China 20096 我们能不能做得更好？ Can we do it better? 基于语义的搜索 Semantics-based search 概念组合描述 concept combination specification 指定特定领域 domain specific 逼近搜索 approximate search 搜索代理 search agent
China 20097 语义网 (Semantic Web) 核心思想 : 给网络信息赋于确切定义的意义, 即语义。 „ The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well- defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in co-operation.“ [Berners-Lee et al., 2001]
China 20098 语义网想做什么？ (What the Semantic Web wants to do) 机器可自动处理 机器可理解 Content is machine-understandable if it is bound to some formal description of itself (i.e. metadata).
China 20099 万维网 : 影响和展望 WWW: Its impacts and visions
China 200920 语义网与本体 Semantic Web and Ontologies
China 200921 五句话介绍语义网的主要思想： Why the Semantic Web ？ 任任何信息系统都需要数据； 数数据表示要独立于具体的应用和平台，以保证最大程度地可重 用； 采用统一的数据概念表示以保证数据表示独立于具体系统（即可 采用 Triple/Tuple 形式） ； 数数据应能描述网络资源（即要采用 RDF/RDFS 或其他类似的语 言） 数数据应提供初步的推理支持（即要采用 OWL 或其他知识表示语 言） （注意； RDF/RDFS/OWL 均采用 Triple 语义模型）
China 200922 发展趋势 根据美国著名市场研究公司 Gartner 的 2007 五月份报告， 到 2012 年， 70% 的 公开网页将带有一定程度的语义标注， 20% 将使用更强的基于语义网的本体。 Gartner (May 2007): "By 2012, 70% of public Web pages will have some level of semantic markup, 20% will use more extensive Semantic Web-based ontologies”
China 200923 海量语义数据的一部分 Ontologies and Metadata: Billion Triples dataset （十亿三元组数据集） 雅虎数据 东南大学数据 马里兰大学 英国 open 大学 SemWebBase （ DERI) 维基百科 地理名字 出版物 英文语义词典 Freebase 美国政府数据
China 200929 More about the Semantic Web 请见 8 月 29 日 星期六的导课 09:00-12:00 导课 1 ： Introduction to the Semantic Web （ Ivan Herman ）
China 200930 HTML 标识 (HTML Markup) …… Zhisheng Huang Affiliation : Department of Computer Science Faculty of Sciences Vrije University Amsterdam Email : huang @ cs.vu.nl Phone : 31-20-4447740(office) ……
China 200931 XML 标注 XML-Annotations Zhisheng Huang Department of Computer Science Faculty of Sciences Vrije University Amsterdam huang @ cs.vu.nl (31)-20-4447740 ……
China 200932 Data Structures 结构化数据 Structured Data: Database 半结构化数据 Semi-structured Data: HTML, XML, BibTex 非结构化数据 Non-structured Data: Text
China 200933 关系数据库的 XML 表示 XML representation of a relational database John 1234567 Mary 7654321 ….. member idnamephone 001John1234567 002Mary7654321 ……… AI group
China 200934 文件类型定义 Document Type Definition(DTD) <!DOCTYPE researcher [ … ]>
China 200935 ResearcherAffiliation has Department Faculty University Name Phone eMail 1 n 数据模型 Data Model
China 200936 XML 模式 XML Schema The purpose of an XML Schema is to define the legal building blocks of an XML document, just like a DTD.
China 200937 Why XML Schemas XML Schemas are extensible to future additions XML Schemas are richer and more useful than DTDs XML Schemas are written in XML XML Schemas support data types XML Schemas support namespaces
China 200938 名字冲突 Name Conflicts Since element names in XML are not fixed, very often a name conflict will occur when two different documents use the same names describing two different types of elements. If these two XML documents were added together, there would be an element name conflict because both documents contain a same element with different content and definition.
China 200939 XML 名字空间 XML NameSpace Using Namespaces to solve Name Conflicts Examples: xmlns:namespace prefix="namespace" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSche ma"
China 200940 可扩展标识语言模式 XML Schema <xsd:element name="affiliation" type="affil" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
China 200941 资源描述框架 Resource Description Framework(RDF) Metadata is machine understandable information about web resources or anything that has an URI, it is represented as a set of independent assertions: http://wasp.cs.vu.nl/sekt/dig/dig.pdf Zhisheng Creator Cees Creator Triple: T(subject, attribute, values)
China 200942 RDF: Dublin Core The Dublin Core provides properties for describing network objects, suitable for use by network search engines. The Dublin Core is a set of predefined properties for describing documents. The first Dublin Core properties were defined at the Metadata Workshop in Dublin, Ohio in 1995 and is currently maintained by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
China 200943 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an open forum engaged in the development of interoperable online metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models. http://dublincore.org/
China 200944 Annotating Metadata Guidance on expressing the Dublin Core within the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Eric Miller Paul Miller Dan Brickley Dublin Core; RDF; XML Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Dublin Core Data Model Working Group 1999-07-01 text/html en
China 200945 资源描述框架模式 RDF Schema (RDFS) RDFS defines vocabulary for RDF Organizes this vocabulary in a typed hierarchy Class, subClassOf, type Property, subPropertyOf domain, range
China 200946 RDFS Prof. Qu Hu ， W Person PhDStudentProfessor subClassOf type hasSuperVisor domain range type
China 200947 Using A Blank Node Here the blank node stands for the concept of "John Smith's address".
China 200948 Blank Node Identifiers Blank nodes must have a name for triple usage. Blank node identifiers have the form _:name exstaff:85740 exterms:address _:johnaddress. _:johnaddress exterms:street"1501 Grant Avenue". _:johnaddress exterms:city "Bedford". _:johnaddress exterms:state "Massachusetts". _:johnaddress exterms:zip"01730". If a node in a graph needs to be referenced from outside this context, a URIref is required. Blank nodes make binary relationships out of an n-ary one (between John and the street, city, etc.).
China 200949 资源描述框架模式 RDF Schema (RDFS) RDFS defines vocabulary for RDF Organizes this vocabulary in a typed hierarchy –Class, subClassOf, type –Property, subPropertyOf –domain, range
China 200950 4. Other RDF Capabilities Containers Collections Reification Structured Values
China 200951 本体的主要特征 Key features of an Ontology 特殊与一般关系 InstanceOf Relation (Instances) 部分与整体关系 PartOf Relation (property) 概念层次性 Concept hierarchy, – 概念包含关系 concept subsumption
China 200952 网络本体语言 Web Ontology Language (OWL) OWL is built on top of RDF OWL is for processing information on the web OWL was designed to be interpreted by computers OWL was not designed for being read by people OWL is written in XML OWL is a web standard
China 200959 SHOIN(D) and OWL-DL SHION(D): S: ALC + role transitivity H: role hiersrchies O: nominals I: Inverse roles N: cardinality restriction D: datatypes
China 200960 OWL2 (OWL1.1) New features OWL 2 adds new functionality with respect to OWL 1. Some of the new features are syntactic sugar (e.g., disjoint union of classes) while others offer new expressivity, including: keys; property chains; richer datatypes, data ranges; qualified cardinality restrictions; asymmetric, reflexive, and disjoint properties; and enhanced annotation capabilities
China 200961 OWL 变种的三个方向 (I) OWL 2 EL: 便于有效地对大规模本体 进行推理 OWL 2 EL enables polynomial time algorithms for all the standard reasoning tasks; it is particularly suitable for applications where very large ontologies are needed, and where expressive power can be traded for performance guarantees.
China 200962 OWL 变种的三个方向 (II) OWL 2 QL: 便于针对大规模数据进行基于 数据库技术的合取查询 OWL 2 QL enables conjunctive queries to be answered using standard relational database technology; suitable for applications where relatively lightweight ontologies are used to organize large numbers of individuals or where it is useful or necessary to access the data directly via relational queries (e.g., SQL)..
China 200963 合取查询 Conjunctive Queries Conjunctive queries are of the general form （ in the first order language ）
China 200964 OWL 变种的三个方向 (III) OWL 2 RL: 便于针对 RDF 数据进行规则扩 展的有效推理支持 OWL 2 RL enables the implementation of polynomial time reasoning algorithms using rule-extended database technologies operating directly on RDF triples; it is particularly suitable for applications where relatively lightweight ontologies are used to organize large numbers of individuals or where it is useful or necessary to operate directly on data in the form of RDF triples..
China 200966 More about OWL2 请见 8 月 28 日 星期五下午 特邀讲座（潘志霖博士 Jeff Z. Pan ）： OWL2
China 200967 More Notations F: role functionality Q: qualified cardinality restriction R: generalised role inclusion E: existential role restriction
China 200968 OWL Variants and DL OWL Full: is not a DL OWL DL: SHOIN(D) OWL Lite: SHIF(D) OWL2 Full: is not a DL OWL2 DL: SROIQ(D) OWL2 EL: EL++ OWL2 QL: DL-Lite OWL2 RL: DLP
China 200969 EL++ A lightweight description logic that admits sound and complete reasoning in polytime. Dropping the (allValusFrom) restriction, whereas (someValuesFrom) is retained. It should be noted, however, that EL++ does admit (objectPropertyRange), which can be seen as an important case of (allValuesFrom).
China 200971 EL++ Ontologies SNOMED CT, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medizine, Clinical Terms. SNOMED is a large-scale commercial ontology that underlies the standardized terminology of the health-care systems in the US, the UK, and a couple of other countries. NCI. The Thesaurus of the National Cancer Institute. An ontology that formalizes terms related to cancer research. The Gene Ontology formalizes terms relating to genes and gene products. More than 95% of the axioms of the GALEN ontology can also be expressed in EL++.
China 200972 Description Logic Programs (DLP) Description Logic Programs is a Horn fragment of OWL 2. The distinguishing feature of DLP is that it is an existential-free fragment; that is, while reasoning, the universe is fixed in the sense that one only needs to consider the objects explicitly used in the facts of the ontology.
China 200973 Overview of DLP Features Essentially, DLP captures RDFS subset of DL - - plus a bit more. RDFS subset of DL permits the following statements: – Class C is Subclass of class D. – Domain of property P is class C. – Range restriction on property P is class D. – Property P is Subproperty of property Q. – a is an instance of class C. – (a,b) is an instance of property P.
China 200974 Overview of DLP Features(continued) DLP also captures: – Using the Intersection connective (conjunction) in class descriptions – Stating that a property P is Transitive. – Stating that a property P is Symmetric. DLP can partially capture: most other DL features. Relevant technical issues in LP: – treatment of equality, e.g., uniqueness of names.
China 200975 DLP and OWL DL DLP is able to express the following features of OWL DL: concept disjointness, domains and ranges of properties, inverse and symmetric properties, functional and inverse-functional properties, sub-property and equivalence relations between object properties, transitive properties, and a limited form of General Concept Inclusion axioms (GCIs).
China 200976 DL-Lite DL-Lite is a fragment of OWL DL especially tailored for handling efficiently large number of facts. The main focus is to provide efficient query answering on the data and to allow the use of Relational Database Managment technologies for such a purpose.
China 200977 DL-Lite DL-Lite also includes most of the main features of conceptual models, like UML class diagrams and ER diagrams. More specifically, DL-Lite includes the following features of OWL DL: a constrained form of someValuesFrom restrictions, conjunction, concept disjointness, domains and ranges of properties, inverse properties, inclusion axioms for object properties.
China 200978 Complexity The Data Complexity: the complexity measured with respect to the number of facts in the ontology. The Taxonomic complexity: the complexity measured with respect to the size of the axioms in the ontology. The Query Complexity: the complexity measured with respect to the number of conjuncts in the conjunctive query. The Combined Complexity: the complexity measured with respect to both the size of the axioms and the number of facts. In the case of conjunctive query answering, the combined complexity also includes the query complexity.
China 200979 Complexity of Tractable Fragments- OWL DL
China 200980 Complexity of Tractable Fragments- OWL Lite
China 200981 Complexity of Tractable Fragments- EL++
China 200982 Complexity of Tractable Fragments- DL-Lite
China 200983 Complexity of Tractable Fragments- DLP
China 200984 Relationship between the fragments of OWL1.1(OWL2)
China 200985 Key Issues of the Semantic Web 数据，知识与语义 data ， knowledge ， and semantics 语义相关性， 语义相似性，与语义距离 Semantic relevance, semantic similarity, and semantic distance 知识表示与推理 Knowledge representation and reasoning 海量语义数据处理 Scalability 近似推理 Approximate reasoning
China 200986 语义网应用的一些实例： DBpedia Mobile http://beckr.org/DBpediaMobile/?location= Beijinghttp://beckr.org/DBpediaMobile/?location= Beijing http://beckr.org/DBpediaMobile
China 200987 芬兰医疗语义网 HealthFinland – Health Information on the Semantic Web http://www.seco.tkk.fi/applications/tervesu omi/ provide a new kind of solution approach to these problems on a national Finnish level. The system consists of three main components: Metadata, ontology, and service infrastructure. Semantic content creation process. A content creation and harvesting system has been implemented for producing semantically annotated contents, based on the shared metadata model and ontologies. Semantic portal HealthFinland (TerveSuomi) and its services. The material is published via a semantic portal that creates a single national entry-point for health information, health promotion and health-related news.
China 200988 National Semantic Web Ontology Project in Finland (FinnONTO), National Semantic Web Ontology Project in Finland (FinnONTO), 2003-2007 A large national continuation project of FinnONTO, called Semantic Web 2.0 (FinnONTO 2.0), started in the beginning of 2008.Semantic Web 2.0 (FinnONTO 2.0) The research is directed and is mostly carried our by the Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and the University of Helsinki. Also the University of Tampere is contributing to the work. The consortium behind the project included 37 public organizations and companies funding the research during the final year 2007. This consortium represents a wide area of functions of the society including museums, libraries, business, health organizations, government, media, and education. Public organizations, companies, and universities are participating in the project.
China 200989 荷兰国家文化传承工程 The Dutch Cultural Heritage Eculture Project STiTCH-Catch Chip Project
China 200990 Project E-Culture http://e-culture.multimedian.nl/
China 2009100 Balkenende attacks Bos “You’re a twister and dishonest”, said the Christian Democrat about his most main opponent (30/10/06) Polls: SP at 25 seats larger than VVD According to a poll conducted by TNS/NIPO, the SP has risen to be the third largest party. (7/11/06) Unrest in VVD over Rutte Liberal MP’s also complain about personal campaign by Rita Verdonk. (1/11/2006) Reality + SP Reality - VVD Balkenende – Bos Balkenende: Bos - Ideal VVD – VVD VVD – Verdonk 语义网应用于政治分析 实例研究： 2006 年荷兰大选