The Self How do you know what sort of person you are? Does your identity distinguish you as a unique person, apart from all others? Are there cultural.
Published byModified over 3 years ago
Presentation on theme: "The Self How do you know what sort of person you are? Does your identity distinguish you as a unique person, apart from all others? Are there cultural."— Presentation transcript:
The Self How do you know what sort of person you are? Does your identity distinguish you as a unique person, apart from all others? Are there cultural differences in one ’ s sense of self? Do we have different selves? Or are we presenting ourself differently?
No coherent psychology of self Body Social identity Active agent
Functions that self serves an interpersonal tool makes choices self-regulation stores & organises information self-reference effect – role of self in information processing
Identity Question:Why some people do certain things? Cognitive psychology- thought processes, personality characteristics, and their changes across the life-cycle. Discursive & critical psychology - social settings and individuals' roles therein.
Individual vs. relational self Psychology atomizes the human condition, focusing on the self and its inner workings. Discursive/critical psychology interested in human connections: change the social connections and you change the essence of the self.
Sociological social psychologists study how our perceptions, belief systems, moralities, identities, and behaviors are determined by our positions in social space: the culture of our primary socializations; our social history; gender, age, race, & social class; roles within the institutional orders of religion, work, community, & family; geographic context of our childhoods; memberships in and relative identifications with various social groups.
Identity - product of culture, society Nature of self varies as function of social context in which it evolved: Public, private, collective aspects of self (Triandis 1989)
Collectivistic vs. individualistic: “ Tight ” vs. complex Cultural differences in relations among aspects of self ( e.g., congruence vs. behave properly ) (Cognitive dissonance?)
(Markus & Kitayama 1991) Interdependence vs. independence Western: autonomous, separate Eastern: interconnected, interdependent.
Historical changes in selfhood Identity part of self increasingly elaborate Self now source of problem, conflict Modern self based on changing, unstable matters, subject to renegotiation Expansion of conception of inner self Modern self = Inner/outer self - cultural metaphor Problem of meaning in modern life – value Powerful new value = individual self
Self- knowledge (self as cognitive structure) Particular beliefs about self = self schemas Total organized body of information = self concept Unified articulated self-concept ? or Loosely interrelated information ?
Myth of true, inner self with stable traits, qualities Importance of reflected appraisal Rosenberg 1979 Symbolic interactionists Mead 1934 - looking glass self
Accuracy of self – knowledge Privileged access, Introspection Greenwald 1980, 1988, self = totalitarian regime Self-deception, positive illusions Identity crisis – Erikson 1940s Problem of consistency not located inside self but at interface of person and social environment
MOTIVATIONAL ASPECTS of SELF Drive for favourability Drive for consistency Tesser 1988 - Model to determine impact of events on self-esteem Self-evaluation maintenance model 2 processes: self-reflection & comparison 3 variables: closeness, relevance and performance
Self Esteem Protection against anxiety Trait and state, Greenwald et al 1988 2 main roots direct experiences of competence/ efficacy social feedback
Positivistic approach to personhood distorting Self – not an already existing object or naturally occurring entity awaiting scientific discovery Our ‘ selves ’ are constantly being created, developed, negotiated Ways in which we think about ourselves not natural, timeless, normal Theories reify the self
e.g., Eysenck 1952, 1967 theory of personality introvert – extrovert, presume existence of stable & universal dimensions of personality Social psychological experiments employing different conditions do not test ‘ theories ’ but create the ‘ conditions ’ for different ‘ situated identities ’ Harr é 1986 to be a self is to be in possession of a theory
Reading Hogg & Vaughan Mogghadam, F.M. (2005) Great Ideas in Psychology. One World Press. Chapter 14. June’s office. Stainton Rogers, W. (2003) Social Psychology: Experimental & Critical Approaches. OUP. Chapter 8. (Lecky 301.15p34 multiple copies). June’s office.