Cytokines: low-molecular-weight proteins secreted by WBC or other cell types in response to a number of stimuli. Interleukins (IL): cytokines that are.
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Presentation on theme: "Cytokines: low-molecular-weight proteins secreted by WBC or other cell types in response to a number of stimuli. Interleukins (IL): cytokines that are."— Presentation transcript:
1 Cytokines: low-molecular-weight proteins secreted by WBC or other cell types in response to a number of stimuli.Interleukins (IL): cytokines that are secrected by leukocytes and act upon other leukocytes.Chemokines: cytokines that stimulate the migration and activation of cells, especially phagocytes and lymphocytes. They have a central role in inflammatory responses.
30 Cytokine AntagonistsIL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra): binds to the IL-1 receptor but has no activity.Soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R): a segment of the a subunit that can bind to IL-2 and prevent its interaction with membrane-bound IL-2 receptor.Viral mimics of cytokines and cytokine receptors
32 TH1 and TH2 cells can be identified in vitro by the cytokines they secrete: TH1 cells promote cell-mediated immunity (e.g., activation of TC cells and delayed-type hypersensitivity) and the production of opsonization IgG antibodies. They are also associated with inflammation.TH2 cells stimulate eosinophil activation and differentiation and promote humoral response (secretion of IgM and IgE antibodies). They are related to allergic reactions.
37 The TH1/TH2 Balance Determines Disease Outcomes Leprosy: a disease caused by an intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae.Tuberculoid leprosy: a cell-mediated immune response forms granulomas, resulting in the destruction of most of the mycobacteria.Lepromatous leprosy: humoral response dominates, sometimes resulting in hypergammaglobulinemia. High numbers of the bacteria in macrophages. The infection will progress and spread into the bone and cartilage with extensive nerve damage.
39 Cytokine-related Diseases Bacterial septic shock: endotoxin in cell wall of gram-negative bacteria stimulate macrophages to over produce IL-1 and TNF-a.Bacterial toxic shock: caused by superantigens that bind simultaneously to MHC class II and TCR Vb domain. 5-25% of total T cells may respond to a single superantigen and result in excessive production of cytokines.
40 Strategies help to prolong the survival of heart transplants