2 Aims to provide learners with a natural context for language use. Ss work to complete a task.Ss have abundant opportunity to interact.This interact facilitates language acquisition.By interacting, Ss have to check if they have comprehended correctly and get to listen to lang. beyond their ability.
3 Do not focus on a particular function or a form of the language. Pedagogic focus on task completion instead of on the language used in the process.T uses a wide variety of linguistic forms to make context clear.
4 Prabhu (1987)- 3 types of tasks Information-gap activity: exchange info. to complete a task.e.g.: Ss describe a picture for another S to draw.Opinion-gap activity: Ss give their personal preferences, feelings to complete a task.e.g.: topic on unemployment and be ask the solutions.
5 Prabhu (1987)- 3 types of tasks (cont.) Reasoning-gap activity: derive new info. by inferring from info given.e.g.: Ss are given a railroad timetable and asked to work out the best route to get to a particular place.Work the best because it encourages a more sustained engagement with meaning.
6 Project-based Approach 1st stage: in the classroomplanning, collaboration w/ T, content, scope of the project.2nd stage: outside the classroomGathering necessary information- conducting interviews, taking photos, preparing visual materials.
7 Project-based Approach (cont.) 3rd stage: Review the projectmonitoring work, receiving feedback from T.T works with Ss as a counselor , not the project director.Help Ss bridge the gap between language study and use.
8 Conclusion Candlin and Murphy (1987): “The central purpose we are concerned with is language learning, and tasks present this in the form of a problem-solving negotiation between knowledge that the learner holds and new knowledge.”