Presentation on theme: "Railway Safety Plan and Its Status in Korea"— Presentation transcript:
1 Railway Safety Plan and Its Status in Korea IRSC 2007, Goa, IndiaRailway Safety Plan and Its Status in KoreaSanglog Kwak*, Jonbae Wang, Yunok Cho, Hyukjin YoonKorea Railroad Research InstituteNational Railway Safety R&D Program Office
3 About KRRI : Korea Railroad Research Institute Founded in 1996, financed by Korean government246 individuals works for railway R&D division and national project divisionKey research areaRolling stock, track & civil engineering, signaling & electrical engineering, railway policy & operationNational projectsHigh speed train development , upgrading conventional railway, design urban rail transit system, transportation technology, Trans-Korean railway constructionNational safety R&D program from 2004Homepage :KRRI founded in 1996, and financed by Korean government246 individuals works for railway R&D division and national project divisionWe have 5 key research area and 6 national project division,National safety R&D program is going on form 2004.Currently 23 personal working for railway system safety in KRRIYou can find more information from the website :
4 Background : General information in Korea 3.7 billion passenger moved 65.4 billion passenger-kmRailway take more than 25% of passenger-kmPassenger-km increase 2% every year10 TOC operate 99 lines(4,000km)Korail operate 80 lines(3,380km)9 Metro TOC operate 16 lines(500km)1,050 station, 1,510 level crossing(26 accidents, 3 fatalities)60% of lines are electrified280 individuals work on safety management460 accidents, 190 fatalities (40% are attempted suicide)Experience based safety management Risk based safety managementThis slide shows background of railway safety in KoreaIn 2006, totally 3.7 billion passenger moved 65 billion passenger km, 18 passenger-km for each journey.Railway take more than 25% of passenger-km among transportation mode.Which figures are steadily increasing about 2% every year.Currently 10 TOC operate 4000km railway lines,Korail previously Korean National Railway, privatized 2004, operate majority of Korean railway.10 TOC have total 1050 stations, 1510 level crossings60% of lines are electrified and this ratio is steadily increasing.In TOC about 280 individuals works on safety management in Korea.Besides, about 60 individuals work on railway safety at government, research institute, competency management, accident investigationsIn 2006, 460 accidents occurred which results 190 fatalities.Legal background for risk based safety management have been established in 2004, but it will be an optional choice by 2008.This is an transition period from experience based safety management to risk based safety management.Korea have many experience and many specialists on risk management in nuclear industry.So many experts in nuclear industry are joining together in railway safety projects.
5 Background : Safety Status Number of accidents fatalities are plotted in this graph.About 40% of fatalities are attempted suicide.Fatalities on national railway are steadily decreasing,But fatalities on metro railway are increasing due to the increase of passenger and operating companies
6 Background : Safety Status Improving safety from 2004This graph shows the number of railway accident change in recent years.Number of accidents from national railway and metros are plotted in this graph.In 2003, there had a tragic subway fire accident, and Railway Safety Act was established in 2004.Safety management and safety plan have been carrying our after 2004.Due to the enforcement of safety regulations, accident have been decreasing whereas the passenger-km increase.
7 Background : Accident Cause National rail : 253 accidents, Metro : 207 accidentsAccident and incident occurred in 2006 have been analyzed and shown in this slide.National railway accidents causes composed of …External causes includes trespass, attempted suicide, level crossings accident.Human factors, about 50% are caused by driver’s problems.Old diesel locomotive rolling stock, which are planning to discard due to electrification, cause break down failure.Metro accident & incident caused are some what different comparing national railway lineExternal cause is higher ratio due to the slip, fall, attempted suicide in the station platform.
8 Background : Environmental Change in Korea Passenger’s concern on safetyStructural reform of railway industriesSeparation of operator and infrastructure managerChange of Health and Safety Act at Work (working hours, shift work)Metro related accident increaseIncrease number of attempted suicide and slip in the platformAging of populationKTX (Korea Train eXpress) operation from 2004Preparation of international Railway connectionTSR (Trans Siberian Railway)TKR (connection of the North and South Korean Railway)Electrification of conventional lineIncreasing railway hazards but no railway safety plan by 2004Non-precedent change have been occurred in recent years during 105-year railway history.These includes …1) Passenger’s concern on safety2) Structural reform of railway industries, Separation of operator and infrastructure manager3) Change of Health and Safety Act at Work (working hours, shift work)4) Metro related accident increase : Increase number of attempted suicide and slip in the platform5) Aging of population6) KTX (Korea Train eXpress) operation at 20047) Preparation of international Railway connectionTSR (Trans Siberian Railway), TKR (connection of the North and South Korean Railway)8) Electrification of conventional lineWhich results Increasing railway hazards but no railway safety plan by 2004
9 Background : Application of Railway Safety Act Daegue subway train fire accident (191 fatalities)Safety Planning (from 2006, annual)National wide railway safety programConstruction of SMS & Safety Case approval (from 2006, biennial)Risk Management (from 2008, biennial)Safety inspection (from 2006 , biennial)Safety technology R&DAccident investigationEtc.After train fire accident Railway Safety Act 2004 was established.Main contents of railway safety act are shown in this slideSome of regulation in the Act are not activated by 2008But many of key safety management activities are included such as Safety Planning,National wide railway safety programConstruction of SMS & Safety Case approval (from 2006, biennial)Risk Management (from 2008, biennial)Safety inspection (from 2006 , biennial)Safety technology R&DAccident investigationEtc.According to the Act, National Railway Safety Plan was established in 2006.
10 The 1st Railway Safety Plan TFT from all railway safety related organizations in 2005Government, TOCs, research institute joinsDetermine 77 safety measures, budget, scheduleRequirements for safe operation of the railway systemEnvironmental change for railway safetyCurrent problems and limitation on safetyIn relation with other planAccident analysis & Risk analysisMany iterative work among organizationThe 1st Railway Safety Plan was released in 2006Establish annual safety plan from 2006Progress management from 2006Planning process is shown in this slideTFT, composed by government, TOCs, research institute have been composed from 2005.Determine 77 safety measure and related budget, schedule and effects are estimated based on the following.Requirements for safe operation of the railway systemEnvironmental change for railway safetyCurrent problems and limitation on safetyMany iterative work among organizationIn relation with other planAccident analysis & Risk analysisAnd the plan was release in 2006 and each safety related organization have to established their own annual plan from 2006
11 Safety Plan in Korea The 6th Transportation Safety Plan Transportation Safety Act(1979)Including all transportation modes Road Traffic safety is major concernGovernment and TOCs establish planPassenger & public safetyThe 1st Railway Safety Plan(2005)Railway Safety Act (2004)All the railway safety related organization have to prepareNeed for approval of governmentSMS, safety measure, schedule, results, budgetNational safety target and safety indexRisk management includedPassenger, public, and staff safetyCovers all railway related accidentsBefore the 1st Railway Safety planTransportation safety plan have been sole plan in railway industry.And the plan have been established in relation with Railway Safety plan from 2007.Currently th 6th Transportation Safety Plan have been applied.The 1st railway safety plan have been applied from 2005.Safety related organizations have to establihed their own safety plan based on the 1st railway safety plan from 2006.This include the following .
12 Safety management organizations National organizationGovernment (MOCT): safety budget, safety policy, safety target, safety case policy, safety plan, safety standardARAIB : accident investigation, Part of MOCTKOTSA : Competency & safety information management, safety case approval & safety inspectionKRRI : establishment of safety rules & standards (draft), guidelines, manuals, risk assessment, safety technology research, support expert to MOCT & ARAIB, KOTSAKorea Rail Network Authority : infrastructure structure managerPrivate organizationKorail : operate passenger & freight train, traffic control, track & station maintenance. (Korea National Rail from 2004)Metro operating company : 7 metro funded by regional governmentsPrivate TOCsSafety management organizations in Korea are shown in this slide.
13 Safety Measures & Budget in 2007 The 1st Railway Safety Plan ( )Safety measure in 6 field, 77 projects (6 billion USD )Reducing 40% of accidents and fatalitiesSafety Plan in 2006Staff management 13 projects, 31mil. USDUpgrading safety infrastructure : 13 projects. 392 mil. USDRolling stock safety management 16 projects, 558 mil. USDEstablishment of SMS : 11 projects, 1 mil. USDAccident investigation and emergency response system : 14 projects, 7 mil. USDR&D on Safety technology : 10 projects, 16mil. USDImportant measures are listed in the paperThe 1st safety plan have 77 projects in 6 fields which need 6 billion USD during6 fields and budget in 2006 are shown in the following.
14 Safety Measures : Staff management Train driver license regulation from 2006Management on competency, aptitude test, physical examination, experience on route, educationDaily examination of driver before on boardSleeping time, alcohol / drug testTesting tools and question sheetMonitoring of high risk staffAccident related personal, novice driver, etc.Change of person’s habit or misunderstanding on workTraining program for safety critical workOperation and development of training programEvaluation of training program, incentive on staff for safety activityPreparation of track work guidelineWorking and planning processTrain warning system, installation of safe area on working placeThe 1st field is staff management.Human factors have been the major reason for accident.And many of safety measure are focused on train driver.
15 Safety Measures : Infrastructure safety High risk 466 level crossingChange into over bridgeInstall obstruction detectorPlatformScreen Door installationSafety fence & CCTVEmergency train stop button in platform & communication SystemFire SafetyEmergency evacuation tunnelToxic gas ventilation systemWarning system, smoke detector, emergency lightEtc.
16 Safety Measure : Rolling stock safety Application of safety standard for collison, derailment, and fireInterior material change : Non-toxic gas release in case of fireRisk assessment for design approvalDischarging old rolling stock(> 25years)Installation & Upgrade : signaling, comm. SystemUpgrading rolling maintenance equipmentsEtc.In 2006, many of the budget is spending on rolling stock related safety measure.
17 Safety Measure : Safety Management System Regulation for Safety Case (2006), Risk Assessment (2008)Regulation for Trespass, level crossing managementRegulation for R/S design approval and verificationSMS for dangerous freight transportationSMS will be developed in relation with R&D results
18 Safety Measure : Accident Investigation & crisis management Establishment of ARAIBExpertise in investigationCooperation system with other organizationsDesign & construction of accident and safety information systemPublishing railway safety white paperConstruction of preliminary traffic control center for emergency responseEstablishment of security and terror response systemAdvertisement on emergency response
19 Safety Measure : Safety technology R&D System engineering for the interface control of research topicsSystem safety application( including risk assessment)R&D on human factors, training system using simulatorTesting and evaluation technique for major accident (including testing infrastructure installation)Design and construction of an safety information management systemDevelopment of emergency action guideline for designed accident scenariosDevelopment of intelligent level crossing and the improvement of safety performance
20 Transition to Risk Based Safety Management Current national R&D program for railway safetySystem safety & system engineeringEstablishment of safety management systemDevelopment of assessing & preventing techniques for major accidents13 programs are based on risk assessmentResults will be reflected in the next safety plan, regulations and rules
21 Conclusions and future plan Railway safety plan and its status are presented1st Railway safety plan became the basis of safety activitiesSafety measures and current status in 6 fields are introduced20% of accidents reduced, 4% of passenger increase during 2yearsProblems will be reflect in the next planResistance on new regulation and standardsLack of expertise on small TOC’s safety management organization.Consistency among regulation, plans, and standardDifferent schedule between activity and safety budget
25 National R&D on railway safety 1. System engineering and project management2. Hazard analysis and risk assessment for safety management3. Establishment of a management system for the human error and the assessment of aptitude4. Establishment of a training system using simulators for the human error management5. Establishment of safety standards and management system for infrastructure6. Establishment of safety standards and management system for rolling stocks7. Establishment of safety standards and management system for safety critical S/W8. Establishment of safety standards and management system for dangerous freight operation9. Development of emergency action guidelines for designed accident scenarios10.Design and construction of an safety management information system11. Development of test and evaluation techniques for the fire resistance of rolling stocks and infrastructures12. Development of test and evaluation techniques for collision and the improvement of safety performances13. Development of test and evaluation techniques for derailment and the improvement of safety performances14. Development of test and evaluation techniques for train control system and the improvement of safety performances15. Development of intelligent level crossing and the improvement of safety performances