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Roadmap 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 Network edge 1.3 Network core 1.4 Network access and physical media 1.5 Internet structure and ISPs 1.6 Delay & loss.

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Presentation on theme: "Roadmap 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 Network edge 1.3 Network core 1.4 Network access and physical media 1.5 Internet structure and ISPs 1.6 Delay & loss."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roadmap 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 Network edge 1.3 Network core 1.4 Network access and physical media 1.5 Internet structure and ISPs 1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks 1.7 Protocol layers, service models 1.8 History

2 Protocol “Layers” Networks are complex! many “pieces”: –hosts –routers –links of various media –applications –protocols –hardware, software Question: Is there any hope of organizing structure of network? Or at least our discussion of networks?

3 Organization of air travel a series of steps ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing

4 ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway (takeoff) airplane routing departure airport arrival airport intermediate air-traffic control centers airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim gates (unload) runway (land) airplane routing ticket baggage gate takeoff/landing airplane routing Layering of airline functionality Layers: each layer implements a service –via its own internal-layer actions –relying on services provided by layer below

5 Why layering? Dealing with complex systems: explicit structure allows identification, relationship of complex system’s pieces –layered reference model for discussion modularization eases maintenance, updating of system –change of implementation of layer’s service transparent to rest of system –e.g., change in gate procedure doesn’t affect rest of system layering considered harmful?

6 2. TCP/IP Reference Model (Layers) IP, ICMP and IGMP IEEE 802 Ethernet X.25 V.24 V.28 EIA-232 ISDN etc. Gateway protocols TCPUDP FTP TELNET MAIL …….. (4) (3) (2) (1) (1)Data link and physical layer: The protocols at this layer needed to manage a specific physical medium, such as Ethernet or a point to point line (2)Network layer: IP, which provides the basic service of getting datagrams to their destination (3)Transport layer: A protocol such as TCP that provides services need by many applications (4)Application layer: An application protocol such as mail




10 Internet protocol stack application: supporting network applications –FTP, SMTP, HTTP transport: process-process data transfer –TCP, UDP network: routing of datagrams from source to destination –IP, routing protocols, link: data transfer between neighboring network elements –PPP, Ethernet physical: bits “on the wire” application transport network link physical

11 source application transport network link physical HtHt HnHn M segment HtHt datagram destination application transport network link physical HtHt HnHn HlHl M HtHt HnHn M HtHt M M network link physical link physical HtHt HnHn HlHl M HtHt HnHn M HtHt HnHn M HtHt HnHn HlHl M router switch Encapsulation message M HtHt M HnHn frame

12 Figure 3-1 OSI Model

13 Figure 3-2 OSI Layers

14 Figure 3-3 WCB/McGraw-Hill  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 An Exchange Using the OSI Model

15 Figure 3-4 Physical Layer

16 Figure 3-14 Summary of Layer Functions

17 Introduction: Summary Covered a “ton” of material! Internet overview what’s a protocol? network edge, core, access network –packet-switching versus circuit- switching Internet/ISP structure performance: loss, delay layering and service models history You now have: context, overview, “feel” of networking more depth, detail to follow!

18 MAC Addresses and ARP 32-bit IP address: –network-layer address –used to get datagram to destination IP subnet MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet) address: –used to get frame from one interface to another physically-connected interface (same network) –48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in the adapter ROM

19 LAN Addresses and ARP Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address Broadcast address = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF = adapter 1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD 58-23-D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98 71-65-F7-2B-08-53 LAN (wired or wireless)

20 LAN Address (more) MAC address allocation administered by IEEE manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to assure uniqueness) Analogy: (a) MAC address: like Social Security Number (b) IP address: like postal address MAC flat address ➜ portability –can move LAN card from one LAN to another IP hierarchical address NOT portable – depends on IP subnet to which node is attached

21 ARP: Address Resolution Protocol Each IP node (Host, Router) on LAN has ARP table ARP Table: IP/MAC address mappings for some LAN nodes – TTL (Time To Live): time after which address mapping will be forgotten (typically 20 min) Question: how to determine MAC address of B knowing B’s IP address? 1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD 58-23-D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98 71-65-F7-2B-08-53 LAN

22 ARP protocol: Same LAN (network) A wants to send datagram to B, and B’s MAC address not in A’s ARP table. A broadcasts ARP query packet, containing B's IP address –Dest MAC address = FF- FF-FF-FF-FF-FF –all machines on LAN receive ARP query B receives ARP packet, replies to A with its (B's) MAC address –frame sent to A’s MAC address (unicast) A caches (saves) IP-to-MAC address pair in its ARP table until information becomes old (times out) –soft state: information that times out (goes away) unless refreshed ARP is “plug-and-play”: –nodes create their ARP tables without intervention from net administrator

23 Routing to another LAN walkthrough: send datagram from A to B via R assume A know’s B IP address Two ARP tables in router R, one for each IP network (LAN) In routing table at source Host, find router In ARP table at source, find MAC address E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B, etc A R B

24 A creates datagram with source A, destination B A uses ARP to get R’s MAC address for A creates link-layer frame with R's MAC address as dest, frame contains A-to-B IP datagram A’s adapter sends frame R’s adapter receives frame R removes IP datagram from Ethernet frame, sees its destined to B R uses ARP to get B’s MAC address R creates frame containing A-to-B IP datagram sends to B A R B

25 Link Layer 5.1 Introduction and services 5.2 Error detection and correction 5.3Multiple access protocols 5.4 Link-Layer Addressing 5.5 Ethernet 5.6 Hubs and switches 5.7 PPP 5.8 Link Virtualization: ATM

26 Ethernet “dominant” wired LAN technology: cheap $20 for 100Mbs! first widely used LAN technology Simpler, cheaper than token LANs and ATM Kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps Metcalfe’s Ethernet sketch

27 Star topology Bus topology popular through mid 90s Now star topology prevails Connection choices: hub or switch (more later) hub or switch

28 Ethernet Frame Structure Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame Preamble: 7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one byte with pattern 10101011 used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates

29 Ethernet Frame Structure (more) Addresses: 6 bytes –if adapter receives frame with matching destination address, or with broadcast address (eg ARP packet), it passes data in frame to net-layer protocol –otherwise, adapter discards frame Type: indicates the higher layer protocol (mostly IP but others may be supported such as Novell IPX and AppleTalk) CRC: checked at receiver, if error is detected, the frame is simply dropped

30 Unreliable, connectionless service Connectionless: No handshaking between sending and receiving adapter. Unreliable: receiving adapter doesn’t send acks or nacks to sending adapter –stream of datagrams passed to network layer can have gaps –gaps will be filled if app is using TCP –otherwise, app will see the gaps

31 10BaseT and 100BaseT 10/100 Mbps rate; latter called “fast ethernet” T stands for Twisted Pair Nodes connect to a hub: “star topology”; 100 m max distance between nodes and hub twisted pair hub

32 Hubs Hubs are essentially physical-layer repeaters: –bits coming from one link go out all other links –at the same rate –no frame buffering –no CSMA/CD at hub: adapters detect collisions –provides net management functionality twisted pair hub

33 Manchester encoding Used in 10BaseT Each bit has a transition Allows clocks in sending and receiving nodes to synchronize to each other –no need for a centralized, global clock among nodes! Hey, this is physical-layer stuff!

34 Gbit Ethernet uses standard Ethernet frame format allows for point-to-point links and shared broadcast channels in shared mode, CSMA/CD is used; short distances between nodes required for efficiency uses hubs, called here “Buffered Distributors” Full-Duplex at 1 Gbps for point-to-point links 10 Gbps now !

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