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Lesson Overview 20.1 Viruses.

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1 Lesson Overview 20.1 Viruses

2 THINK ABOUT IT Farmers began to lose their tobacco crop to a plant disease. What would you do next? How would you deal with the invisible?

3 Discovery of Viruses In 1892, Dmitri Ivanovski--found in the liquid extracted from infected plants. In 1897, Martinus Beijerinck- named tiny particles in the juice viruses-“poison.” In 1935, Wendell Stanley- found crystals of tobacco mosaic virus. Since living organisms do not crystallize- viruses were not alive

4 Discovery of Viruses A virus is a nonliving particle made of Proteins nucleic acids sometimes lipids. Viruses can reproduce only by infecting living cells.

5 Structure and Composition
Viruses differ widely in terms of size & structure. Most viruses are so small they can be seen only with the aid of a powerful electron microscope.

6 Structure and Composition
The protein coat surrounding a virus- capsid. May have an additional membrane that surrounds the capsid (flu virus) Contain a few genes to hundreds of genes

7 Structure and Composition
Most viruses’ proteins on the surface membrane binds to proteins on the host cell. The proteins “trick” the cell to take the virus or some genetic material Once inside, genes are expressed & may destroy the cell.

8 Structure and Composition
Most viruses infect only a very specific kind of cell. Plant viruses infect plant cells Animal viruses infect only certain related species of animals Viruses that infect bacteria -bacteriophages. RABIES!

9 Lytic Infections Lytic infection virus enters a bacterial cell
makes copies of itself causes cell to burst- lyse. EX.) T4 DNA core inside protein capsid

10 Lytic Infections 1.) Attachment
2.) Injection: The virus injects its DNA into host cell. 3.) Synthesis: Virus DNA uses host DNA to make more viruses 4.) Assembly: Host cell creates more of the viruses 5.) Releases: Finally the host cell lyses (ruptures) hundreds of viruses that go on & infect other cells.

11 Lytic Infections A lytic virus is similar to an outlaw in the Wild West of the American frontier in the demands the virus makes on its host. First, the outlaw eliminates the town’s existing authority. (In a lytic infection, the host cell’s DNA is chopped up)

12 Lytic Infections Next, the outlaw demands to be outfitted with new equipment from the local townspeople. (In a lytic infection, the viruses use the host cell to make viral DNA & viral proteins.)

13 Lytic Infections Finally, the outlaw forms a gang that leaves the town to attack new communities. (In a lytic infection, the host cell bursts, releasing hundreds of virus particles.)

14 Lysogenic Infection Some Viruses cause a lysogenic infection. dormant state Prophase-DNA that is embedded in the host’s DNA The prophage may remain part of the DNA of the host cell for many generations.

15 Lysogenic Infection Influences from the environment—radiation, heat, etc—trigger the prophage to become active. becomes an active lytic infection.

16 A Closer Look at Two RNA Viruses
About 70 % of viruses contain RNA rather than DNA. In humans, RNA viruses cause a wide range of infections mild colds to severe HIV. Certain kinds of cancer also begin with an infection by viral RNA. HPV Common Cold

17 The Common Cold Cold viruses attack with a very simple, fast-acting infection. A capsid settles on a cell typically in the nose brought inside Virus makes many new copies of the viral RNA.

18 The Common Cold The host cell’s ribosomes mistake the viral RNA for its own & makes other virus proteins. The new capsids assemble & within 8 hours, the host cell releases 100s of new virus particles to infect other cells.

19 HIV Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by an RNA virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV belongs to a group of RNA viruses-retroviruses. The genetic information of a retrovirus is copied from RNA to DNA instead of from DNA to RNA.

20 HIV When a retrovirus infects a cell, it makes a DNA copy of its RNA. The copy inserts itself into the DNA of the host cell.

21 HIV Retroviral infections are similar to lysogenic infections of bacteria. like a prophage in a bacterial host, the viral DNA may remain inactive for many cell cycles before making new virus particles HIV damages the host’s immune system.

22 Viruses and Cells All viruses are parasites. Parasites depend upon other living organisms for their existence +/- Viruses infect living cells in order to grow & reproduce taking advantage of the nutrients & cellular machinery.

23 Viruses and Cells Viruses have many of the characteristics of living things. After infecting living cells, viruses can reproduce, regulate gene expression, & even evolve. Swine Flu Rotavirus

24 Viruses and Cells Some of the main differences between cells and viruses are summarized in this chart.

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