Design of Fault Tolerant Data Flow in Ptolemy II Mark McKelvin EE290 N, Fall 2004 Final Project.
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Design of Fault Tolerant Data Flow in Ptolemy II Mark McKelvin EE290 N, Fall 2004 Final Project
2 Course 290N, Fall 2004 Motivation Designers of safety critical, cost sensitive applications commonly use block diagrams to model system component interactions –Block diagrams define the topology of the system and data dependencies among components –Components may be distributed across a hardware platform and characterized by redundant software and hardware components to improve reliability Creating design environments and tools based on a precise models of computation to aid formal techniques, Fault Tolerant Data Flow (FTDF) –Examples: Deriving fault trees from a system specification, automatically generating code on a distributed platform
3 Course 290N, Fall 2004 Fault Tolerant Data Flow FTDF is an experimental model of computation amenable to describe periodic feedback control systems, i.e. controlling a plant (Pinello, 2004) –A data flow variant introduced as a formalism for which automatic techniques for formal analysis and validation can be performed A FTDF specification is composed of functional components (actors) and communication media (channel buffers)
4 Course 290N, Fall 2004 FTDF Semantics A data flow process F is computed as a sequence of firings that are enabled by a firing rule f is a (possibly partial) function that must be defined for all firing rules of an actor and is finite We can proceed to find a least fixed point by repeatedly firing the actor based on its firing function such that the firing rules are satisfied, and in doing so, we define the operational semantics of a data flow process In FTDF, an actor can fire on a subset of inputs F, f Actor inputs outputs
5 Course 290N, Fall 2004 Rules of Composition Given a set of actors, A, and a set of communication media, M, connecting actors, a FTDF graph, G = (V, E) where V = A and E= M Legal FTDF Graph Constraints –G contains no causality cycles –A legal graph must start with source actors and complete a cycle with sink actors –All actors in graph G must execute at least once before a new cycle begins FTDF tokens are exchanged on each cycle with synchronous semantics Based on these constraints for composition, we can determine the data dependencies of the Actors in the graph. It determines the order, or schedule, which actors may fire and communication may occur
6 Course 290N, Fall 2004 FTDF Assumptions A fault event in nodes in the FTDF graph assume fail silence –Fail silence: produces correct results or produces no results at all In general, fault events could be generated due to: –Processing element fault –Communication media fault –Actor fault (i.e. may be due to failure or producing invalid outputs) However, I simplify by only assuming an actor fault since the graph is “flattened” and no fault on communication channel
7 Course 290N, Fall 2004 Implementation Requirements –1. For each actor in a graph, a firing function is defined that satisfies each actor’s firing rules –2. Construction of a “legal” FTDF graph Ptolemy II –1. If requirements above are satisfied, all actors are placed in a list and ordered based on functional dependencies –2. Each actor executes according to a schedule known before compile time –3. If an actor cannot fire, an Exception is thrown alerting the designer that an actor cannot fire due to not satisfying its firing rules
8 Course 290N, Fall 2004 Conclusions and Open Issues Scheduler for the FTDF domain is constructed in Ptolemy II –Programming issues and bugs with remainder of the FTDF domain still needs resolving Bounded memory execution? –Yes. Synchronous semantics ensures only one firing per cycle for any upstream actor Is such a domain useful? –Possibly adjusting FTDF behavior to other existing domains What if tokens arrive out of order, “late”? Can FTDF models be statically scheduled as in SSDF (Statically Schedulable Data Flow) –Its possible, but balance equations must be dynamically altered between cycles
9 Course 290N, Fall 2004 References C. Pinello, L. P. Carloni, and A. L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli. Fault-tolerant deployment of embedded software for cost-sensitive real-time feedback-control applications, Proc. Conf. Design, Automation, and Test in Europe (DATE), 2004. S. Edwards, L. Lavagno, E. Lee, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli. Design of Embedded Systems: Formal Methods, Validation and Synthesis. Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 85(n.3) – March 1997, p366-290. E. A. Lee and T. M. Parks, ``Dataflow Process Networks,'', Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 773-801, May, 1995. E. A. Lee and D. G. Messerschmitt, ``Static Scheduling of Synchronous Data Flow Programs for Digital Signal Processing,'' IEEE Trans. on Computers, January, 1987.
10 Course 290N, Fall 2004 Reliability Block Diagrams RBDs are diagrams for representing how components of a system are arranged and structurally connected in terms of reliability Commercial Tools: Relex RBD (Relex Software Corporation), BlockSim (ReliaSoft) B C D 1/2A