Chapters 14 and 15 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly
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1 Chapters 14 and 15 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly Output and price determination in SR and LR.EfficiencyExcess capacityRole of advertising
2 Monopolistic Competition Characteristics of Monopolistic competitionLarge number of firms.limited market power (demand relatively elastic).Independent decision makingCollusion impossibleEach firm produces a differentiated product.compete on product quality, price, and marketing.Firms are free to enter and exit the industry.Economic profits driven to zero in long run
4 Output and Price in Monopolistic Competition The Firm’s Short-Run Output and Price DecisionHolding quality and marketing constant, profit maximization is achieved by choosing the price/quantity whereMR = MCIdentical to profit maximizing rule for perfect competition and single price monopoly
5 SR Output and Price in Monopolistic Competition Identify:profit maximizing P & QProfitSocially efficient QDeadweight loss
6 SR Output and Price in Monopolistic Competition Given the short run equilibrium described, why does entry occur?As entry occurs, demand shifts leftward until profit equals zero.
7 Output and Price in Monopolistic Competition Long Run: Zero Economic ProfitIn the long run, economic profit (loss) induces entry (exit).Entry (exit) causes demand curve for existing firms to shift downward (upward).Entry continues as long as firms in the industry earn an economic profit—as long as (P > ATC).
8 Output and Price in Monopolistic Competition LR equilibrium for monopolistically competitive firm.Economic profitsExcess capacitysocially efficient outputdeadweight lossEffect of elasticity onprice mark-up (P vs MC)excess capacity
9 Output and Price in Monopolistic Competition Contrast to LR equilibrium for firms in perfect competition:Economic profits?Excess capacity?Socially efficient?Deadweight loss?Source of difference: product differentiation leading to downward sloping demand.
10 Product Development and Marketing Innovation and Product DevelopmentTo keep earning an economic profit, a firm in monopolistic competition must be in a state of continuous product development.New product development allows a firm to gain a competitive edge, if only temporarily, before competitors imitate the innovation.Examples of recent innovations in design ofBankingHousehold cleanersCell phones
11 Product Development and Marketing AdvertisingFirms in monopolistic competition incur heavy advertising expenditures.Why? How can advertising be “profitable”?Changes in product demand versus changes in ATC.
12 Product Development and Marketing Advertising expenditurean increase in fixed costs (not MC)shifts ATC upward and to the rightmay increase profit maximizing sales allowing firm to take advantage of scale economies.