Presentation on theme: "Multi-Paragraph Essay:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Multi-Paragraph Essay: Jane Schaffer WritingTeaching theMulti-Paragraph Essay:
2 Jane Schaffer Background Jane Schaffer Curriculum materials for novels, composition and mythology can be found at:Jane Schaffer Publications offers tested and proven curriculum materials for composition and literature. The guides have been successful in grades 7 through 12, at all ability levels.For many decades, in English classrooms, writing instruction tended to follow a pattern: teachers assigned essays each Monday, collected them the following Friday, and in the meantime, devoted class time to other activities including reading and discussing literature. Students turned in their essays at the end of the week, teachers graded them over the weekend and returned them the following Monday. Most students would glance at the grade, ignore carefully written comments, and file their work in their notebooks (at best) or the trash can (at worst). Then the cycle would repeat itself.
3 Jane Schaffer Terminology Types of writing include: Essay – a piece of writing that gives thoughts (commentary) about a subject.Types of writing include:CLASSIFICATORY: To InformThe first term defined is an essay. There are different types of essays that we teach for StandardsPERSUASIVE: To PersuadeDESCRIPTIVE: To Describe
4 Jane Schaffer Terminology Essays must be a minimum of 4 paragraphs including the following parts:I: Intro 40+ wordsII: 1st body paragraph (100 + words)III: 2nd body paragraph (100 + words)IV: Concluding paragraph 40+ words)The Schaffer model should include an outline and graphic of what the essay looks like. Students often need a visual layout- or guideline. Essays must be a minimum of 4 paragraphs long – Intro, 2 body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Without the diagram, students may indent every sentence, forget to indent at all, or merge all paragraphs together as one.
5 Jane Schaffer Terminology Overview:Steps in the Writing Process:Pre-Writing2. Shaping the Essay3. First Draft4. Peer Response5. Revision6. Final DraftStudents need to see the “big picture” of the writing program to realize that all of the pieces they will learn are connected. We tell them that they will be taking notes on 18 terms and definitions and break the list into two parts: Steps in the Writing Process and Parts of the Essay.
6 Jane Schaffer Terminology Introductory Paragraph2. Thesis3. Body Paragraph4. Topic Sentence5. Concrete Detail6. Commentary7. Chunk8. Concluding Sentence9. Conclusion ParagraphPartsoftheEssay:Students are introduced to the essay format and students get a copy of it. They won’t necessarily understand all of it, but they will have a sense of where the unit is going.
7 Jane Schaffer Terminology Thesis – a sentence with a subject and opinion. Often appears at the end of introductory paragraph.(#2)Students are guided through the process of recognizing and writing a thesis sentence. A thesis is a sentence with an a subject and opinion. Students practice writing and identifying thesis sentences.
8 Jane Schaffer Terminology Pre-writing – the process of getting concrete Details on paper before organizing paragraphs.Prewriting is the process of getting concrete details down on paper before organizing an essay into paragraphs. After thesis instruction, time is spent teaching the different ways to pre-write: bubble clusters, spider diagrams, outlines, line clusters, and columns.
9 Prewriting - Bubble Clusters Jane Schaffer WritingPrewriting - Bubble ClustersBBQStay upLateTime withSiblingsDailyRoutineFamilySUMMERTIMEThe first method is bubble clusters. It is also called mapping, webbing and clustering. Many teacher have learned this approach through the National Writing Project sites across the country. Students come well-trained in this method. Bubble clusters are not effective with everyone. The Schaffer materials come with detailed instructions for labeling the types of prewriting.MoviesVacationPleasureReading
10 Prewriting - SPIDER Clusters Jane Schaffer WritingPrewriting - SPIDER ClustersTime with SiblingsStay up Late and sleep inBBQSUMMERTIMEDaily RoutineFamilyAnother method is spider diagrams. They are laid out on the page like bubble clusters, but they use straight lines instead of circles. Some students feel more comfortable with the linear, horizontal/vertical layout rather than the circular one.Pleasure ReadingMoviesVacation
11 I. II. III. Jane Schaffer Writing Prewriting - Outline Outline Getting A ComputerI.II.I. Picking One OutA. Comparison ShoppingB. Talking to Sales personsOutlineIII.Outlining is another method. Some students prefer this approach because they like to move from top to bottom or left to right. The elaborate Roman numeral-Arabic letter structure is not required as long as students indent properly and keep their ideas, flexibility is allowed.II. Setting it UpA. Tried to Read the ManualB. Friend came into Teach
12 Prewriting - Columns Jane Schaffer Writing TWO CHARACTERS ALIKE DIFFERENT22.214.171.124.2.3.Another method is columns. This approach combines a linear form like spider diagrams with vertical columns for listing ideas. This method often produces the greatest number of concrete details because students fill whatever space given. Here is an example of a Likenesses/Differences column chart.
13 Prewriting - Columns Jane Schaffer Writing BEING FAMOUS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES126.96.36.199.2.3.Other columns may include Advantages/Disadvantages or FOR/AGAINST columns.
14 Prewriting - Columns Jane Schaffer Writing 1. MY TWO BEST FRIENDS 2. CHERYL JOEKnown since first gradeHave four classes togetherLives down the street.Take martialarts class with3.Students often comment that they didn’t know they had a choice of prewriting techniques and they feel more confident because they have more options that may appeal to them.
15 1 part concrete detail (CD) and Jane Schaffer WritingRatiothe ration of1 part concrete detail (CD) and2 parts commentary (CM)Of all the skills students learn in this writing unit, commentary is the most difficult. Writing commentary means giving an opinion, interpretation, insight, analysis, personal reaction, feelings, or reflection about a topic. Students must write two or more points of commentary (CM) for every concrete detail (CD) in a body paragraph. We write this ratio as CD:CM 1:2+CD : CM1 : 2
16 Jane Schaffer Terminology Introduction – the first paragraph in an essay. It includes the thesis, most often at the end. (#1)The introduction is the first paragraph in an essay. It includes the thesis, most often at the end of the paragraph. Students begin their essay after becoming familiar with the steps of the writing process by this time they can focus on the more difficult contrete detail and commentary within personal papers.
17 Jane Schaffer Terminology a middle paragraph in an essay used to develop a point and support the thesis.(#3)The body paragraph has a
18 Jane Schaffer WritingShaping the Essay done after the prewriting and before the first draft of an essay.It’s an OUTLINE of a THESIS, TS, CD, CM ideas(#2 top)Two or three days are taken to “shape” the essay. Depending on the needs of the class. Students use anyone of a number of formats, or their own paper for this process.
19 Topic Sentence the first sentence in a body paragraph. Jane Schaffer WritingTopic Sentence the first sentence in a body paragraph.(#4)Topic sentences require thought and practice.
20 Jane Schaffer Writing Concrete Details (#5) Examples Facts Details SpecificsStatisticsIllustrationsStudents will say that they can’t tell the difference between concrete detail and commentary. It is a difficult skill for anyone that demands extra effort. They can distinguish between the two, despite their misgivings or initial lack of confidence. Concrete details include examples, facts, details, specifics, statistics, illustrations.
21 Jane Schaffer Writing Commentary (#6) Opinions Supporting sentences ExplanationCommentary is a difficult skill to master because all the thoughts must from from the student Students are “commenting on” a point they have made. Commentary echoes the focus in the thesis and topic sentences.
22 ONE Concrete Detail (CD) Jane Schaffer WritingChunkONE Concrete Detail (CD)andTWO Commentary (CM).(#7)
23 Jane Schaffer Writing PRACTICE: Sentence 1: (TS) The walls in this room are dull and boring.Sentence 2: (CD) For example, Ms. Yen only has about 4 posters in her room.Students practice simple and more complex skills of developing “chunks”.Sentence 3: (CM) This proves that the walls reflect Ms. Yen’s uncreative personality.Sentence 4: (CM) Both Ms. Yen and her room are plain and unexciting.
24 Jane Schaffer Writing PRACTICE: Sentence 1: (TS) Shirley Jackson uses mood and tone to provide suspense in her short stories.Sentence 2: (CD) For example, she uses an ordinary tone in “The Lottery.”Practice can include literary concrete detail and commentary as well as personal concrete detail and commentary.Sentence 3: (CM) This shows that Jackson is successful in making her readers feel shock at the end of her stories.Sentence 4: (CM) She is a great at writing short stories.
25 PRACTICE: One body Paragraph Jane Schaffer WritingPRACTICE: One body ParagraphSentence 1: (TS) Ms. Yen is a great teacher.Sentence 2: (CD): For example, she posts our grades frequently.Sentence 3: (CM) She obviously cares for her students.Sentence 4: (CM)She wants all her students to succeed.Sentence 5: (CD)Another example, Ms. Yen tries and makes time for her students.Sentence 6: (CM: She is understanding and kindSentence 7: (CM) Ms. Yen loves all her students.Sentence 8: (CS) There should be more teachers like Ms. Yen.Practice can include literary concrete detail and commentary as well as personal concrete detail and commentary.
26 Jane Schaffer WritingConcluding Sentence- the last sentence in a body paragraph. (#8)ALL COMMENTARYDOES Not include KEYWORDS from the paragraphGives a finished feeling to the paragraph
27 Jane Schaffer Terminology Concluding Paragraph – may sum up ideas, reflect on what was said in the essay, give more commentary, or a personal statement about the subject. (#9)ALL COMMENTARYGives A Finished Feeling To The EssayDoes Not Repeat Keywords From The Paper Or Intro.
28 Jane Schaffer Writing BODY PARAGRAPH SAMPLE TS = Topic Sentence CD = Concrete DetailCM = Commentary <-- ChunkCm = CommentaryCM = Commentary <-- ChunkCS = Closing SentenceBefore students start writing their own commentary, they should understand the format. For the first few “training” essays, there is an 8-sentence requirement for body paragraphs. When they are ready to leave the format, they may weave themselves from the sentence requirement and WEAVE concrete detail and commentary as long as they adhere to the ratio.
29 Jane Schaffer Writing AUDIENCE many of the same factors which affect the writer also affect the audienceagesocial classeducation
31 A – Brilliant/Excellent A – Brilliant/Excellent Essay Scoring GuideA – Brilliant/ExcellentFormat includes excellent concrete detailFormat includes insightful commentaryFind correctionsOrganization is clear and logicalVery few, if any mechanical errorsExcellent sentence varietyCorrect and skillful use of transitionsRepeats little or not at allA – Brilliant/ExcellentFormat includes excellent concrete detailFormat includes insightful commentaryFind correctionsOrganization is clear and logicalVery few, if any mechanical errorsExcellent sentence varietyCorrect and skillful use of transitionsRepeats little or not at all
32 Jane Schaffer Writing Title Introduction Body Paragraphs Conclusion Thesis statementBody ParagraphsTSCDCMCSConclusion