16 million years.Reply: The fallacy lies in its failure to acknowledge that lava flows, delta and continentalshelf buildup (from eroded material), coral reef buildup, and uplift from colliding tectonicplates occur at rates roughly equivalent to, and in many cases far exceeding, the erosionrate. The Himalayas, for example, as a result of tectonic uplift, are rising at a rate ofabout 15 millimeters per year. The San Gabriel Mountains, just north of Los Angeles, arerising at an average rate of 9 millimeters per year. Lava flows have increased the landarea of the state of Hawaii by several square miles since its admission into the UnitedStates in The amount of land mass added each year as a result of volcanoes andtectonics is roughly independent of the total continental land area. Therefore continentalland area continues to increase until there is enough land area that the rate of erosionequals the rate of build up. The time required for the continents to build up from 0% ofthe global surface area to the present 30% (and equilibrium) takes about 2 billion years.Thus continental erosion is an argument for an old rather than a young earth.
37 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - II Sample Evidence B: Dust accumulates too quickly on the moon’s surface.In the 1950’s measurements at Mauna Loa Volcano in Hawaii by a geophysicist foundnickel on air filters, and he assumed that since it is rare in crustal material it must all befrom meteorites. Using the data that meteorites are about 2.5% nickel, they calculatedthat some 14 million tons of space dust settles on the earth every year. Applied to a4 billion year old moon, this would be 145 feet. Since we know that there is only about2.5 inches on the moon, this has been used to give an age for the moon of only about10,000 years by the young-universe creationists.Reply: I have done 10 years of aerosol measurements at Mauna Loa myself, and theNickel found on atmospheric aerosols is predominately of Crustal origin, notextraterrestrial. In fact the quantity of extraterrestrial material can be measured by anexcess of Iridium and it is much less, amounting for only about 20 thousand tons ofextraterrestrial dust falling on the earth per year. This number is in good agreement withthat obtained from satellites, 23 thousand tons per year. If we use the best data availableon the cosmic dust in fall rate we obtain an age of the moon of 4.25 billion years, inagreement with the radiogenic dates for the moon, not the young earth date of6,000 years!
38 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - III Sample Evidence C: The earth’s magnetic field is decaying too rapidly.The earth’s magnetic field has decreased steadily since measurements were first takensome 150 years ago. Based on the field strength of a typical magnetic star (certainlyexceeding any conceivable value for Earth) and on the observed rate of decay, somecreationists have calculated that the decay process must have begun on Earth on morethan 10,000 years ago. Thus the earth’s age must be 10,000 years or less.Reply: The problem with this evidence is that Earth’s magnetic field does not undergosteady decay but rather follows a “sinusoidal” pattern. That is, the field strength decays,builds up, decays, builds up, etc. The proof for this pattern lies in ancient geologicalstrata found throughout the world. The rocks reveal that the earth’s magnetic fieldreverses its polarity roughly every half million years. Each reversal lasts roughly 10,000years. The earth’s magnetic field originates in the core of the earth where the Iron-Nickelmaterial that makes up the core is semi molten, and undergoes circulation patterns asheat from decaying radioisotopes is conducted away from the core. The Iron atoms,being magnetic align themselves with the earth’s magnetic field, and volcanic lava rocksformed during volcanic eruptions show the direction and strength of the earth’s magneticfield as it was when these rocks were cooled from the liquid magma.
39 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - IV Sample Evidence D: The sun burns by gravitational contraction and thus mustbe young.Before the discovery of nuclear energy, the only explanation astronomers could offer forthe enormous energy output of the sun and other stars was gravitational contraction.Given the diameter and energy output of our sun, we can calculate that its maximum agewould be about 100 million years if it were generating energy only by this process. Whensome measurements indicated a very slight decrease in the sun’s diameter, a number ofyoung-earth creationists concluded that the sun’s energy output must arise only from thegravitational collapse of the sun, rather than from nuclear fusion processes at its core.Therefore, they surmised that the sun’s age must be less than 100 million years.Reply: Again, the argument overlooks significant data. First, it has been shown that if abody of our sun’s diameter were experiencing gravitational contraction, the temperature,pressure, and other conditions at its center would inevitably ignite nuclear fusion.Furthermore, various measured characteristics of the sun - including its effectivetemperature, luminosity, spectra, radius, outflow of neutrinos, and mass - all guaranteethat the sun is burning by nuclear fusion and that this fusion has been proceeding forabout 5 billion years. As for the observed decrease in the sun’s diameter, themeasurements cited were later found to be at odds with other visual measurements.
40 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - V Sample Evidence E: Galaxy clusters are not dispersed widely.For a cluster of heavenly bodies to remain together (contained), the gravity of the systemmust be sufficient to overcome the velocities of the individual bodies within it. Armed withmeasurements of the velocities and masses for all the galaxies in a galaxy cluster,astronomers can calculate: (a) the dispersal time (time it takes for all the galaxies toleave the cluster) for clusters with total mass too small for gravitational containment; or(b) the relaxation time (time required for galaxies to assume randomized velocities) forclusters with total mass large enough for containment. Some creationists point out thatwhen such calculations are applied to galaxy clusters, the lack of observed galaxydispersal indicates an age for the clusters much less than a billion years.Reply: The problem with this argument is that these calculations for dispersal andrelaxation times assume not only that all the mass within the galaxy clusters is luminousbut also that galaxies approximate point sources (those with diameters very muchsmaller than the average distances between them). On the contrary, sound evidenceexists to conclude that most of the mass is non-luminous (that is, not shining by its ownlight production). And galaxies cannot be treated as point sources. In fact, their diametersare only about an order of magnitude smaller (that is, about ten times smaller) than theaverage distances between them within a given cluster.
41 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - VI By comparison, however, essentially all of the mass within the star clusters is visible,and the stars within the clusters are point sources. The average distances betweenthem are at least seven orders of magnitude greater (that is, about 10 million timesgreater) than their average diameters. When dispersal and relaxation timecalculations are applied to star clusters in our galaxy, many clusters show their agesto be greater than 2 billion years.
42 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - VII Sample Evidence F: Granite crystal halos can arise from 218Po decay only if theearth is young.Polonium 218 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of only three minutes. Yet halos ingranite crystals that appear to arise from the decay of polonium 218 show up in whatseems to be basement or primordial rock deposits. If the halos arise from primordialpolonium, then how did the surrounding rocks crystallize so rapidly that the crystals wereready to receive halo impressions from the decay of polonium? The answer according toyoung-earth creationist Robert Gentry, among others, is that geologists are wrong abouttheir understanding of the processes shaping the earth shortly after its formation.Instead, they say, God must have imposed the geological structures instantaneously.Therefore, measurements by geologists do not prove that the earth is old, nor can theybe used to argue against a young earth.Reply: There is no evidence proof of halos in basement or primordial rocks, and likewiseno evidence that halos arise only from the decay of polonium 218. Geologist JeffreyWakefield actually visited all of Gentry’s sample sites, in every case Gentry’s samplescame not from primordial granites as he had claimed, but rather from young dikes(igneous rock infusions into vertical fissures) that crosscut older igneous andsedimentary rocks. The decay of Uranium or Thorium all have 7 or 8 alpha emitters!Since any alpha emitter can make halos, these other isotopes could be responsible.
43 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - VIII Sample Evidence G: Rapid sedimentation and peat deposition following the 1980Mount Saint Helens eruption demonstrated that all geological processes are notgradual, but rapid.Within a relatively brief period of time (a few months to a few years) following the violenteruption of Mt. St. Helens, peat layers (the first stage in the formation of Coal) andsedimentary rock already had formed in the vicinity of the volcano. This phenomenonseemed to young-earth creationists to challenge the notion that geologic layers aredeposited according to gradual uniformitarian processes taking place over millions andhundreds of millions of years. They concluded that geological processes provideevidences for a young earth and not for an old earth.Reply: The problem lies in the assumption that all geological processes either take placegradually at relatively uniform (i.e., constant) rates or rapidly at rates pulsed by majorcatastrophes. The young-earth versus old-earth debate is pictured in this context as abattle between the principles of uniformitarianism and the principles of catastrophism,with one significant twist. Catastrophism as defined by geologists refers to the formationof geologic structures through a variety of catastrophes occurring at different times.Young-earth creationists define catastrophism as the formation of all Earth’s majorgeologic structures by a single catastrophic event, namely the Genesis flood, occurring
44 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - IX during a ten-and-a-half-month period five to fifteen thousand years ago. The use of theMount Saint Helens exemplifies the “either-or” fallacy (that is, it sets up an unfoundeddilemma). Geology reflects the operation of both slow and rapid processes. Somegeological features can only be explained by gradual processes over millions of years,such as: coral atolls, anthracite coal and certain conglomerate and metamorphic layers.In the case of coral atolls, scientists can measure the daily accumulation of band-likedeposits over millions of years. From these deposits they can make manydeterminations, including the rate of slowing of the earth’s rotation period. Such depositsestablish that the earth’s rotation period has been slowing down at exactly the same rateover the last 400 million years.
45 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - X Sample Evidence H: Since computer models of the spiral structure of galaxiesshow that the spiral collapses after two or three rotations, spiral galaxies mustbe much younger than astronomers claim.Isaac Newton’s laws of motion enable us to calculate with considerable precision thedynamics of large rotating systems of stars. When Kevin Prendergast made suchcalculations twenty-five years ago, he discovered that a large system of stars willestablish a spiral structure only in a few rotations and that after two or three morerotations the structure will collapse into a sphere or an ellipsoid. Since we know thatgalaxies take only a few hundred million years to rotate, the existence of a significantnumber of spiral galaxies in the universe today, according to certain young-universecreationists, proves they cannot be as old as the 9 to 15 billion years that astronomersclaim. Instead, they must be less than 2 billion years old. If they are less than 2 billionyears old, then astronomers cannot be trusted in their age calculations, and perhapsthe universe is only thousands of years old.Reply: The argument based upon evidence H overlooks the continuing research byPrendergast and others. In the years following his initial computer modeling efforts,Prendergast discovered that ongoing star formation stabilizes the spiral structure.Specifically, he demonstrated that as long as new stars continue to form at a significant
46 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - XI rate within a galaxy, the spiral structure will be maintained. But as soon as starformation ceases, the spiral structure will collapse within the next two or three rotations.Prendergast’s discovery beautifully dovetails with astronomers’ observations ofgalaxies. In spherical and ellipsoidal galaxies, astronomers see no evidence of ongoingstar formation, whereas in the spiral galaxies such evidence is abundant. And, thefarther away astronomers look (that is, the farther back in time they see), the more spiralgalaxies they observe. Since spiral galaxies still exist, the universe cannot be any olderthan about 25 billion years. Because only 6% of the galaxies near our own are spirals,the universe cannot be any younger than about 12 billion years.
47 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - XII Sample Evidence I: Trails of “human” footprints alongside, and sometimescrossing over, trails of dinosaur prints prove that dinosaurs were contemporarywith humans.The observation of a few footprints that appear to be human prints alongside a greatmany prints that were clearly made by dinosaurs has been interpreted by manyyoung-earth creationists as proof that dinosaurs and men lived together. This fact wouldimply that the geological strata in which the prints were found could not have beendeposited tens of millions of years ago but only in the last few thousand years. Thereforethe dinosaurs and the strata of the earth are not relics from the past but have existed onlyfor about ten thousand years.Reply: The first assumption that must be addressed is that prints in close proximitynecessarily establish contemporaneous existence. This fact is false. The earth’s stratacan be disturbed and redisturbed by events occurring at different times, especially in ariver bed like that at Glen Rose, Texas, where most of the “human” footprints have beenfound. But this faulty assumption is not the main defect of the argument from evidence I.The more serious problem lies in the identification of the prints as human. There arereasons to believe that these “human” prints were made by dinosaurs, their size, shape,features, etc. All indicate that these tracks were made by small dinosaurs, not “humans”.
48 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - XIII Sample Evidence J: Since a comet’s average lifespan is only a couple ofthousand years, given the rather limited supply of comets, their present existenceproves the solar system cannot be any older than a few thousand years.Comets orbiting the solar system, such as Halley’s comet, are reported to disintegrate inabout two thousand years on the average. Every time a comet swings close by the sun,the heat and light of the sun boil away a significant portion of the comet’s mass. After afew dozen revolutions, none of the comet remains. Since comets are observed orbitingthe sun, the solar system must be only a few thousand years old.Reply: Estimates cited in evidence J for the average lifespan of a comets date back tothe 1970s. At that time no space-based measurements of comets were available, andwhat data did exist was weighted heavily by easy-to-see comets. The easiest comets tosee are those that pass closest to the sun, and these comets suffer the most rapiddisintegration. Hence, estimates previous to 1980 of the average lifespans for cometshave since proven to be far too low. In 1986 five space craft visited Halley’s comet andmade the first accurate measurements of both its mass and its rate of disintegration.Astronomers determined that Halley’s comet is massive enough to survive at leastanother 500 revolutions around the sun. With observations of Halley’s comet going backto 240 BC, and knowing that it passes the sun every seventy-six years, we can calculate
49 Is There Scientific Evidence for a Young Universe? - IVX the approximate minimum lifespan for this comet at 40,000+ years. Halley’s comet isunusual in that it has such a short period of revolution. Much more typical are cometssuch as Kohoutek, which comes around the sun every 80,000 years, or Pons-Brooks andGriggs-Mellish, every 3,000,000 years. Five hundred revolutions for these comets wouldyield lifespans of 40 million and 1.5 billion years respectively.
50 A “Just Right” Universe Evidence for the Fine Tuning of the UniverseStrong Nuclear force constantif larger: no hydrogen; nuclei essential for life would be unstableif smaller: no elements other than hydrogenWeak Nuclear force constantif larger: too much hydrogen converted to helium in big bang, hence too muchheavy element material made by star burning; no expulsion of heavyelements from starsif smaller: too little helium produced from big bang, hence too little heavyelement material made by star burning; no expulsion of heavyGravitational force constantif larger: stars would be too hot and would burn up too quickly and toounevenlyif smaller: stars would remain so cool that nuclear fusion would never ignite,hence no heavy element production
51 Electromagnetic force constant if larger: insufficient chemical bonding; elements more massive than boronwould be too unstable for fissionIf smaller: insufficient chemical bonding; inadequate quantities of eithercarbon or oxygenRatio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constantif larger: no stars less than 1.4 solar masses, hence short stellar life spans anduneven stellar luminositiesif smaller: no stars more than 0.8 solar masses, hence no heavy elementproductionRatio of electron to proton massif larger: insufficient chemical bondingif smaller: insufficient chemical bondingRatio of numbers of protons to electronsif larger: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star,and planet formationif smaller: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star,
52 8. Expansion rate of the Universe if larger: no galaxy formationif smaller: universe would collapse prior to star formationEntropy level of the Universeif smaller: no proto-galaxy formationif larger: no star condensation within the proto-galaxiesBaryon or nucleon density of the Universeif larger: too much deuterium from big bang, hence stars burn too rapidlyif smaller: insufficient helium from big bang, hence too few heavy elementsformingVelocity of lightif faster: stars would be too luminousif slower: stars would not be luminous enoughAge of the Universeif older: no solar-type stars in a stable burning phase in the right part of thegalaxyif younger: solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet haveformed
53 Initial uniformity of radiation if smoother: stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formedif coarser: universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty spaceFine structure constant (a number used to describe the fine structuresplitting of spectral lines)if larger: DNA would be unable to function; no stars more than 0.7 solarmassesif larger than 0.06: matter would be unstable in large magnetic fieldsif smaller: DNA would be unable to function; no stars less than 1.8 solarAverage distance between galaxiesif larger: insufficient gas would be infused into our galaxy to sustain starformation over an adequate time spanif smaller: the sun’s orbit would be too radically disturbedAverage distance between starsif larger: heavy element density too thin for rocky planets to formif smaller: planetary orbits would become destabilizedDecay rate of the protonif greater: life would be exterminated by the release of radiationif smaller: insufficient matter in the universe for life
54 12Carbon (12C) to 16Oxygen (16O) energy level ratio if larger: insufficient oxygenif smaller: insufficient carbonGround state energy level for 4Helium (4He)if larger: insufficient carbon and oxygenif smaller: insufficient carbon and oxygenDecay rate of 8Beryllium (8Be)[ 7 x 10-17sec]if slower: heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions inall the starsif faster: no element production beyond beryllium and, hence, no lifechemistry possibleMass excess of the neutron over the proton[ n= x 10-27kg, p= x 10-27kg or n/p= ]if greater: neutron decay would leave too few neutrons to form the heavyelements essential for lifeif smaller: neutron decay would produce so many neutrons as to cause allstars to collapse rapidly into neutron stars or black holes22. Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleonsif greater: too much radiation for planets to formif smaller: not enough matter for galaxies or stars to form
55 Polarity of the water molecule if greater: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too great for life to existif smaller: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too small for life’sexistence; liquid water would become too inferior a solvent for lifechemistry to proceed; ice would not float, leading to a runawayfreeze-upSupernovae eruptionsif too close: radiation would exterminate life on the planetif too far: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planetsif too frequent: life on planet would be exterminatedif too infrequent: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rockyplanetsif too late: life on the planet would be exterminated by radiationif too soon: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rockyWhite dwarf binariesif too few: insufficient fluorine produced for life chemistry to proceedif too many: disruption of planetary orbits from stellar density; life on theplanet would be exterminatedif too soon: not enough heavy elements made for efficient fluorine productionif too late: fluorine made too late for incorporation in proto-planet
56 26. Ratio of exotic to ordinary matter if smaller: galaxies would not formif larger: universe would collapse before solar type stars could formGalaxy clustersif too dense: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt star and planetorbits; too much radiationif too sparse: insufficient infusion of gas into galaxies to sustain starformation for a long enough time periodNumber of effective dimensions in the early universeif smaller: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist andlife would be impossibleif larger: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist andNumber of effective dimensions in the present universeif smaller: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstableif larger: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstableMass of the neutrinoif smaller: galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars would not formif larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense
57 Big bang ripplesif smaller: galaxies would not form; universe expands too rapidlyif larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense; black holes woulddominate; universe collapses too quicklyTotal mass densityif smaller: universe would expand too quickly for solar type stars to formif larger: universe would expand too slowly, resulting in unstable orbits andtoo much radiationSpace energy densityif smaller: universe would expand too slowly, resulting in unstable orbits andif larger: universe would expand too quickly for solar type stars to formSize of the relativistic dilation factorif smaller: certain life-essential chemical reactions would not functionproperlyif larger: certain life-essential chemical reactions would not function
58 35. Uncertainty magnitude in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle if smaller: oxygen transport to body cells would be too small; certainlife-essential elements would be unstable; certain life-essentialchemical reactions would not function properlyif larger: certain life-essential elements would be unstable; certainlife-essential chemical reactions would not function properly
59 Scriptures of Gods Creation - I Psalm 33:6By the word of the Lord the heavens were made,and by the breath of his mouth all their host.Jer 10:12It is He who made the earth by His power,Who established the world by His power;And by His understanding He has stretched out the heavens.Is 48:13“ Surely My hand founded the earth,And My right hand spread out the heavens;When I call to them, they stand together”
60 Scriptures of Gods Creation - II Is 45:18For thus says the Lord, who created the heavens(He is the God who formed the earth and made it,He established it and did not create it a waste place,but formed it to be inhabited),“I am the Lord, and there is none else.”Jer 33:25“Thus says the Lord, ‘If My covenant for day and night standnot, and the fixed patterns of heaven and earth I have notestablished,”Is 40:22It is He who sits above the vault of the earth,And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers,Who stretches out the heavens like a curtainAnd spreads them out like a tent to dwell in.
61 Scriptures of Gods Creation - III Is 40:Lift up your eyes on highAnd see who has created these stars,The one who leads forth their host by number,He calls them all by name;Because of the greatness of His might and the strength ofHis powerNot one of them is missing.Why do you say, O Jacob, and assert, O Israel,“My way is hidden from the Lord,And the justice due me escapes the notice of my God”Do you not know? Have you not heard?The Everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of theearthDoes not become weary or tired.His understanding is inscrutable.
62 Protons, Neutrons, electrons and Others Protons are the building blocks of matter, and are very long lived!Neutrons are the combination of a proton and an electron, theLight negatively charged particle that is around the atom. Thefollowing are Nuclear reactions for the decay of a proton, andNeutrons in atoms with an excess of either particle.N P+ + b- + Energy Beta decayP+ + e N + Energy Electron captureP N + b+ + Energy Positron decayA positron is an example of “Exotic” matter, or anti-matter, andit is in a positive matter Universe!
63 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – A new and Important Tool in Imaging ResearchIn the technique of positron Tomography, a positron emitting isotopeIs included into a molecule that is incorporated into a chemical reaction.The positron emitted during the decay of the isotope will analite with anElectron and emit two 511 kev gamma rays that can then be detected,and the location of the decaying isotope isolated accurately.b+ + e Energy Two Gamma rays at 180o511 kev511 kevThe two gammarays come awayat 180o.e- + b+Common Positron emitting Isotopes: 15O, T1/2 = 122s ; 18F, T1/2 = 1.83 hr11C, T1/2= 20.3 min , 13N, T1/2 = 9.97 min , ETC
64 Positron Emitting Isotopes 15O N + b+ + Energy18F O + b+ + Energy11C B + b+ + Energy13N C + b+ + EnergyThese radioisotopes can be incorporated into glucose moleculesand injected into the blood stream leading to the brain, where theglucose will be metabolized in the cells. The position of theglucose tells us where the glucose molecules was! In this way,We can obtain images of the Human Brain while it is functioning.Glucose = C6H12O6
65 Positron Emission Tomograph The Tomograph is aninstrument that is a ringof gamma ray detectorsthat react very fast togamma rays, and bymeasuring the time eachdetector receives the signalone can locate the point oforigin of the gamma ray to a precision of + 1 cm in ahuman being or any other physical object, with outany in vivo investigation. The detectors must have acapability of measuring up to ps per pulse.__
66 Earth: The Place for Life Evidence for the Fine-Tuning of the Galaxy-Sun-Earth-MoonSystem for Life Support (4)Galaxy cluster typeif too rich: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt solar orbitif too sparse: insufficient infusion of gas to sustain star formation for a longenough timeGalaxy sizeif too large: infusion of gas and stars would disturb sun’s orbit and ignite toomany galactic eruptionsif too small: insufficient infusion of gas to sustain star formation for a longGalaxy Typeif too elliptical: star formation would cease before sufficient heavy elementbuild-up for life chemistryif too irregular: radiation exposure on occasion would be too severe andheavy elements for life chemistry would not be availableGalaxy locationif too close to a rich galaxy cluster: galaxy would be gravitationally disruptedif too close to very large galaxy(ies): galaxy would be gravitationally disrupted
67 5. Supernovae Eruptionsif too close: life on the planet would be exterminated by radiationif too far: not enough heavy element ashes would exist for the formation ofrocky planetsif too infrequent: not enough heavy element ashes present for the formationof rocky planetsif too frequent: life on the planet would be exterminatedif too soon: not enough heavy element ashes would exist for the formationif too late: life on the planet would be exterminated by radiationWhite dwarf binariesif too few: insufficient fluorine would be produced for life chemistry toproceedif too many: planetary orbits disrupted by stellar density; life on planetwould be exterminatedif too soon: not enough heavy elements would be made for efficient fluorineproductionif too late: fluorine would be made too late for incorporation in protoplanetProximity of solar nebula to a supernova eruptionif farther: insufficient heavy elements for life would be absorbedif closer: nebula would be blown apart
68 Timing of solar nebula formation relative to supernova eruption if earlier: nebula would be blown apartif later: nebula would not absorb enough heavy elementsParent star distance from center of galaxyif farther: quantity of heavy elements would be insufficient to make rockyplanetsif closer: galactic radiation would be too great; stellar density would disturbplanetary orbitsParent star distance from closest spiral armif too large: exposure to harmful radiation from galactic core would be toogreatZ-axis heights of star’s orbitif more than one: tidal interactions would disrupt planetary orbit of lifesupport planetif less than one: heat produced would be insufficient for lifeNumber of stars in the planetary system
69 Parent star birth dateif more recent: star would not yet have reached stable burning phase; stellarsystem would contain too many heavy elementsif less recent: stellar system would not contain enough heavy elements14. Parent star ageif older: luminosity of star would change too quicklyif younger: luminosity of star would change too quicklyParent star massif greater: luminosity of star would change too quickly; star would burn toorapidlyif less: range of planet distances for life would be too narrow; tidal forceswould disrupt the life planet’s rotational period; UV radiation wouldbe inadequate for plants to make sugars and oxygenParent star metallicityif too small: insufficient heavy elements for life chemistry would existif too large: radioactivity would be too intense for life; life would be poisonedby heavy element concentrationsParent star colorif redder: photosynthetic response would be insufficientif bluer: photosynthetic response would be insufficient
70 Figure 12.3: Classification of electromagnetic radiation
71 H3 + productionif too small: simple molecules essential to plant formation and life chemistrywould not formif too large: planets would form at wrong time and place for lifeParent star luminosity relative to speciationif increases too soon: runaway greenhouse effect would developif increases too late: runaway glaciation would develop20. Planet’s surface gravity (escape velocity)if stronger: planet’s atmosphere would retain too much ammonia andmethaneif weaker: planet’s atmosphere would lose too much waterPlanet’s distance from parent starif farther: planet would be too cool for a stable water cycleif closer: planet would be too warm for a stable water cyclePlanet’s inclination of orbitif too great: temperature differences on planet would be too extremePlanet’s orbital eccentricityif too great: seasonal temperature differences would be too extreme
72 Planet’s axial Tiltif greater: surface temperature differences would be too greatif less: surface temperature differences would be too greatPlanet’s rate of change of axial tiltif greater: climatic changes would be too extreme; surface temperaturedifferences would become too extremePlanet’s rotation periodif longer: diurnal temperature differences would be too greatif shorter: atmospheric wind velocities would be too greatPlanet’s rate of change in rotation periodif longer: surface temperature range necessary for life would not be sustainedif shorter: surface temperature range necessary for life would not be sustained28. Planet ageif too young: planet would rotate too rapidlyif too old: planet would rotate too slowlyPlanet’s magnetic fieldif stronger: electromagnetic storms would be too severeif weaker: ozone shield would be inadequately protected from hard stellar andsolar radiation
73 30. Planet’s thickness of crust if thicker: too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to thecrustif thinner: volcanic and tectonic activity would be too greatPlanet’s albedo (ratio of reflected light to total amount falling on surface)if greater: runaway glaciation would developif less: runaway greenhouse effect would developPlanet’s asteroidal and cometary collision rateif greater: too many species would become extinctif less: crust would be too depleted of materials essential for lifeMass of body colliding with primordial Earthif smaller: Earth’s atmosphere would be too thick; moon would be too smallif greater: Earth’s orbit and form would be too greatly disturbedTiming of body colliding with primordial Earthif earlier: Earth’s atmosphere would be too thick; moon would be too smallif later: sun would be too luminous at epoch for advanced life
74 Continental Flood Basalts and Extinction Events Flood Basalts (Myr) Extinctions (Myr)Columbia River Lower/Middle MioceneEthiopian Late Eocene*North Atlantic Paleocene/Eocene*?Deccan Cretaceous/Tert.*Madagascar Cenomanian/Turon.*?Rajmahal Aptian/AlbianSerra Geral Jurassic/Cretaceous*?Antarctic Bajocian/Bathonian*?Karoo PliensbachianNewark Triassic/Jurassic*Wrangellia ~ Ladinian/Carnian ~225Siberian Permian/Triassic*?* Impact evidence *? Possible impact evidence
76 35. Collision location of body colliding with primordial Earth if too close to grazing: insufficient debris to form large moon; inadequateannihilation of Earth’s primordial atmosphere;inadequate transfer of heavy elements to Earthif too close to dead center: damage from collision would be too destructivefor future life to exist36. Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphereif larger: advanced life functions would proceed too quicklyif smaller: advanced life functions would proceed too slowlyCarbon dioxide level in atmosphereif greater: runaway greenhouse effect would developif less: plants would be unable to maintain efficient photosynthesisWater vapor level in Atmosphereif less: rainfall would be too meager for advanced life on the landAtmospheric electric discharge rateif greater: too much fire destruction would occurif less: too little nitrogen would be fixed in the atmosphere
81 Carbon Dioxide record at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii
82 Ozone level in atmosphere if greater: surface temperatures would be too lowif less: surface temperatures would be too high; there would be too much uvradiation at the surfaceOxygen quantity in atmosphereif greater: plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easilyif less: advanced animals would have too little to breatheSeismic activityif greater: too many life-forms would be destroyedif less: nutrients on ocean floors from river runoff would not be recycled tocontinents through tectonics; not enough carbon dioxide would bereleased from carbonatesVolcanic activityif lower: insufficient amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapor would bereturned to the atmosphere; soil mineralization would become toodegraded for lifeif higher: advanced life, at least, would be destroyedRate of decline in tectonic activityif slower: advanced life could never survive on the planetif faster: advanced life could never survive on the planet
83 The absorption spectra for Ozone and Molecular UVAUVBThe absorption spectra for Ozone and MolecularOxygen. The region that is absorbed by molecularOxygen and Ozone are referred to as the UVA ( nm)and the UVB ( nm) region of the electromagneticSpectrum and are referred to as ionizing radiation.
84 Plot of wavelength verses intensity of in coming solar radiation. VisibleUVAUVBPlot of wavelength verses intensityof in coming solar radiation.UVA and UVB are known as ionizingradiation and will destroy molecules!
85 Stratospheric Chemical reactions leading to Ozone Depletion - I Normal Ozone production in the stratosphere and its absorptionof Ultra violet. Ozone is made when Ultra Violet Light (UVA) isabsorbed by molecular oxygen to create two oxygen atoms. Ifthese oxygen atoms collide with molecular oxygen they react toform Ozone. The Ozone formed will absorb Ultra Violet light in theUVB wavelengths, thus absorbing most of the short wavelengthUV light, which is also called ionizing radiation, and will destroybiological molecules.O O l = hn = nm (UVA)O + O O3O O2 + O l = hn = nm (UVB)hnhn
86 Stratospheric Chemical reactions leading to Ozone Depletion - II In 1971 Dr. Harold Johnson A professor at the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley, calculated that the Nitrogen oxidesproduced by the Jet engines of the then proposed Super SonicTransports (SST’s) would destroy much of the Ozone layer thatprotects us on the Earth’s surface from Ultra Violet light(both UVA ad UVB). The reactions he proposed are:N2 + O NO =This symbol indicated heat energyNO + O NO2 + O This reaction is very fast!Adding these last two reactionsNO2 + O NO + O together and canceling out similarreactants gives the catalytic reaction!O3 + O O2 This reaction shows Ozone destruction!The results of this research stopped the US from making an SST!
87 Chlorofluorocarbons (Freon’s) Freon-11 CF2Cl : Freon-12 CFCl3Stratospheric Reaction Chemistry:CF2Cl CF2Cl + ClCl + O O2 + ClOClO + O O2 + ClO3 + O O2Catalytic Ozone destructionhn....
92 Rate of decline in volcanic activity if slower: advanced life could never survive on the planetif faster: advanced life could never survive on the planetOceans-to-continents ratioif greater: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limitedif smaller: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limitedRate of change in oceans-to-continents ratioif smaller: advanced life would lack the needed land mass areaif greater: advanced life would be destroyed by radical changesGlobal distribution of continents (for Earth)if too much in the southern hemisphere: seasonal differences would be toosevere for advanced lifeFrequency and extent of ice agesif smaller: insufficient fertile, wide, and well-watered valleys produced fordiverse and advanced life forms; insufficient mineralconcentrations occur for diverse and advanced lifeif greater: planet inevitably experiences runaway freezing
93 Volcanic Activity - IVolcanoes Usually produce large quantities of Sulfur Dioxide.This SO2 reacts to form acids which cause acid rain, which cancause rocks to weather (break down), these acids also havedeleterious effects on vegetation.SO2(g) + H2O(L) H2SO3(aq) Sulfurous acid (A weak acid)2 SO2(g) + O2(g) SO3(g)SO3(g) + H2O(L) H2SO4(aq) Sulfuric acid (A strong acid)Volcanoes also produce ash, along with the sulfuric acid, will formaerosols (particles) in the atmosphere that will reflect sunlight backinto space, cooling the atmosphere.
94 Volcanic Activity - IIThe chemistry of volcanoes is such that many volcanoes alsorelease Hydrochloric acid (HCl) or Hydrofluoric acid (HF) in largeconcentrations. For example the Hawaiian Volcanoes such asKilauea, can release tons of HCl per hour during major eruptions.These acids have a huge impact on the dissolution of rocks andthe releasing of many metals essential for life into the environment.Hot spot volcanic activity is a unique type that has had a greatImpact on life forms on Earth, and has been going on for millionsof years. Chains of Islands such as the Hawaiian Islands areformed by Hot spot volcanism. These volcanoes also produce aunique chemical signature, as they contain elements found in thecore of the earth such as Iridium, Platinum, Osmium and Rhenium,Very rare on the surface of the earth.
95 Soil mineralizationif too nutrient poor: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limitedif too nutrient rich: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limitedGravitational interaction with a moonif greater: tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational periodwould be too severeif less: orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities;movement of nutrients and life from the oceans to the continentsand vice versa would be insufficient; magnetic field would be tooweakJupiter distanceif greater: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on Earthif less: Earth’s orbit would become unstableJupiter massif greater: Earth’s orbit would become unstableif less: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on EarthDrift in major planet distances
96 Major planet eccentricities if greater: orbit of life supportable planet would be pulled out of life supportzoneMajor planet orbital instabilitiesAtmospheric pressureif too small: liquid water would evaporate too easily and condense tooinfrequentlyif too large: liquid water would not evaporate easily enough for land life;insufficient sunlight would reach planetary surface; insufficientUV radiation would reach planetary surface58: Atmospheric transparencyif smaller: insufficient range of wavelengths of solar radiation would reachplanetary surfaceif greater: too broad a range of wavelengths of solar radiation would reach
97 Plot of wavelength verses intensity of in coming solar radiation. VisibleUVAUVBPlot of wavelength verses intensityof in coming solar radiation.UVA and UVB are known as ionizingradiation and will destroy molecules!
98 Chlorine quantity in atmosphere if smaller: erosion rates, acidity of rivers, lakes, and soils, and certainmetabolic rates would be insufficient for most life formsif larger: erosion rates, acidity of rivers, lakes, and soils, and certainmetabolic rates would be too high for most life formsIron quantity in oceans and soilsif smaller: quantity and diversity of life would be too limited for support ofadvanced life; if very small, no life would be possibleif larger: iron poisoning of at least advanced life would resultTropospheric ozone quantityif smaller: insufficient cleaning of biochemical smogs would resultif larger: respiratory failure of advanced animals, reduced crop yields, anddestruction of ozone-sensitive species would resultStratospheric ozone quantityif smaller: too much UV radiation would reach planet’s surface causing skincancers and reduced plant growthif larger: too little uv radiation would reach planet’s surface causing reducedplant growth
99 Mesospheric ozone quantity if smaller: circulation and chemistry of mesospheric gases so disturbed as toupset relative abundances of life essential gases in loweratmosphereif greater: circulation and chemistry of mesospheric gases so disturbed as toQuantity and extent of forest and grass firesif smaller: growth inhibitors in the soils would accumulate; soil nitrificationwould be insufficient; insufficient charcoal production foradequate soil water retention and absorption of certain growthinhibitorsif greater: too many plant and animal life forms would be destroyedQuantity of soil sulfurif smaller: plants would become deficient in certain proteins and dieif larger: plants would die from sulfur toxins; acidity of water and soil wouldbecome too great for life; nitrogen cycle would be disturbedBiomass to comet infall ratioif smaller: greenhouse gases accumulate, triggering runaway surfacetemperature increaseif larger: greenhouse gases decline, triggering a runaway freezing
100 Expected Population Growth in Adam’s Lifetime! According to Genesis 5, life spans from Adam to Noahaveraged 912 years. The population table is based upon thefollowing assumptions:Life span = 900 years,first child comes at age forty,childbearing years = 600 yrs,one child every four years duringchild bearing years.Archeological evidence from the pre-flood era provides noindication that the pre-flood population ever became this large.Infant mortality and disease could be the reasons that thepopulation stayed small.
101 Adam’s Reproducing Children Total Age Couples Born Population, ,704, ,884, , ,334, , ,226, , ,584, , ,962, ,056, ,894,492,447, ,103, ,998,364,999, ,538, ,536,930,268, ,762, ,299,368,649, ,790, ,090,500,045, ,011,374, ,423,465,830,732, ,493,544, ,917,014,660,459,504, ,067,585, ,984,600,000,492,300, ,685,303, ,669,903,000
102 The Flood – Global or Regional If the Flood covered the entire earth to a depth of the highestmountains, Mt. Everest (5.5 miles), the volume of water would beapproximately 1.1 x 109 mi3 this is about 3 times the volume of theworld’s oceans. Or approximately 730 ft of rain water per day(6.0 inches of rain per minute) would have had to fall for the40 days and 40 nights as indicated in Genesis 7! The placesNamed in Genesis 1-9 are only around Mesopotamia so could ithave been a regional flood?The failure of Man kind to spread though out the entire worldas God directed man Kind to do in Genesis 1:28 “ Be fruitful andMultiply, and fill the earth” brought certain changes. In Genesis 9:7God repeats the command to multiply and fill the earth. InGenesis 1-9 the text mentions place-names only in Mesopotamia.Beginning in Genesis 10, we encounter names beyondMesopotamia, indicating that Man kind was finally beginning tospread out over the earth.
103 The Flood - I Biblical phrases such as “under the entire heavens” and “the face of the earth” must be interpreted in the writer’s(and most readers’) context, as true where these terms areused elsewhere in Scripture.2) The extent and spread of human population and, thus, of sin’simpact was limited, not global. In fact, God rebuked the humanrace for its failure to spread out over the globe.3) Genesis mentions no geographical place-names beyondGreater Mesopotamia until chapter ten.4) Earth’s water quantity supports a regional rather than globalFlood. The floodwaters came from Earth’s underground andatmospheric resources, which are plentiful but inadequate tocover the globe.
104 The Flood - II5) Mountain ranges and ocean basins cannot erode in forty daysnor build up in eleven months, as would be required by oneexplanation of a global Flood, without leaving evidence easilyvisible today.6) Not even an ark of steel armor plate could survive the rigors ofa Flood gone global in forty days nor of the devastating effectsof tens of thousands of feet of erosion in forty days and similaruplift within a year’s time.7) The creatures earmarked for rescue included only Noah,Noah’s family, and birds and mammals that had significantcontact with humanity.
105 The Flood - III8) Genesis 7 does not claim that water stood above the highestmountains; rather, it says that an enormous deluge fell uponor ran over or covered the highest hills visible to Noah.9) Genesis 8:4 records that the ark landed in the mountains(or hills) of Ararat, not specifically on top of Mount Araratitself. The designated area encompasses more than onehundred thousand square miles.10) Olive leaves do not grow at high altitudes, nor could theysurvive a global Flood.11) The water of a global Flood could not recede in less than ayear.
106 The Flood - IV12) A strong wind (Genesis 8:1) would be useful for dissipating aregional but not a global Flood.13) Earth cannot possibly support at one time the half-billion ormore species of life the fossil record documents, which wouldbe required according to the global flood theory.14) A recent global Flood cannot account for Earth’s enormousdeposits of kerogen, topsoil, limestone, marble, and fossil fuels.15) Petroleum products were available before the Flood for Noah’suse in sealing the ark (Genesis 6:14).
107 The Flood - V16) The million-plus animal species on Earth today could not haveevolved in just a few thousand years from the thirty thousandspecies-maximum- the ark could have carried.17) No viable scientific evidence has ever been found for a recent,global Flood.
108 The Church and ScienceFor many years there has been a growing split between“Science, and Scientists” and the “Church”, which for many yearswas the catholic church. It probably started with the GreekPhilosopher Aristotle, who believed that every thing revolvedaround the earth. During this early time, science was the “Church”,and all scientists were part of the “Church”, and supported by theChurch.When the astronomer Copernicus brought forth the idea that theearth revolved around the sun, and the earth was not the centerof the Universe, there was a break between the Church andModern science. I believe the split has it’s roots in this time period.With the advent of “Modern” science, we now have the “BigBang”, or beginning of everything, and the expanding Universe.Beginning in 1966, George Ellis, Stephen Hawkings, and RodgerPenrose affirmed that any expanding universe governed by generalrelativity and which also contains at least some matter and energymust possess a singular origin in the finite past.
110 Reactions of Magnesium Metal Magnesium metal burning in Air!2 Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) + EnergyMagnesium metal Burning with Carbon dioxide!Mg(s) + CO2(g) MgO(s) + CO(g) + EnergyMagnesium Metal Burning with Dry Ice! (Solid Carbon Dioxide)3 Mg(s) + CO2(s) MgO(s) + MgC(s) + Energy
111 Biological Life – Extinction & Speciation According to the fossil record, at least a half-billion to aBillion new species of life arose between the CambrianExplosion (about 543 million years ago) and the arrival ofhuman beings (about 30,000 to 50,000 years ago). Thisaverages about one or two or more new species per year.Since the coming of humans, however, the rate of newspecies discovery has dropped to virtual zero! According toBiologists Paul and Ann Ehrlich, “The production of a newanimal species in nature has yet to be documented.” In otherwords, God rested form his creating on the seventh day,which we are still in!The extinction rate has remained constant at about onespecies per year during normal conditions, and more duringyears of environmental stress.
112 Figure 4.1: A space-filling model of the water molecule.
118 3 Important Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids 1) A pentose sugar–In RNA the sugar is ribose, and in DNA it is deoxyribose, in which one hydroxy group has been replaced by a hydrogen.2) A nitrogen containing organic base:AdenineGuanineThymineCytosineUracil3) A phosphate linkage derived from phosphoric acid
126 The Spontaneous Formation of Life During the 1970’s there was a very intense effort in the ChemicalSciences to show that life could be formed spontaneously fromChemicals assumed to be present on the primitive earth.Ammonia, methane, and water vapor were placed into containersalong with different other things and sparked to simulate lighting,and then look for primitive amino acids the building blocks of life.NH3 + CH4 + H2O + Energy Amino acids[ H2NCH2COOH, Glycine]Only simple amino acids were formed, and a few simplecombinations of amino acids were formed after many years andhundreds of millions of research funds had been expended!
127 Odds of Making DNAWhat are the odds of making just one strand of DNA out ofRandom nucleotide combinations? This demonstration was madeby Michael Heart in 1982 to show how improbable life formationwas, even given the building blocks necessary to form DNA.400 positions where any one of four nucleotide residues will do,and at each of 100 other positions where either of twonucleotide residues would be effective, leaving only 100positions where the exactly correct nucleotide residue must bepresent. (This is a very optimistic set of circumstances!)For this to occur, the odds are 1:1090, in 10 billion years, thechance of forming such a strand spontaneously would be 10-90times 1060, or for each of 100 different specific genes to beformed spontaneously (in 10 billion years) the probability is(10-30)100 = for them to be in close proximity it is worse!!
128 The Complexity of Biological life The complexity of DNA and Biological molecules precludes thatthey could have been put together by chance!DNA and genes are so compact that all of the DNA and genes ina person’s body would fit into a cube the size of an ice cube!If all of the DNA in a person’s body were unraveled, and joinedend to end, the strand would reach from the earth to theSun and back more than 400 times!The DNA in a single cell is estimated to contain instructions, thatif written out would fill a thousand 600 page books.Another book stated that all of the information stored in all of thebooks of the library of Congress could be stored in just onestrand of a person’s DNA!
129 Damage to DNA, RNA, or Genes Damage to genetic material occurs from Radiation (x-rays,gamma-rays, Ultraviolet light, etc) or from Chemical mutagens.It involves the Destruction of the molecule, or the change it’sproperties such as structure, polarity, or ionization.Damage to DNA, or genetic material in the cells occurs all ofThe time, and the body has mechanisms to repair these damagedmolecules, or to replace them with undamaged ones. Thedamaged molecules are recycled in to new ones, or ejected fromthe body in our waste. When a cell or genetic material is notcapable of replication, or carrying on its function, it is recycled orremoved from the body. Thousands of cells and moleculescontaining genetic information are destroyed each day in a normalhuman being. We are obviously wonderfully made, and designedto survive in difficult times and circumstances.
130 DNA and Dates for Common Ancestors Studies on the DNA of modern Humans have given us someinformation on the dates for Adam and Eve versus Noah.A 1995 study revealed a date for the common ancestor of humanmales as: between 35,000 and 47,000 B.C.Mitochondrial DNA yields the common ancestor of all womenbetween a few thousand and tens of thousands of years earlier.Of the eight people on Noah’s ark, the four men were bloodrelated to Noah, but the four women were not, and Eve would bethe most recent common ancestor for them.The difference in the two biochemical dates roughly fits the timeframe suggested by the Genesis 5 genealogy.
132 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - I Existence and temperature of the cosmic backgroundradiation: Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman calculated in 1948that cooling from a big bang creation event would yield a faintcosmic background radiation with a current temperature ofroughly 5o Kelvin (-455oF). In 1965 Arno Penzias and RobertWilson detected a cosmic background radiation and determinedthat its temperature was about 3o Kelvin (-457oF).2. Black body character of the cosmic background radiation:Deviations between the spectrum of the cosmic backgroundradiation and the spectrum expected from a perfect radiatormeasured to be less than 0.03% over the entire range ofobserved wavelengths. The only possible explanation for suchan extremely close fit is that the entire universe must haveexpanded from an infinitely or nearly infinitely hot and compactbeginning.
133 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - II 3. Cooling rate of the cosmic background radiation: Accordingto the big bang, the older, and hence more expanded, theuniverse becomes, the cooler will be the cosmic backgroundradiation. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation atdistances so great that we are looking back to when the universewas just a half, a quarter, or an eighth of its present age showtemperature measurements that are hotter than the present2.726oK by exactly the amount that the big bang theory wouldpredict.4. Temperature uniformity of cosmic background: Thetemperature of the cosmic background radiation varies by nomore than one part in ten thousand from one direction in theheavens to any other. Such high uniformity only can beexplained if the background radiation arises from an extremelyhot primordial creation event.
134 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - III 5. Ratio of photons to baryons in the universe: The ratio ofphotons to baryons (protons and neutrons) in the universeexceeds 100,000,000 to 1. This proved the universe is soextremely entropic (efficient in radiating heat and light) the onlypossible explanation is that the entire universe must be rapidlyexploding from an infinitely or near infinitely hot, dense state.6. Temperature fluctuations in the cosmic backgroundradiation: For galaxies and galaxy clusters to form out of a bigbang creation event temperature fluctuations in maps of thecosmic background radiation should measure at a level of aboutone part in a hundred thousand. The predicted fluctuations weredetected at the expected level.
135 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - IV 7. Power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations in thecosmic background radiation: For the big bang universe witha geometry suitable for the formation of stars and planetscapable of supporting physical life, the temperature fluctuationsin the cosmic background radiation will peak at an angularresolution close to one degree with a few much smaller spikes atat other resolutions. In other words, the power spectrum graphwill look like a bell curve with a few sub-peaks to the side of themain peak. The Boomerang balloon experiment in April 2000confirmed this big bang prediction.
136 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - V 8. Cosmic expansion rate: A big bang creation event implies auniversal expansion o the universe from a beginning severalbillion years ago. The most careful measurements of thevelocities of galaxies establish that such a cosmic expansionhas been proceeding for the past 14.9 billion years, a cosmicage measure that is consistent with all other cosmic agemeasurements.9. Stable orbits of stars and planets: Our universe manifestsstable orbits of planets about stars and stars about the nucleiof galaxies. Such stable orbits are physically impossible unlessthe universe is comprised of three very large and rapidlyexpanding dimensions of space.
137 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - VI 10. Existence of life and humans: Life and humans require astable solar-type star. However: If the universe cools down tooslowly, galaxies would trap radiation so effectively as to preventany fragmentation into stars. If the universe cools too rapidly,no galaxies or stars will ever condense out of the cosmic gas.If the universe expands too slowly, the universe will collapsebefore solar-type stars reach their stable burning phase. If itexpands too rapidly, no galaxies or stars will ever condensefrom the general expansion.
138 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - VII 11. Abundance of helium in the universe: According to the bigbang, almost exactly one-forth the first four minutesfollowing the cosmic creation event. Stellar burning providesthe only other possible source of helium. Therefore,astronomers can test the big bang by measuring the heliumabundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no starburning has taken place. When they do this they determine aprimordial helium abundance = / , a nearlyperfect fit with what the big bang predicts.
139 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - VIII 12. Abundance of deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in the universe:Only the big bang can produce deuterium. Stars, on the otherhand, destroy deuterium. By measuring the deuteriumabundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no starburning has occurred, astronomers can not only prove that welive in a big bang universe but also determine what kind of bigbang the universe manifests. The measured results areconsistent with the same kind of big bang demonstrated by allthe other big bang tests.
140 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - IX 13. Abundance of lithium in the universe: Only the big bang canproduce lithium. Stars destroy lithium. By measuring the lithiumabundance in gas clouds and galaxies where little or no starburning has occurred, astronomers cannot only prove that welive in a big bang universe but also determine what kind of bigbang the universe manifests. The measured results areconsistent with the same kind of big bang demonstrated by allthe other big bang tests.14. Evidences for general relativity: Recent measurements nowelevate the theory of general relativity to the most exhaustivelytested and best proven principle in all of physics. The solutionto the equations of general relativity demonstrate that theuniverse must be expanding from a beginning in the finite past.
141 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - X 15. Space-time theorem of general relativity: A mathematicaltheorem proven by Stephen hawking and Roger Penrose in1970 establishes that if the universe contains mass, and if itsdynamics are governed by general relativity, then time itselfmust be finite and must have been created when the universewas created. Also, there must exist a CAUSE responsible forbringing the universe (which must be expanding) intoexistence independent of matter, energy, and all ten of thecosmic space-time dimensions.
142 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XI 16. Space energy density measurements: Albert Einstein andArthur Eddington both developed cosmological models withouta big bang by altering the theory of relativity to include acosmic space energy density term (a.k.a. the cosmologicalconstant) and assigning a particular value to that term.Recently, astronomers determined that indeed a cosmic spaceenergy term does exist. Its value, however, proves thatEinstein’s and Eddingion’s models are incorrect. The measuredvalue actually increases the evidence for the big bang in that itestablishes the universe will continue to expand to an everincreasing rate.
143 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XII 17. Ten-dimensional creation calculation: A team led by AndrewStrominger demonstrated that only in a universe framed in tenspace-time dimensions where six of the ten dimensions stopexpanding when the universe is a 10 millionth of a trillionth of atrillionth of a trillionth of a second old is it possible to havegravity and quantum mechanics coexist. This demonstrationalso successfully predicted both special and general relativityand solved a number of outstanding problems in both particlephysics and black hole physics. It implies that the big bang andthe laws of physics are valid all the way back to the creationevent itself.
144 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XIII 18. Steller ages: According to the big bang theory, different typesof stars will form at different epochs after creation. The colorsand surface temperatures of stars tells astronomers how longthey have been burning. These measured burning times areconsistent with the big bang. They also are consistent with allother methods for measuring the time back to the cosmiccreation event.19. Galaxy ages: According to the big bang theory, nearly all thegalaxies in the universe will form early in its history withinabout a 4-billion year window of time. Indeed, astronomersmeasure the galaxies to have the predicted ages.
145 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XIV 20. Decrease in galaxy crowding: The big bang predicts thatgalaxies will spread farther and farther apart from one anotheras the universe expands. Hubble Space Telescope imagesshow that the farther away in the cosmos one looks (and,because of light’s finite velocity, the farther back in time) themore crowded together are the galaxies. In fact, looking backto when the universe was but a third of its present age, theSpace Telescope images reveal galaxies so tightly packedtogether that they literally are ripping spiral arms away fromone another.
146 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XV 21. Photo album history of the universe: Since the big bangpredicts that nearly all the galaxies will form at about the sametime, and since galaxies change their appearance significantlyas they age, images of portions of the universe at progressivelygreater and greater distances (and, because of light’s finitevelocity, farther and farther back in time) should show dramaticchanges in the appearances of the galaxies. Hubble SpaceTelescope images verify the predicted changes in theappearances of galaxies.
147 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XVI 22. Ratio of ordinary matter to exotic matter: In the big banguniverse, for the galaxies and stars to form and develop so thata site suitable for the support of physical life will be possible,the cosmos must exhibit a ratio of exotic matter (matter thatdoes not interact well with radiation) to ordinary matter (matterthat strongly interacts with radiation) that measures roughly fiveor six to one. Recent measurements reveal just such a ratiofor the universe.
148 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XVII 23. Abundance of beryllium and boron in elderly stars: Longbefore the first stars can possibly form, the big bang fire-ballduring the first few minutes after the creation event willgenerate tiny amounts of boron and beryllium if, and only if, theuniverse contains a significant amount of exotic matter.Astronomers have confirmed that primordial boron andberyllium exists in the amounts predicted by the big bangtheory and their measurements of the amount of exotic matter.
149 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XVIII 24. Numbers of Population I, II, and III stars: The big bangpredicts that as the universe expands it will produce threedistinct populations of stars. At its current age the big bang alsopredicts that astronomers should see certain specific numbersand masses of the three different populations. Astronomers doindeed see the predicted numbers and masses of stars for thethree different populations.
150 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XIX 25. Population, locations, and types of black holes andneutron stars: A big bang universe of the type that makespossible a site suitable for the support of physical life will aftermany billions of years of star burning produce a relativelysmall population of stellar mass black holes and a somewhatlarger population of neutron stars in virtually every galaxy.Large galaxies are expected to produce supermassive(exceeding a million solar masses) black holes in their centralcores. Astronomers, indeed, observe the predictedpopulations, locations, and types of black holes and neutronstars.
151 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XX 26. Dispersion of star clusters and galaxy clusters: The bigbang predicts that as the universe expands different types ofstar clusters and galaxy clusters will disperse at specific ratesthat will increase with time. It also predicts that the denseststar clusters will not disperse. However, the orbital velocities oftheir stars about the cluster’s center will “evolve” toward apredictable randomized condition known as virialization. Thevirial times depend on the cluster mass and size and on theindividual masses of the stars. Astronomers observe thedispersal rates and virial times predicted by the big bang.
152 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XXI 27. Number and type of space-time dimensions: A big banguniverse of the type that makes possible a site suitable for thesupport of physical life must begin within ten rapidly expandingspace-time dimensions. At about seconds (about a tenmillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second) after thecreation event six of the ten dimensions must cease expandingwhile the other four continue to expand at a rapid rate. Severalexperiments and calculations confirm that we live in such auniverse.
153 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XXII 28. Masses and flavors of neutrinos: All currently viable bigbang models require that the dominant form of matter in theuniverse be a form of exotic matter called “cold dark matter”.Astronomers and physicists already know that neutrinos arevery plentiful in the universe and that they are “cold” and “dark”.Recent experiments establish that neutrinos oscillate (that is,transform) from one flavor or type to another (the threeneutrino flavors are electron, muon, and tau). This oscillationimplies that a neutrino particle must have a mass between afew billionths and a millionth of an electron mass. Such arange of masses for the neutrino satisfies the requirement forthe viable big bang models.
154 Scientific Evidence for A “Big Bang” Creation Event - XXIII 29. Populations and types of fundamental particles: In the bigbang the rapid cooling of the universe from a near infinitelyhigh temperature and a near infinitely dense state will generatea zoo of different fundamental particles of predictableproperties and predictable populations. Particle acceleratorexperiments which duplicate the temperature and densityconditions of the early universe have verified all the types andpopulations of particles predicted within the energy limits of theparticle accelerators.30 Cosmic density of protons and neutrons: Four independentmethods for determining the density of protons and neutrons inthe universe establish that the density measured is the same aswhat the big bang predicts for a universe that contains the starsand planets necessary for life.
155 The Star Declaring the Birth of Jesus The star declaring the birth of Jesus was most assuredly asuper Novae explosion!