Climate change and health. Climate Change and Health The topic will evolve and advance rapidly these first two decades of this century. Researchers are.
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Presentation on theme: "Climate change and health. Climate Change and Health The topic will evolve and advance rapidly these first two decades of this century. Researchers are."— Presentation transcript:
Climate Change and Health The topic will evolve and advance rapidly these first two decades of this century. Researchers are increasingly exploring and studying this important topic and other related issues.
Climate Change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - global surface temperature increased by 0.60C last century. –Alter wind patterns, –change levels of humidity and –increase surface evaporation rate which in turn would lead to greater levels of rainfall in key areas of the planet. –greater extremes in water distribution, with severe droughts affecting some parts of world, flooding and hurricanes hitting others..
Climate Change and health Little empirical research exploring the impact of climate change over the past three decades on health. Climate change will affect human health in many ways but negatively.
Climate Change and health Extent and nature of climate change impacting on human health varies by region and depends on: –The vulnerability of population groups, –The extent and duration of exposure to climate change itself and –ability to adapt or cope with the change.,
Climate Change and health linkages 1. Weather extremes such as heat waves, the physical hazards of floods, storms and fires. 2. Infectious diseases that are vector borne. 3. Impact on health is indirectly. – its impact on agricultural yields and production especially with negative effects in developing countries.
Extreme weather events Extreme weather events can kill. Extreme weather events include periods of very high temperature, torrential rains and flooding, droughts and storms. Extreme events are often stressful and stress people beyond their adaptation limits. Understanding the health risks from these is important because of the future frequency and intensity of these events. These disruptive events have greatest impact in poor countries.
Extreme weather and health.Studies show a positive association between heatwaves and mortality. Deaths occur to people with pre-existing diseases – such as cardiovascular, asthma and chronic respiratory diseases. Deaths occur to people with pre-existing diseases – such as cardiovascular, asthma and chronic respiratory diseases. The old, the young and the frail – are susceptible. Heat waves have become more common. Chicago 1993 and Europe in 2003 Prevalence of asthma has increased rapidly.
Extreme weather events and health Floods have tended to intensify in recent times. health consequences during or soon after floods are injuries and communicable diseases. Mal nutrition occurs later. Excessive rainfall facilitates entry of human sewage and animal wastes into waterways and drinking water supplies bringing about water borne diseases.
Infectious diseases Many infectious agents such as vector organisms and pathogens are sensitive to climatic conditions. Their replication rates are super exponential with increase in temperature Salmonella and cholera multiply rapidly in high temperatures Food poisoning and gastroenteritis is expected to increase in future
Infectious diseases Evidence of the association of malaria and Ross River virus outbreaks with ENSO cycle in the Asia Pacific region. Evidence of association of ElNino and La Nina events with dengue fever outbreaks. Increased notification of diarrhoeal diseases in Peru and Fiji was associated with short term increases in temperature.
Climate Change and Infectious diseases Scientists at Yale University convinced that a minor rise in temperature could expand the territory of two key mosquito species Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus Scientists expected that the mosquitoes would expand their geographical range (latitude and altitude movements) with increase in temperature What is worrying is that A. albopictus carries the dengue virus A. aegypti carries the dengue virus and yellow fever
Climate change and infectious diseases British experts on insect borne diseases are quite convinced that global warming would greatly expand the territory of tsetse fly - sleeping sickness. The researchers concluded that even a moderate increase of 1-20C could result in a higher rate of disease spread Thus it could affect more people daily.
Climate change and infectious diseases The same principles held true for Anopheles mosquitoes and the spread of Malaria It is expected that there will be a geographical expansion - Latitude and altitude wise of these Anopheles mosquitoes in response to global warming. Historical analysis confirms that malaria had shifted geographically over the millennium in response to climate changes.
Climate change and nutrition Climate change is expected to affect health through its influence on crop, livestock and fisheries yield which in turn will impact of nutrition Crop failure, and food shortage caused by droughts people will impact on nutrition and increase the number of undernourished people in the world.
Conclusion Developing countries are not equipped to deal with weather extremes Rise in infectious diseases will place a strain on their porly resourced and over- stretched health system Research – health risks of climate change and how to reduce these risks Linkages between cc and social and economic and demographic disruption