3Applications Wildlife Tracking Weather Monitoring Location-based AuthenticationRouting in ad-hoc networksSurveillances
4Properties of Localization Physical position versus symbolic locationAbsolute versus relative coordinatesLocalized versus centralized computationPercisionCostScaleLimitations
5Possible Approaches Triangulation, Trilateration Scene Analysis Location determined using geometry.Scene AnalysisObserved features used to infer location.ProximityDetection of change near known location.
6Scene AnalysisFeatures of an observed scene from a particular vantage point used to infer location.Not applicable in WSNs.
7ProximityCan be used for positioning when several overlapping anchors are avialalbe.Centronoid localizationIt can be used to decide whether a node is in the proximity of an anchor.E.g. Active Badge
8Triangulation Vs. Lateration The proximity helps to determine geometric relationship between nodes.The distance between them or angle of a singular triangle can be easily estimated.
9Lateration vs. Angulation When distances between entities are used, the approach is called lateration.when angles between nodes are used, one talks about angulation.
10TrilaterationUsing distances and anchor positions, the node’s position has to be at the intersection of three circles around the anchors.ddd
12RSSI Known : Transmission power Ptx The path loss model Path lost coefficient αReceiver can determine the distance d to the transmitter :
13RSSI Challenges: Signal propagation issues, especially indoors: Shadowing, Scattering, Multipath propagation.It’s usually a random process.
14Time of Arrival Conditions : The speed of propagation is known.Sound speed depends on environmental factors.Receiver and sender are synchronized.(drawback)The distance can be estimated, using the transmission time.
15TDoATDoA use two transmissions mediums of different propagation speeds to generate an implicit synchronization.First signal is used to measure ToA of the second one.
16TriangulationAngulation: using angles to determine distance with directional, or phased-array antennas.2D position requires two angle + one distance measurement.3D position requires two angle + one length + one azimuth measurement.d is knownd
17Mathematics of Lateration there are three anchors with known positions.For the unknown position of (xu,yu) and those anchors we have :
18Mathematics of Lateration After subtracting the third equ. and reordering them we have :That can be expressed using a linear matrix.
19Mathematics of Lateration Which the Matrix on the left side and right side are known constant.
20Solving the Distance Errors. Distance measurements are not perfect but only estimates with an unknown error ε are known.How to Solve this ?More than three anchors are needed.Use Multilateration Problem
21Multilateration When order the so called Euclidian formula , we have : A solution can be computed that minimizes the mean square error. which is :
22Single Hop Localization This is about systems where a node with unknown position can directly communicate with anchors.
23Active BadgeEvery badge periodically, sends unique identifier, via infrared, to the receivers. receivers, receive this identifiers and store it on a central server.IR sensor (receiver)Central ServerBadge
24Active officeThe devices which its position is to be determinate act as ultrasound sendersReceivers are placed at well-known position, mounted in array at the ceiling of a room.controller sends a radio message which contains the address of this specific device.The device sends out an ultrasound pulse, which is received by the array of receivers.
25Active officeThis array computes the difference between the arrival of the ultrasound pulse and the time when the radio signal was sent. (TDoA)
26CricketIn both recent cases, infrastructure determines device position.Here the devices themselves can compute their own positions or locations.
27CricketAnchors spread in a building send ultrasound pulses that combined with radio pulses, which allow the receiver to employ the TDoA to extract symbolic location information of its position.
28Overlapping Connectivity Try to use only the observation of connectivity to a set of anchors to determine a node’s position.
29APITDecide whether a node is within or outside of a triangle formed by any three anchors.
31APITApproximate P.I.T Test: If no neighbor of M is further from/closer to all three anchors A, B and C simultaneously, M assumes that it is inside triangle ΔABC. Otherwise, M assumes it resides outside this triangle.
33Two possible Errorsthe percentage of APIT tests exhibiting such an error is relatively small (14% in the worst case).
34APIT AggregationAPIT aggregates the results (inside/outside decisions among which some may be incorrect) through a grid SCAN algorithm.
35Using Angle of Arrivaluse anchors nodes that use narrow, rotating beams where the rotation speed is constant and known to all nodes.
36Positioning in MultiHop Recent approaches was based on connectivity of nodes to anchors.This assumption is not always true in a WSN – not every node is in direct contact with at least three anchors.
37SDPGeometric constraints between nodes are represented as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs).The LMIs can be combined to form a single semidefinite program.only constraints that form convex regions are amenable to representation as an LMI.
38SDPAngle of arrival data can be represented as a triangle and hop count data can be represented as a circle, but precise range data cannot be conveniently represented.
39SDPGiven a set of convex constraints on a node’s position, SDP simply finds the intersection of the constraints.
40MDS MDS-MAP is a centralized algorithm. Suppose there are n points, suspended in a volume. We don’t know the positions of the points, but we do know the distance between each pair of points. Find the relative positions of the points based on the pairwise distances.
41MDSEstimates shortest path between any pair of nodes , then applies a MDS , and at the end Transform the estimates into global coordinates using some number of fixed anchor nodes using a CSR routine.
42MDSIt is fairly stable with respect to anchor placement, achieving good results even if only few anchors are available or placed.
43Multihop Range Estimation Niculescu described three different approach.DV-HopDV-DistanceEuclidean Distance
44DV-Hop Count Shortest hop numbers between all two nodes. Each anchors estimate hop length and propagates to the network.Node calculates its position based on average hop length and shortest path to each anchor.
45DV HopL1 calculates average hope length :So do L2 and L3 :
46DV-HopNode A uses trilateration to estimate it’s position by multiplying the average hope length of every received anchor to shortest path length it assumed.
47DV-DistanceDistance between neighboring nodes is measured using radio signal strength and is propagated in meters rather than in hops.Range estimation is more precise.The algorithm uses the same method to estimate but shortest distance length are assumed.
48Euclidean DistanceAssuming that the distances AB, AC, BC, XB, XC are all known, it is possible to compute the unknown distance XA.
49Iterative Multilateration When a node is not located within a range of three anchors, multilateration can not be implemented.use normal nodes, once they have estimated their positions, just like anchor nodes in a multilateration algorithm.
51Iterative Multilateration When more information becomes available – more neighbors have estimated their own position – it is possible to use it to improve the position estimate and propagate an updated estimate to a node’s neighbors.
52Collaborative Multilateration There can be nodes in the network that can not estimate their position.When this occurs a node can use location information over multiple Hubs to attempt to estimate its position.
53Collaborative Multilateration Savvides : participating nodes can be defined as nodes that have at least three anchors or other participating nodes as neighbours.Nodes 2 and 4 are participating nodes and its position can be solved.
54Collaborative Multilateration Savarese : a sound node has independent references to at least 3(4) anchors. That is, the multi-hop routes to the anchors have no link (edge) in common. Node 2,4 are sounds.
55Probabilistic Positioning As mentioned before an RSSI value, gives rise to a probability density function, relating each distance to a certain probability with which it corresponds to the RSSI value.
56Probabilistic Positioning Once information from a second anchor becomes available, the two density functions can be convoluted and an improved description of the node’s position probabilities results.
57Anchor PlacementProperly placed anchor act an important role in estimating the position.Accuracy improves if more anchors are available.Several Articles expressing a preference for anchors to be placed in perimeter of a given area.Some adaptive placement algorithms are available for low density networks.
59GPSConsists of 24 MEO satellites that transmit precise microwave signals.
60GPSFour satellites are placed in each of six orbital planes with 55° tilt to the equator.Four to ten GPS satellites will be visible anywhere in the world
61GPSThe satellite altitude is about 20,200km above the Earth’s surface.
62GPSThe satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing in Colorado.The cost of maintaining the system is approximately US$750 million per year.
63GPS Navigation Signals GPS satellites broadcast three different types of data in the primary navigation signal.AlmanacEphemerisClock information
64Almanac and Ephemeris Ephemeris : Almanac: Contains orbital information that allows the receiver to calculate the position of the satellite, is transmitted every 30 sec.Almanac:Information and status concerning all the satellites; their locations and PRN numbers.framed in Navigation Message of bit
65Clock informationsThe coordinates (the location) of the satellites as a function of time.The transmitted signals are controlled by highly accurate atomic clocks.
66Clock Information Coarse / Acquisition code Precise code, or P-code Is freely availablePrecise code, or P-codeRestricted to public users by encrypting it.
67CA codeThe C/A code is a 1,023 bit long PRN broadcast at MHz, repeating every millisecond.Each satellite sends a distinct C/A code, which allows it to be uniquely identified.
68P-code The P-code is a stream of about 2.35 × 1014 chips!. It is also 10 times faster than the C/A-code (10.23 Mbps).Segmented between satellites.P-code is encrypted to Y-Code.
69Positioning Requirements Current time.The position of the satelliteMeasured delay of the received signal.The position accuracy is primarily dependent on the satellite position and signal delay.
70Measuring DelayThe receiver compares the bit sequence received from the satellite with an internally generated version.
71Measuring DelayModern electronics can measure signal offset to within about 1% of a bit time, or approximately 10 nanoseconds for the C/A code or about 3 meters.Using the higher-speed P(Y) signal. Assuming the same 1% bit time accuracy, the high frequency P(Y) signal results in an accuracy of about 30 centimeters.
72Calculating PositionKnowing Satellite position and calculating distance using delayOne can use Lateration on at least 3 satellites to find out its position.
73Calculating Positiong Due to receiver clock error (bias) we need forth satellite to solve this problem using MMS.
74User SegmentA typical GPS device contains a 12-channel receiver and an antenna to capture satellite signals.Most systems take around one to two minutes to acquire a 3D fix during a cold start, while some can take a few minutes.
75User SegmentBMW continues to offer onboard navigation with voice recognition and voice guidance on most of its new vehicles, with prices starting at $1,800.
76What Feature shoud I look for ? DisplayMapsForm factorNavigation featureAccessories