Presentation on theme: "Understanding Communities and their Dynamics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Community Development Core Competencies for Extension Professionals in the North Central Region
2 Understanding Communities and their Dynamics Basic Understanding of CommunityCommunity DemographicsCommunity EconomicsCommunity Power StructureNatural Resources and SustainabilityCommunity Situational AnalysisCommunity Development Process
4 This presentation has been modified from the original version developed byTim BorichProgram LeaderIowa State UniversityTim Borich
5 Learning ObjectivesIntegrate what has been learned so far into a community development processLearn the the key elements of basic methods of community action- Social Action Construct- Community Visioning & Strategic Planning- Asset MappingLearn the factors that contribute to successful community development processes
6 Effective Community Development Effective community development is composed of both:Issues being addressed (content knowledge)Processes to address issue (process knowledge & skills)Community developers have a “toolbox” of tools and techniques to use in various situations.
7 Community Development Processes Community development processes may focus on:A single, episodic eventComprehensive, multi-issue community approachExtension is called upon for both approaches, including a single aspect of one approach.
8 Understanding the Importance of Process There are many factors that contribute to the success of community development initiatives, poor process can lead to only partial success or even outright failure.- Too many meetings without sufficient progress- Too few meetings to generate enough support- Meetings without a clear focus- Poorly attended meetings- People who will make the final decision are not involved- People are unable to find agreement
9 Community Development Without a Process Community development without a process would not exist. What would exist:Turf warsLack of decisionsNon-involvement of peopleConflict over scarce resourcesLack of developmentLack of desired outcomes
10 Community Development Process Provides Community development processes provide a way for people with very different perspectives, values and interests to come together and to work together to address complex public issues that are held in common.
11 Effective Community Development Process Effective community development is more than a particular approach. Rather, it emerges from a rich interaction among complementary approaches that actively and meaningfully engage the community and foster mutually supportive partnerships while focusing on a whole-community perspective.-- Community DevelopmentThe William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
12 Community Development Processes Community Organization/Civic EngagementVarious organizing techniquesData Collection/analysisEvaluationEvaluation IndicatorsVarious problem identification & analysis techniquesIssue Clarification/Goal SettingImplementationWho & how decisions are madeVarious techniques to analyze alternativesDecision makingAlternatives Analysis
13 Community Organization How do you engage people?Capacity building through leadership development programsCommunity organizing through one-on-one interviewingStakeholder analysisOther?
14 Data Collection & Analysis How do you bring data and information to the issue to better understand the nature of the issue?Community profileSurveyFocus groupsExpertsOther techniques?
15 Issue Clarification & Goal Setting Is the group clear about the issue? What are the priorities?Group discussion“Lasso” techniqueNominal Group techniqueFocus groupsOther?
16 Alternatives Analysis What are the alternative approaches/solutions?Talk to expertsVisit sites, other communitiesTechniques to analyze various alternativesForce FieldCriterion Grid
17 Decision Making Who makes the decision? How will the decision be made? VotingConsensusIs there opportunity for in-put from residents/stakeholders?
18 Implementation Who will implement the decision? How will it be implemented?What resources will be needed?How will the resources be obtained?What is the timeline?Who will supervise implementation? (Monitor & revise)
19 Evaluation What are the intended outcomes? What are the indicators? Who will evaluate?How will the evaluation be done?Who receives the evaluation?
20 Social Action Construct Developed by George Beal and Joseph Bohlen in the 1960s at ISUFocus is upon maximization of community resources toward accomplishing a specific goalExtension Agent or Community Leader as “Change Agent”
21 Social Action Construct .1. Situational Analysis2. Problem Identification (Inside community or outside?)3. Form Initiating Set (First small groupto get things started)
22 Social Action Construct 4. Alternative Course of ActionReviewed with Formal and InformalLegitimizers” (Power Actors)5. Garner Diffusion sets (broader participation)through drawing attention to issue or problemand potential solutions
23 Social Action Construct How do you draw attention through “diffusion” techniques?Draw attention to the problem and solicit more participation.
24 Social Action Construct 6. Redefine Needs7. Get Commitments to Action8. Set Goals to resolve issue/problem9. Define means to achieve goals
25 Social Action Construct 10. Create a Plan of Work11. Mobilize Resources12. Launch Program (Don’t Forget Publicity)13. Implement Action Steps14. Final (Summative) Evaluation
26 Strategic Planning & Community Visioning Developed during the late 70s and early 80s as applied to community developmentUnlike comprehensive planning, community strategic planning typically has a shorter time horizon (5-10 years rather than 20 years)Community visioning evolved out of strategic planning in part to spur more creative and long- range ideas and goals.
27 Comprehensive Land Use Planning Comprehensive land use planning – started in 1960’s as a way for a community to look long-term (20 – 30 yrs.) and plan for the use of it’s land and infrastructure needs. Zoning, subdivision ordinances are the legal mechanisms to enforce a comprehensive land use plan.
28 Strategic Planning Process Step 1. Getting Ready(ID participants, info needed, and outcomes)Step 2. Environmental ScanS.W.O.T. (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats)Step 3. Develop a visionStep 4. Agree upon responses and priorities (SWOT) and set goals and objectivesStep 5. Write the Plan (Who, what, when, where, how)
29 Strategic Planning Typically utilizes a facilitator. Time needed can vary highly.Can be very inclusive or elitist.Who is at the table? (power, and community capitals)Is the community ready? (situational analysis)What data is needed?Will there be consensus on future?Who writes the plan? Who uses the plan?
30 Community Strategic Visioning: A Variation Focus is upon a future end state – a visionFocus upon looking beyond existing resourcesConsensus of vision provides direction and greater common sense of a shared futureVisioning process can stimulate creativity
31 New Tools for Visioning: Visualization 3-D Geographic Information Systems softwareSimple Computer Software combined with digital photography“Picture worth a thousand words”
32 GIS Modeling & Visualization Fort Madison, IA Example ProjectGIS Modeling & Visualization Fort Madison, IA
35 Community Visioning Project, 2003- 2004 Rustic Park of Lost Nation, IA BeforeAfter
36 Community Visioning Project, 2002- 2003 Fairfield WaterworksBeforeAfter
37 Asset MappingDeveloped in the early 1990s by John L. McKnight and John P. Kretzmann at Northwestern University.Why focus on problems?Inventory the assets of individuals and organizations.“Needs assessment” can be self-defeating process especially in low-resource communities.Concentrates on optimizing the resources available to the community.Focus upon what the community has rather than what it lacks.
39 Asset Mapping Steps (Source: Charlie French, Univ. of New Hampshire Ext.) Form a Steering CommitteeStep 5Administer Asset Assessment ToolStep 2Commit ResourcesStep 6Develop Resource ListStep 3Identify your CommunityStep 7Cross Reference Needs with AssetsStep 4Decide on Inventory Method(s)Step 8Identify Opportunities & Mobilize Community
40 Three Key Arenas for Identifying Community Assets PeopleFormal InstitutionsInformalOrganizations
41 Mapping the Assets of People Skills InformationCommunity SkillsEnterprising Interests and ExperiencesPersonal Information
42 Mapping Formal Organizations Every community has institutions that carry out important community functionsThese are persistent, on-going activities that meet the social needs of local residentsThe vitality of communities is dependent on these functions being carried out
43 Formal Organizations Kinship Economic Education Religious Political Associations
44 Informal Organizations: The third vital resource They may be neighborhood-based, community-based, or may extend outside the community’s boundariesSuch groups are critical because the involve, empower, and impact local citizensBuilding a community requires a deliberate effort to identify and involve such organizations
45 Some Examples of Informal Organizations Church groups: prayer group, stewardship committee, youth group, service groupCommunity Celebrations: Annual Fair, Art and Crafts Festival, July 4th ParadeNeighborhood groups: crime watch, homeowner’s associationSports Leagues: bowling, basketball, soccer, fishing, baseball
46 Asset Mapping (Conclusion) When it comes to community assets… sweat the details.Use community assets as a foundation upon which to build community developmentVery inclusive.Time Consuming.Works well in low resource communitiesBUT… are community assets (or capitals) available?
47 Other Models Community and multi-community collaboration Appreciative InquiryCivic EngagementOthers?
48 Elements of Effective Community Development Process Understanding different perspectives, ideologies, and analysis and working to create a planning, decision making, and action process that reflects the differing needs and goals of each community is part of what is needed to make a community development process work.
49 Elements of Effective Community Development Process An effective community development process…Intentional, strategic and requires advocacy of the process.Links other processes together.Supported by many.Not imposed on people.Residents are meaningful players.
50 Elements of Effective Community Development Process Issues of race, class, culture, and power are always present.Collaboration enriches the work.Conflict should be expected and addressed.
51 ReferencesAllison, Michael and Jude Kaye (1997) Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations: A Practical Guide and Workbook. John Wiley and Sons: New York.Ayres, Janet, et.al. (1990) Take Charge: Economic Development in Small Communities. ISU, North Central Regional Center for Rural Development: Ames IA.Beal, George M. et.al. (1966) Social Action and Interaction in Program Planning. Iowa State University Press: Ames IA.Beal, George M. and Daryl J. Hobbs (1982) Social Action: The Process in Community and Area Development. Cooperative Extension Service. Iowa State University: Ames IA. (SOC-16).
52 ReferencesByrson, John M. (1988) Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Josey-Bass:San FranciscoGreen, Gary P. et.al. (2001) Vision to Action: Take Charge Too. ISU, North Central Regional Center for Rural Development: Ames IA.Kretzman, John P. and John L. McKnight (1993) Building Com-munities From the Inside Out. ACTA Publications: Chicago IL.Rogers, Everett M. (1995) Diffusion of Innovations. The Free Press: New YorkWalzer, Norman (ed.) (1996) Community Strategic Visioning Programs. Praeger: Westport, Conn.
53 Web Sites http://outreach.msu.edu/bpbriefs/issues/brief4.pdf (click on publications, go to CD Practice)
54 Future AttractionsTrain-the-trainers workshop in Kansas City, November 1-3, 2006 to bring materials/training back on CD process skills.This professional development opportunity will be offered to Purdue staff in 2007.
55 Future AttractionsNorth Central workshops will be offered and special interest groups will be formed on various specialization topics:Economic DevelopmentLocal GovernmentNatural ResourcesGroup Process and FacilitationOrganizational DevelopmentLeadership Development and Civic EngagementCommunity ServicesWorkforce Development
56 Future AttractionsAn inventory of community development curricula, materials, and programs within the North Central Region is available on the North Central web site at:This inventory is being revised and will be expanded for Extension staff to add their own information in late 2006.