Presentation on theme: "Guwahati Refinery : Indian Oil Corporation Ltd"— Presentation transcript:
1 Guwahati Refinery : Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Presentationon Riskinvloved in transportation of hazardouschemical and flammable hydrocarbonandits managementA BairagiProduction ManagerGuwahati Refinery : Indian Oil Corporation Ltd
2 Risk Concept Risk is defined as the uncertainity of occurence of any unforseen event/activity in relation to the liklihoodthat may occurRisk comprises of two variablesMagnitude of consequencesLikelihood of occurrence2
3 Likelihood Very Likely -- Could happen frequently Likely -- Could happen occasionallyUnlikely -- Could happen, but only rarelyHighly Unlikely -- Could happen but probably never will3
4 Likelihood When evaluating the likelihood of an accident, a factor that will modify the likelihood category, is exposure.Very Rare -- Once per year or lessRare -- A few times per yearUnusual -- Once per monthOccasional -- Once per weekFrequent -- DailyContinuous -- Constant4
5 Individual Perceptions -- Risk is a very individual concept.-- It is different for every one.5
6 Risk Therefore the perception of a HAZARD and its RISKS also changes. Another thing to consider is that peoples’perceptions change as familiarity increases.Therefore the perception of aHAZARD and its RISKS alsochanges.6
7 Risk Assessment Risk: The possibility of an unwanted event occurring Likelihood:The chance of an event actually occurring.7
8 Risk Assessment and Criteria Risk criteria are to be applied within the contextof a standard methodology.Several countries have evolved criteria suitable totheir requirements for the use of risk analysis as anaid to decision making8
9 Risk Assessment and Criteria Workable Risk criteria recognises that:There is a level of risk that is so high that it is considered unacceptable or intolerable regardless of the benefits derived from an activity.There is also a level of risk that is low enough as to be considered negligible.Levels of risk in between are to be considered tolerable subject to their being reduced As Low As is Reasonably Practicable (ALARP).9
10 Risk Assessment and Criteria - The ALARP PrincipleRisks are only tolerable provided that :It can be demonstrated that allReasonably Practicable measureshave been implemented to reduce the risks.A reasonably practicable risk reduction measure is one where the costs of implementation are not grossly disproportionate to the risk reduction benefits achieved.10
11 Principle Of Economics Cost oflossesOptimal PointCost ofcontrol11
21 Acts/RulesIndustries handling hazardous chemicals are covered by the following Acts/Rules:The Factories Act, 1948, as amended in 1987The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals (Amendment) Rules, 2000 : (MSIHC Rules)The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991as amended in 1992The Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989The Railway Red Tariff Rules, 1960 as amendedThe Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996
22 Chemical Hazard Due ToInhalationIngestionSkin ContactAccidental
23 Ammonia : NH3 Routes of Entry : Inhalation, Skin or Eyes Effects of Exposure/ symptoms 700 ppm causes eye irritation and permanent injury may result if prompt medical remedial measures are not taken ppm may cause death. Contact of the liquid with skin freezes the tissues and causes the caustic burns. Respiratory track irritant. Irritation to cornea and tearing, liquid contact with eyes, partial or total blindness if not treated immediately. Chemical burns and frostbite.
24 Ammonia : NH3 Personal Protective Equipment Avoid contact with liquid or vapoursProvide rubber boots, safety goggles, self-contained breathing apparatus, gas mask and protective clothing in case of liquid ammonia.
25 Carbon mono oxide : CO Routes of Entry : Inhalation, Skin and Eyes Human systematic effects by inhalation, changes in psycho-physiological tests and preventing haemoglobin from binding oxygen. Contact of liquid CO with skin causes frostbite. Eye contact causes severe injury.
26 Carbon mono oxide : CO Personal Protective Equipment Avoid contact with liquid or vapours.Provide self-contained breathing apparatus, face shield or safety goggles, safety shoes, appropriate canister mask, rubber over-clothing, hand gloves.
27 Chlorine : Cl2 Routes of Entry: Inhalation, Ingestion, Skin and Eyes. Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms : Causes Eye irritation, sneezing, copious salivation, general excitement, restlessness. High concentration causes respiratory distress and violent coughing, often with retching. Death may result from suffocation.
28 Chlorine : Cl2 Personal Protective Equipment Avoid contact with liquid or vapour.Provide PVC gloves, gumboots, rubber overcoat, head mask, self-contained breathing apparatus.
29 Hydrogen : H2 Routes of Entry : Skin, Inhalation Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms: If atmosphere does not contain enough oxygen, inhalation causes dizziness, unconsciousness or even death. Contact with eyes or skin or liquid H2 causes freezing similar to burn.
30 Hydrogen : H2 Personal Protective Equipment Avoid contact with liquid or gasProvide safety goggles, face shied, insulated gloves and long sleeves, trousers Worn over high top shoes to shed spilled liquid, self-contained breathing apparatus containing air (never use oxygen).
31 Hydrochloric acid : HCl Routes of Entry : Inhalation, Ingestion, skin and EyesEffects of Exposure/ Symptoms. Inhalation: The major effects of acute exposure to HCL are usually limited to upper Respiratory tract. Exposure to the gas causes cough, burning of the throat and larynx and Choking feeling, inflammation and ulceration of the nose, throat and larynx. Exposure to Higher concentration may cause laryngeal spasm, and oedema of the lungs and vocal Cords. Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause dental decolouration and erosion. Gastritis and chronic bronchitis have also been reported in exposed workers. Giddiness, Mental confusion and nausea.
32 Hydrochloric acid : HCl Skin contact: Cause skin burns and may produce keloid and rectile scarring. Facial burns May result in serious and disfiguring scars. Frequent contact with dilute acid may cause Dermatitis and photo-sensitisation may result from industrial contact.Eye Contact: Hydrochloric acid is a strong eye irritant and contact with the acid may Cause burns, reduced vision and total blindness.Ingestion: Ingestion of HCL causes severe burns and corrosion of mouth oesophagus and Stomach. Symptom include dysphasia, pain, nausea, vomiting , Diarrhoea and thirst. Circulatory collapse may occur and ingestion may lead to fatal effects from oesophagus or gastric necrosis.
33 Hydrochloric acid : HCl Personal Protective EquipmentApproved respirator, Safety goggles, neoprene, viton or butyl rubber glove and acid resistant outer clothingMechanical exhaust.
34 Hydrogen Sulphide : H2S Routes of Entry : Inhalation, skin & eyes Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms, Inhalation : If high concentrations are inhaled, hypernoea & piratory paralysis may occur. Very high concentration may produce pulmonary edema.Skin & eyes: Causes severe irritation.
35 Hydrogen Sulphide : H2S Personal Protective Equipment Avoid contact with gas.Provide rubber framed side covered goggles, approved respirator, rubber hand gloves, over-clothing and shoes.
36 Caustic Soda : NaOHRoutes of Entry :Inhalation, Skin, Ingestion & Eyes.Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms - Inhalation : Causes small burns to upper respiratory tract & lungs, mild nose irritation.Ingestion : Causes severe damage to mucous membrane, severe scaring or perforation may occur.Eyes: Severe damage.Skin: Causes severe burns.
37 Caustic Soda : NaOH Personal Protective Equipment Avoid contact with solid or liquid.Provide side covered safety goggles, face shield, filter or dust-type respirator, rubber shoes and rubber hand gloves.
38 Sulphur-di-oxide : SO2 Routes of Entry : Inhalation, Eyes and Skin Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms Vapour causes irritation of eyes & lungs with severe choking. Liquid will cause frostbite. Vapours are poisonous, if inhaled.
39 Sulphur-di-oxide : SO2 Personal Protective Equipment Avoid contact with liquid or vapours.Provide air supplied mask or approved canister, safety goggles or face-shield, rubber hand gloves, shoes, aprons.
40 Sulphuric Acid : H2SO4 Routes of Entry: Inhalation, contact, ingestion Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms : Irritates eyes, nose, throat, dental erosion, skin and eyes, burn. Causes deep burn to tissue. Very dilute solution causes dermatitis. Exposure cause bronchitis.
42 Hazard Control To reduce hazardous exposure methods include Mechanical ventilationProcess or personnel enclosureControl of process conditions & modificationAdministrative controlPPE
43 Storage Limit quantity of material in storage Appropriate warning signs.Keep storage area separate from work areas.Provision of leak detection and alarm systemsStore cylinders upright on a level, fire proof floor, secured in position toProtect from damageKeep valve cover onc) Keep filled cylinders separately from empty cylinders.
44 Handling Move cylinders by hand truck or cart designed for that Don’t lift cylinders by their capsDon’t handle them with oily hands.Don’t drop them or permit them to bang against each other.Close all valves when, not in actual use.Open & shut the valves at least once a day, while cylinder is in use, “to avoid valve freezing”.Have emergency equipment readily available.
45 HAZCHEM CODIFICATIONHAZCHEM Code is based on pictorial representations consist of a diamond, as shown in the figure, divided into 4 parts. These parts, starting from left block (in clockwise direction), represent Health Hazard, Flammability Hazard, Reactivity Hazard and Space for additional information such as water reactivity, oxidant and radiation hazard. The colour codes for these hazards are : blue for health, red for flammability, yellow for reactivity and colourless for additional information. The intensity of hazard is grouped into five classes with numerical indications as 0, 1, 2, 3 & 4 in the ascending order of hazard intensity. In the following lines, these hazard intensities are explained, with the numeral on the left indicating the hazard intensity.
46 HAZCHEM CODE Flammability (Red) Reactivity Health (Yellow) (Blue) W OXYW : Indicates possible hazard in use of water.OXY: Indicates oxidizing chemicals.
47 CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES The hazardous substances are classified into eight classes. These are as under :CLASS 1 EXPLOSIVES CLASS 2 GASES, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, DISSOLVED OR DEEPLY REFRIGERATED, INFLAMMABLE GASES, POISON (TOXIC) GASES. CLASS 3 INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS CLASS 4 INFLAMMABL SOLIDS, SUBSTANCES LIABLE TO SPONTANEOUS CONBUSTION; SUBSTANCES WHICH ON CONTACT WITH WATER EMIT INFLAMMABLE GASES. Division 4.1 Inflammable solids Division 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion. Division 4.3 Substances, which in contact with water, emit inflammable gases.CLASS 5 OXIDISING SUBSTANCES Division 5.1 oxidizing substances Division 5.2 Organic peroxides CLASS 6 POISONOUS (TOXIC) AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES Division 6.1 Poisonous (toxic) substances Division 6.2 Infectious substances CLASS 7 RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES CLASS 8 CORROSIVESFor details, the Central Motor Vehicles Rules may be referred.
48 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET This section includes safety data sheets of most of the hazardous chemicals being used in Petroleum Industry. The data provided are compiled from various data sources as given in Reference. The identity of the chemical is defined in para 1 of the safety data sheet and important physical and chemical properties of each chemical have been given in para 2 of the safety data sheet. The fire & explosion data, reactivity data, health hazardous data have been given vide Para 3, 4 & 5 respectively. The preventive measures and emergency & first aid measures and additional information / references, if any, are given in Para 6,7 & 8 respectively. Individual data sheets are to be supplemented with the following as item 9 and 10.9. MANUFACTURER’S / SUPPLIER’S DATA Name of Firm Contact Person in Emergency Mailing AddressTelephone/Telex Nos.: Local Bodies involved.Telegraphic Address : Standard PackingDetails / Ref.Other 10. DISCLAIMER Information contained in this material data sheet is believed to be. It is up to the manufacturer / seller to ensure that the information contained in the material safety data sheet is relevant to the product manufactured or sold by him, as the case may be.
50 DEFINITIONSHAZARDSITUATION WITH A POTENTIAL FOR DAMAGE TO MEN, MACHINES AND ENVIRONMENT.EX : FIRE / EXPLOSION
51 MAJOR REFINERY POTENTIAL HAZARDS FIRE HAZARDEXPLOSION HAZARDELECTRICAL HAZARDTOXIC GAS RELEASE HAZARDHAZARDOUS CHEMICAL HAZARDOIL SPILLAGERADIATION HAZARDFALL FROM HEIGHT
52 Special Risks Associated with Petroleum Refining Highly flammable materialHigh Temperature/PressureHarmful Chemicals/Solvents/Catalysts used in the ProcessCorrosivity /ReactivitySelf Ignition on Leakage from SystemUncontrolled Process ReactionsLoss of Containment/Accidental Releases
53 WHAT IS FIRE ?Fire is a phenomenon which evolve heat and light energy upon burning a carbonaceous material.Chemically, it is an exothermic chemical reaction resulting from the combination heat, fuel and oxygen.Fire involves rapid oxidation at high temperatures accompanied by the evolution of highly heated gaseous products of combustion and emission of visible and invisible radiation
54 FIREFIRE IS A RAPID, SELF-SUSTAINED OXIDATION PROCESS ACCOMPANIED BY THE RELEASE OF ENERGY IN THE FORM OF HEAT AND LIGHT OF VARYING INTENSITY.FIRE RESULTS FROM THE COMBINATION OF FUEL, HEAT AND OXYGEN. WHEN A SUBSTANCE IS HEATED TO A CERTAIN TEMPERATURE CALLED THE ‘IGNITION TEMPERATURE’ THE MATERIAL WILL IGNITE AND CONTINUE TO BURN AS LONG AS THERE IS FUEL, THE PROPER TEMPERATURE AND A SUPPLY OF OXYGEN (AIR).
56 FIRE THREE ELEMENTS ARE NECESSARY FOR INITIATION OF FIRE: FUEL IN THE FORM OF VAPOUR, LIQUID OR SOLID.A SOURCE OF IGNITION SUFFICIENT TO INITIATE & PROPAGATE THE FIRE.OXYGEN IN SUFFICIENT PROPORTION TO FORM A COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURE.
57 METHODS OF EXTINGUISHMENTS OF FIRE STARVATION : ELIMINATION OF FUELSMOTHERING : LIMITING OF OXYGENCOOLING : LIMITING TEMPERATURESTARVATION : STARVATION IS ACCOMPLISHED BY REMOVING COMBUSTIBLES FROM THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE FIRE OR BY REMOVING FIRE FORM THE MASS OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. IT IS ALSO ACHIEVED BY SUBDIVIDING BURNING MATERIALS TO SMALL ISOLATED POCKETS OF FIRE.SMOTHERING : SMOTHERING IS ACCOMPLISHED BY ELIMINATING OR DILUTING THE AVAILABLE OXYGEN WITH INERT GAS OR COVERING THE FUEL SURFACE BY A SMOTHERING AGENT LIKE FOAM.COOLING : IF THE RATE AT WHICH HEAT IS GENERATED BY COMBUSTION IS LESS THAN THE RATE AT WHICH IT IS GETTING DISSIPATED THEN THE COMBUSTION CANNOT PERSIST. APPLICATION OF WATER JET OR SPRAY TO A FIRE RESULTS IN ITS EXTINGUISHMENTS BY THIS FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE.
58 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE INDIAN STANDARDS IS:2190 CLASSIFIES THE FIRE IN FOUR CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF MATERIAL BURNING.CLASS A ; FIRES INVOLVING ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL LIKE WOOD, PAPER, TEXTILES ETC. WHERE THE COOLING EFFECT OF WATER IS ESSENTIAL FOR EXTINGUISHMENTS OF FIRE.EXTINGUISHING MEDIA-WATERCLASS B : FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS LIKE OILS, SOLVENTS, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PAINTS ETC. WHERE A BLANKETING EFFECT IS ESSENTIAL TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE.EXTINGUISHING MEDIA-FOAM, CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL POWDER.CLASS C: FIRES INVOLVING GASES OR LIQUEFIED GASES IN THE FORM OF A LIQUID SPILLAGE, OR A LIQUID OR GAS LEAK. HERE IT IS NECESSARY TO DILUTE THE BURNING GAS AT A VERY FAST RATE WITH AN INERT GAS OR POWDER.EXTINGUISHING MEDIA - CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL POWDER. THE BEST WAY TO EXTINGUISH SUCH FIRES IS BY STOPPING THE FLOW OF FUEL GAS TO FIRE. CONTAINER IS KEPT COOL WITH WATER SPRAY.
59 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE CLASS D : FIRES INVOLVING METALS LIKE MAGNESIUM, ALUMINUM, ZINC, POTASSIUM ETC. WHERE THE BURNING METAL IS REACTIVE TO WATER AND WHICH REQUIRE SPECIAL EXTINGUISHING MEDIA.EXTINGUISHING MEDIA- SPECIAL DRY POWDER.ELECTRICAL FIRE : ELECTRICAL FIRES ARE NOT TREATED AS A CLASS OF THEIR OWN, SINCE ANY FIRE INVOLVING, OR STARTED BY, ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MUST, IN FACT, FALL INTO ONE OF THE OTHER CATEGORIES.THE NORMAL PROCEDURE FOR DEALING WITH AN ELECTRICAL FIRE IS TO CUT OFF ELECTRICITY AND USE AN EXTINGUISHING MEDIA APPROPRIATE TO WHAT IS BURNING.
60 CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CLASS –A : LIQUID WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT BELOW 23OC.CLASS – B : LIQUIDS WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT OF 23OC AND ABOVE BUT BELOW 65OCCLASS – C: LIQUID WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT OF 65OC AND ABOVE BUT BELOW 93OC.EXCLUDED PETROLEUM : LIQUID WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT OF 93OC AND ABOVE.LPG DO NOT FALL UNDER THIS CLASSIFICATION BUT FORM SEPARATE CATEGORY.
61 DEFINITIONS FLASH POINT THE FLASH POINT OF A LIQUID IS THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH SUFFICIENT VAPOUR GIVEN OFF TO FLASH ON THE APPLICATION OF FLAME IN THE PRESENCE OF AIR.AUTO – IGNITIONTHE LOWEST TEMPERATURE TO WHICH A SOLID ,LIQUID OR GAS REQUIRES TO BE RAISED TO CAUSE SELF-SUSTAINED COMBUSTION WITHOUT INITIATION BY A SPARK OR FLAME.
62 FLAMMABLE OR EXPLOSIVE LIMIT In the case of gases or vapour, which form flammable mixtures with air, there is a minimum concentration of vapour in air below which the propagation of flame does not occur in contact with a source of ignition. This is called Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). Similarly, there is a maximum concentration of vapour above which the propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition. This is called Upper Explosive Limit (UEL). This range of minimum to maximum concentration is termed as Flammable or Explosive range.The flammable limits are not appreciably changed by normal variations in atmospheric pressure and temperature. However, at high temperatures, the upper limit is raised and the lower limit lowered, resulting in greater flammable or explosive range. The effect of high pressures on the limits is different for each gas or vapour depending upon its nature.
63 AUTO IGNITION, FLASH POINT AND EXPLOSIVE LIMITS OF SOME OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS S. NO.MATERIALAUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE oCFLASH POINT OCEXPOSING RANGE VOLUME % IN AIR LOWER LIMIT UPPER LIMIT1CRUDE OILDEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF CRUDE192.HYDROGEN585GAS4.174.03METHANE5385.015.04ETHANE5143.012.55PROPANE4662.49.56BUTANE4301.59.07BENZENE563-111.37.18TOLUENE53220.127.116.11NAPHTHA288-181.15.910GASOLINE245-71.47.611ATF254.4380.712SKO25435
64 AUTO IGNITION, FLASH POINT AND EXPLOSIVE LIMITS OF SOME OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS S. NO.MATERIALAUTO IGNITION TEMPERATUREFLASH POINT OCEXPOSING RANGE VOLUME % IN AIR LOWER LIMIT UPPER LIMIT13HSD256320.7514LDO-6615LSHS31666-16616HSHS17FO18BITUMEN48520519RAW COKE315.620PHENOL EXTRACT7158021SLACK WAX245198.922MINERAL TURPENTINE OIL253.332.223LPGGAS1.89.6
65 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:IT IS A MIXTURE OF PROPANE & BUTANE.COLOURLESS BOTH AS A LIQUID AND A VAPOUR.LPG IS ODOURLESS, BUT USUALLY ADDED TRACE QUANTITIES OFODORING AGENT(MERCAPTAN) TO ENABLE DETECTION BY SMELL.DENSITY: LIQUID LPG IS ONLY HALF THE WEIGHT OF WATER.: LPG AS A GAS IS TWICE THE WEIGHT OF AIR. EXPLOSIVE LIMIT : % VOL.IN AIR.IGNITION TEMPERATURE : Oc.LIQUID TO GAS EXPANSION: 1:250VAPOUR PRESSURE AT 37.5 Oc = 7.7 kg/cm2(Appox)
66 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) FIRE HAZARD:EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GASDANGEROUS WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT OR FLAME. IT BURNS WITH A BLUE FLAME WHEN MIXED WITH CORRECT PROPORTION OF AIR. IF THE AIR SUPPLY IS INSUFFICIENT, THE FLAME BURNS YELLOW AT THE EDGES. NO SMOKE IS PRODUCE DURING BURNING.HEALTH HAZARD:LPG CONTAINS NO TOXIC COMPONENTS SUCH AS CARBON MONOXIDE AND IS THEREFORE NON POISONOUS.INHALATION: EXPOSURE TO HIGH CONC. OF LPG WILL PRODUCE UNCONSCIOUSNESS & SUBSEQUENT ASPHYXIATION.SKIN AND EYE CONTACT: IF LIQUID LPG COMES INTO CONTACT WITH UNPROTECTED SKIN AND EYES THEY WILL EVAPORATE QUICKLY AND THE COOLING EFFECT COULD PRODUCE FROST BITE OR COLD BURNS.TLV(TWA): 1000 PPM
67 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) FACTORS AFFECT RATE OF EVAPORATION DURING LPG SPILL AMBIENT TEMPERATUREWEATHER CONDITIONSSLOPE OF THE GROUNDCONDUCTIVITY OF THE GROUNDSURFACE AREA OF THE SPILL(ANY OBSTRUCTIONS SUCH AS BOUNDARY WALLS WILL SLOW RATE OF EVAPORATION).IF WATER IS SPRAYED ONTO A LPG LIQUID SPILL, IT WILL ACT AS A HEAT SOURCE AND INCREASE THE EVAPORATION RATE.
68 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) TYPES OF INCIDENTS ARISING FROM COMBUSTION A. NORMAL FIRES OFTEN RESULT FROM IMMEDIATE IGNITION FOLLOWING A SPILL.USUALLY BURNS WITH A DIFFUSED FLAME WITH NO EXPLOSION.RADIATION CAN IGNITE OTHER COMBUSTIBLES IN THE AREA SOLUTION: CUT OFF AIR/FUEL SUPPLY TO FLAME & APPLY COOLINGB. FLASH FIRES IGNITION OF OVERRICH CLOUD OF FUEL IN AIRFLAME BURNS BACK AGAINST CLOUDGENERALLY NO EXPLOSIONCAN IGNITE OTHER SOURCES OF FUEL
69 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) BLEVEA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOUR EXPLOSION IS STARTED BY THE HEATING OF A VESSEL CONTAINING FLAMMABLE LIQUID BY AN EXTERNAL FIRE.CONTENT IS HEATED ABOVE ITS BOILING POINT AND PRESSURE IN THE VESSEL INCREASES
70 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) IF FLAMES IMPINGE ON THE UN WETTED SURFACE OF THE TANK ON OR NEAR THE EMPTY SPACE, THIS AREA WILL BE WEAKENED AND MAY FAIL AS INTERNAL PRESSURE DEVELOPS.THE VESSEL RUPTURES AND PIECES CAN BE PROPELLED CONSIDERABLE DISTANCESTHE SPILLAGE OF THE OVERHEATED LIQUIDS AND THEN IGNITION CREATES A LARGE FIREBALL WITH EXPLOSION PRESSURE EFFECTS.SOLUTION:KEEP TANK COOLEXTINGUISH EXTERNAL FIRES
71 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) D. UVCEAN UNCONFINED VAPOUR CLOUD EXPLOSION IS AN EVENT WHERE A FLAMMABLE FUEL/AIR CLOUD BURNS IN FREE SPACE, GENERATING SHOCK WAVES.COMBUSTION MECHANISM STARTS FROM A POINT OF IGNITION SOURCE, WITH THE FLAME FRONT ACCELERATING FROM A LOW INITIAL VELOCITY TO SONIC VELOCITY.MAGNITUDE OF BLEVE:PIECES OF CONTAINER CAN SHOOT OFF SOME 1000 METRE OR MORE DISTANCE.DEATH FROM SUCH MISSILES MAY OCCUR UPTO 250 M.FIRE BALLS OF 30 METRE (HUNDRED FEET) DIAMETRE IS NOT UNCOMMON.SEVERE BURN DAMAGE IN A M RADIUS.A SHOCK WAVE FROM BLEVE CAN BREAK WINDOWS SEVERAL KILOMETER AWAYFLAME TEMPERATURES AS HIGH AS 1200 deg C.REMEMBER: THERE IS NO SAFETY PERIOD, A BLEVE CAN OCCURS AT ANY TIME.`
72 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) RELIEF VENT OPENS AT 17.6 kg/cm2HOT AREAUNEXPOSED SHELLVAPOURLIQUIDSUPPORTSLOPTANK SHELL OVERHEATED ABOVE LIQUID LEVEL
73 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURES-BLEVE SITUATIONSWHEN THERE IS NO RISK TO LIFE OR PROPERTY, SERIOUS CONSIDERATION MUST BE GIVEN TO EMPLOYING A “NON ATTACK STRATEGY.IF A DECISION IS MADE TO ATTACK THE FIRE THEN IMMEDIATE, MASSIVE WATER-COOLING MUST BE APPLIED CONCENTRATING ON EXPOSED VAPOUR SPACE.PERSONNEL SHOULD BE FULLY BRIEFED AND MADE AWARE OF THE DANGER CONFRONTING THEM.CHANGE FROM HAND HELD BRANCHES TO GROUND MONITORSUSE OF WATER SPRAY ON EXPOSED CREW TO GIVE PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE EFFECTS.EVACUATION OF THE SURROUNDING ARES MIN M.REMEMBER THAT RELATIVELY HIGH RISK AREA IS AN “END ON” DIRECTION. HOWEVER, FRAGMENTS AND MAJOR TANK SECTION CAN FLY IN ANY DIRECTION.
74 VAPOUR CLOUDWHEN LIGHT HYDROCARBONS LIKE NAPHTHA, MS OR FLAMMABLE GASES LEAK IT VAPOURISES AND FORMS AN EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE WITH AIR. WHEN THE LEAK IS HEAVY AN EXPLOSIVE CLOUD IS FORMED. THIS CLOUD IS KNOWN AS A VAPOUR CLOUD.WHENEVER THIS VAPOUR CLOUD COMES IN CONTACT WITH A SOURCE OF IGNITION IT CAN EXPLODE AND CAUSES FROM THE VEHICLES, SMOKING OR OTHER SOURCES OF IGNITION.FORMATION OF VAPOUR CLOUDLEAKAGE FROM PIPELINES: IT MAY BE ON THE ROAD SIDE, INSIDE THE UNITS OR IN THE TANK FARM.LEAKAGE FROM TANKS OR TANK OVERFLOW: IT MAY BE IN THE TANK FARMS OR FROM THE TANKS IN THE UNITS AREA.LEAKAGE FROM TANKERS OR OVERFLOW OF TANKER: IT MAY BE IN WAGON LOADING GANTRY AREA.
75 VAPOUR CLOUD LEAKAGE OF LPG: IT MAY BE IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS; INSIDE PROCESS UNITS OR ALONG ROAD SIDE LINE LEAKAGE .LEAKAGE FROM ROAD TANKER, WAGONS, FILLING HOSES, HORTON SPHERES OR FROM CONNECTING PIPES.LEAKAGE FROM CYLINDERS, FILLING MACHINES, PUMPS OR CONNECTING PIPES.HOW TO IDENTIFY VAPOUR CLOUD:BY SMELL: IF IT IS EXTRA ORDINARY ON HIGHER SIDE.BY MIST : IN MOST OF THE CASES MIST FORMATION TAKES PLACES.BY LEAK: IF HYDROCARBON LEAK IS VISIBLE.
76 VAPOUR CLOUD IMPORTANT DO’S AND DON’TS IN CASE OF VAPOUR CLOUD: DO’S INFORM CONCERNED UNIT PERSONNEL AND FIRE STATION .NEVER ALLOW ANY VEHICLE TO ENTER IN THE AREA. DO NOT OPERATE ANY ELECTRICAL SWITCHES.CORDON-OFF THE AREANEVER ALLOW ANY VEHICLE TO START IN THE AFFECTED AREA.GUIDE THE UNIT PERSONNEL/FIRE PERSONNELIF VEHICLE IS ALREADY IN THE AFFECTED AREA, REMOVE IT BY PUSHING.IN CASE OF VAPOUR SMELL, TRY TO DETECT THE SOURCE OF LEAKDURING PATROLLING IF STRONG SMELL OF HYDROCARBONS OR ANY LEAK DETECTED STOP THE ENGINE IMMEDIATELY AND MOVE ON FOOT TO DETECT THE LEAK.STOP ALL HOT JOBS AND SMOKING BOOTHSNEVER SMOKE OR ALLOW THE SMOKING INSIDE THE BATTERY AREA.
79 BLEVE Fireball Fireball radius : R = 29 M1/3 . Where R= Fireball radius (in meters).M=Mass of fuel (te).Fireball duration :t = 4.5 M1/3 .Where t= duration (in sec).
80 BLEVE Fireball M is usually taken as half the tank capacity, I.e. for a 50 te LPG tank, M=25te .If , however , storage is in a close grouping of three or more vertical tanks, it is recommended that M is taken as 90 percent of tank capacity.
81 BLEVE FireballThe radiative flux incident on a target some distance away from the LPG tank is given by : qt = EFT .Where ,qt = radiative flux incident on target (kWm-2 ).E= surface emission power (kWm-2).F= view factor.T= atmospheric transmissivity.E is taken as 270 kWm-2 for cylinder , horizontal and vertical tanks .and 200 kWm for spheres .F is taken as R2 r / (R2 + r2 )3/2
82 BLEVE FireballWhere r is the ground level distance between target and LPG tank.(r should be greater than 2R.)T is determined by the relationshipT= In r.Once qt has been determined , than a thermal dose or pulse can be calculated as qt X t.Where t= duration of fireball.
83 BLEVE FireballFor example , the incident thermal radiation flux of a BLEVE fireball at a distance of 300m from a 100te LPG tank.R=29M1/3 = 29 X 501/3 = 107m.t=4.5M1/3 = 4.5 X 501/3 = 16.6 sec.E= 270 kWm-2.T = In r = In 300 = 0.67.F= R2r / (R2+rr)3/2 = 1072 X 300 / ( )3/2=0.016.qt = EFT = 270 X X 0.67 = 19.2 kWm-2.thermal dose or pulse = qt X t = 19.2 X 16.6 = 317 kJm-2
84 BLEVE Quantity, MT Fire Ball Size M Exclusion Zone 1 30 90 5 50 190 10 63230110420100140500Speed of Missiles :Horton Sphere : m/secBullet : m/secDistance traveled by fragmentsHorton Sphere : MBullet : M84
85 Vapour Cloud Explosion Assumption-LPG tank full when catastrophic failure causes quasi – instantaneous release.Vapour / aerosol cloud is twice adiabatic flash fraction at 150 C , I.e. 62 percent and 34 percent of the tank contents for propane and butane respectively.1te LPG = 0.42te TNT.For example , detrmine the overpressure at a distance of 300m from a 100te propane tank:Scaled distance = distance / (0.42M X 62)1/3Where M = mass of fuel in cloud (te).= 300 / (0.42 X 62)1/3 = 101 m te1/3 .
86 Vapour Cloud Explosion Scaled distance versus overpressure can be determined by the graph in the following slideFor example , the Overpressure of a BLEVE fireball at a distance of 300m from a 100te LPG tank.The Overpressure = 2.23 psig
94 Chlorine The consequence of release of toxic gases like chlorine are: - Time depended and,- Will vary with distance and prevailing weather conditions.Concentration and duration can be estimated using computer model which combine a physical description of the gas cloud Behaviour with experimental data.
95 ChlorineBox type computer model are frequent used to predict the dispersion behaviors of gases like chlorine which are denser than air .A model known as DENZ can be used for instantaneous release ( e.g. failure of a storage vessel) and gives information as shown by the graph in the following slide
101 HYDROGEN H2 PHYSICAL / CHEMICAL PROPERTIES : PHYSICAL APPEARANCE : COLOURLESSODOUR : ODOURLESSVAPOUR DENSITY : 0.07 AT 25 DEG. C (AIR=1) LIGHTEST GASFLAMMABILITY : HIGHLY FLAMMABLE / EXPLOSIVEFLAMMABILITY LIMIT : 4% TO 75% IN AIRFLASH POINT : <-50 DEG.CAUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE : 500 DEG CENTIGRADEINCOMPATIBILITY : OXYDISING MATERIALS E.G. CHLORINE, BROMINE ETC.MINIMUM SPARK IGNITIONENERGY AT 1 ATM IN AIR : 0.02 MJ.
102 HYDROGEN H2 TYPICAL POTENTIAL HAZARDS: THE MAJOR HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH HYDROGEN ARE FIRE & EXPLOSIONS AND IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT WITH THE LIQUID OR COLD BOIL OFF VAPOUR, FROSTBITE AND BURNSHYDROGEN GAS CAN BURN IN TWO MODES, AS A DEFLAGRATION OR AS A DETONATION. IN A DEFLAGRATION, THE ORDINARY MODE OF BURNING, THE FLAME TRAVELS THROUGH THE MIXTURE AT SUBSONIC SPEEDS. THIS HAPPENS, FOR INSTANCE, WHEN AN UNCONFINED CLOUD OF HYDROGEN – AIR MIXTURE IS IGNITED BY A SMALL IGNITION SOURCE. UNDER THESE CIRCUMSTANCES, THE SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET PER SECOND. THE RAPID EXPANSION OF HOT GASES PRODUCES A PRESSURE WAVE. WITNESSES HEAR A NOISE, OFTEN A VERY LOUD NOISE, THE PRESSURE WAVE FROM RAPID UNCONFINED BURNING IS NOT EXTREMELY SEVERE, ALTHOUGH IT MAY BE STRONG ENOUGH TO DAMAGE NEARBY STRUCTURES.
103 HYDROGEN H2 TYPICAL POTENTIAL HAZARDS: IN A DETONATION, THE FLAME AND THE SHOCK WAVE TRAVEL THROUGH THE MIXTURE AT SUPERSONIC SPEEDS. THE PRESSURE RATIO ACROSS A DETONATION WAVE IS CONSIDERABLY GREATER THAN THAT IN A DEFLAGRATION . THE HAZARDS TO PERSONNEL STRUCTURES AND NEARBY FACILITIES ARE ALSO GREATER IN A DETONATION.
104 HYDROGEN H2 HAZARDOUS PROPERTIES OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN UNDETECTABILITY: HYDROGEN GAS IS COLOURLESS, ODOURLESS AND NOT DETECTABLE BY HUMAN SENSES. HYDROGEN LEAKS ARE MORE FREQUENTLY HEARD THAN SEEN.FLAMMABILITY : MIXTURES OF HYDROGEN WITH AIR, OXYGEN OR OTHER OXIDIZERS ARE HIGHLY FLAMMABLE OVER A WIDE RANGE OF COMPOSITIONS.AUTOIGNITION : TEMPERATURES OF ABOUT 1050OF (565OC) ARE USUALLY REQUIRED FOR MIXTURES OF HYDROGEN WITH AIR OR OXYGEN TO AUTO IGNITE AT 14.7 PSIA. HOWEVER, AT PRESSURES FROM 3-8 PSIA, AUTOIGNITIONS HAVE OCCURRED NEAR 650OF(343OC).
105 HYDROGEN H2IGNITION AT LOW ENERGY INPUT : HYDROGEN AIR MIXTURES CAN IGNITE WITH VERY LOW ENERGY INPUT, 1/10TH THAT REQUIRED TO IGNITE A GASOLINE - AIR MIXTURE FOR REFERENCE, AN INVISIBLE SPARK OR A STATIC SPARK FROM A PERSON CAN CAUSE IGNITION.LACK OF FLAME COLOUR : HYDROGEN – OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN – PURE AIR FLAMES ARE COLOURLESS (ANY VISIBLE FLAME IS CAUSED BY IMPURITIES). COLOURLESS HYDROGEN FLAMES CAN CAUSE SEVER BURNS.
106 HYDROGEN H2 EMERGENCY PROCEDURE MAKE SURE THAT SOURCE OF IGNITION IS AVOIDED. EVEN AFTER ENSURING THAT THERE IS NO SOURCE SUSPECT THE PRESENCE OF A SOURCE OF IGNITION.AS SOON AS LEAKS ARE DETECTED, IMMEDIATELY STOP OPERATIONS, SHUT OFF THE SOURCE OF SUPPLY, AND RELIEVE THE LINE OR SYSTEM OF ANY PRESSURE.DON’T ACTUATE ELECTRICAL OR OTHER DEVICE HAVING QUESTIONABLE NON SPARKING CHARACTERISTICS RESUME OPERATIONS ONLY AFTER THE REPAIRS ARE COMPLETED.
107 HYDROGEN H2 DO THE FOLLOWING IN CASE OF LEAKAGE OF HYDROGEN TAKE ACTIONS TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF PERSONNEL (I.E. DON’T ALLOW PERSONS TO ENTER THE AREA AS THERE CAN BE FIRE / AND EXPLOSION).CALL FIRE SERVICEEVACUATE THE AREACOOL DOWN ADJACENT EQUIPMENT TO PROTECT IT FROM POSSIBLE FIRE.
108 HYDROGEN H2 FIRE FIGHTING TECHNIQUES: FLAME TEMPERATURE OF THE ORDER OF 3800OF (2093OC) CAN BE EXPECTED IN HYDROGEN GAS FIRES. CATASTROPHIC RESULTS FROM FIRES CAN BE PREVENTED BY TRAINING PERSONNEL TO :PREVENT THE FIRE FROM SPREADING AND LET IT BURN UNTIL THE HYDROGEN IS CONSUMED (USE OF WATER TO KEEP ADJACENT EQUIPMENT COOL, DON’T ARREST THE FIRE.BE AWARE THAT IF THE FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED WITHOUT STOPPING THE HYDROGEN FLOW, AN EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE MAY FORM, CAUSING A MORE SERIOUS HAZARD THAN THE FIRST ITSELF.THE INVISIBLE FLAME CAN BE MANY FEET LONG AND CAN SHIFT QUICKLY WITH THE SLIGHTEST BREEZE. THEREFORE, PERSONNEL SHOULD WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHILE FIGHTING HYDROGEN GAS FIRES.
109 FIRE RISK MANAGEMENT FIRE PREVENTION FIRE PROTECTION FIRE FIGHTING FIRE RISK IS ‘THE CHANCE/POSSIBILITY OF LOSS DUE TO FIRE’.THREE ASPECTS TO DEAL WITH FIRE RISK MANAGEMENT ARE:FIRE PREVENTIONFIRE PROTECTIONFIRE FIGHTING
110 FIRE PREVENTION OBJECTIVE : TO ELIMINATE THE OCCURRENCE OF FIRE REGULATIONS FOR THE PREVENTION OF FIREFIRE & EXPLOSION CONTRIBUTE A SERIOUS HAZARD TO HYDROCARBON PROCESSING INDUSTRY LIKE A PETROLEUM REFINERY. THE FOLLOWING REGULATIONS SHOULD BE STRICTLY FOLLOWED FOR PREVENTION OF FIRE.REGULATION – 1:FIRE OR NAKED LIGHT, MATCHES, PETROL OR OTHER LIGHTERS, CELLULAR PHONE OR ANY APPARATUS WHICH IS CAPABLE OF CAUSING IGNITION IS NOT PERMITTED TO BE TAKEN WITHIN THE BATTERY AREA BY ANY PERSON.
111 FIRE PREVENTION REGULATION – 2 NO FIRES SHALL BE LIT AND NO MATCHES IGNITED IN ANY PART OF THE BATTERY AREA UNLESS A VALID HOT WORK PERMIT HAS BEEN OBTAINED FROM THE AUTHORISED FIRE PERMIT SIGNATORIES OF THE AREA AND REGISTERED AT THE FIRE STATIONREGULATION-3SMOKING IS PROHIBITED IN ALL PARTS OF THE BATTERY AREA EXCEPT IN THE SMOKING BOOTHS/LOCATIONS DULY APPROVED FOR THIS PURPOSE.REGULATION – 4CYCLE LAMPS, OTHER THAN DYNAMO OPERATED , ARE NOT ALLOWED IN THE REFINERY BATTERY LIMITS. THE CYCLIST WILL SWITCH OFF EVEN THE DYNAMO AS SOON AS HE ENTERS THE PLANT AREA.
112 FIRE PREVENTIONORDINARY TORCHES WILL NOT BE USED WITHIN THE BATTERY AREA. FLAME PROOF TORCHES/LAMPS OF APPROVED MANUFACTURERS AS SUPPLIED BY THE REFINERY, SHALL ONLY BE USED.REGULATION-5ALL VEHICLES ENTERING / TRANSPORTING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM THE REFINERY MUST BE FITTED ONLY WITH APPROVED TYPE OF SPARK ARRESTORS .REGULATION-6PERSONS ENTERING THE REFINERY BATTERY LIMIT SHALL DEPOSIT MATCH BOXES, LIGHTERS, MOBILES ETC WITH THE SECURITY AT THE MAIN ENTRANCE GATE OF THE REFINERY.
113 FIRE PROTECTION OBJECTIVE : TO CONTAIN THE SPREAD OF FIRE FIRE PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY:FIRE PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY IS BASED ON LOSS PREVENTION & CONTROL. BECAUSE OF THE INHERENT HAZARD A REFINERY CARRIES. NO PLANT IS ABSOLUTELY SAFE. A FIRE IN ONE PART/SECTION OF A PLANT CAN ENDANGER OTHER SECTIONS OF PLANT AS WELLTYPES:ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMPASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
114 FIRE PROTECTIONFOLLOWING FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES SHALL BE PROVIDED DEPENDING ON THE NATURE OF THE INSTALLATION AND RISK INVOLVED:FIRE WATER SYSTEMFOAM SYSTEMCLEAN AGENT SYSTEMCO2 SYSTEMDCP EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMDETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMCOMMUNICATION SYSTEM
115 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DYKE WALLSSAFETY VALVES ON EQUIPMENTWATER SEAL IN SEPARATORSRUPTURE DISC IN PROCESS PIPINGFIRE PROOFING OF STRUCTURESFIRE RETADANTS PAINTS ON CABLESFIRE BARRIERSPOSITIVE PRESSURIZATIONFLARING / VENTING
116 FIRE FIGHTING OBJECTIVE : TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE WITH MINIMUM LOSS IT IS THE LAST LINE OF THE DEFENSE. IT COMES INTO FORCE WHEN THERE IS ACTUAL FIRE. MAIN PURPOSE IS TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE WITH SUITABLE EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS WITH AN AIM TO REDUCE DAMAGE DUE TO FIREPORTABLE FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTMOBILE FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTFIXED FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
117 FIRE FIGHTINGPORTABLE FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT SHALL BE PROVIDED IN REFINERY/PROCESS PLANT AS INDICATED BELOW:DESCRIPTIONNORMS/CRITERIA TO DETERMINE THE QUANTITY NEEDEDDRY CHEMICAL POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHERS KG CAPACITYTO BE LOCATED IN PROCESS UNITS, OFF-SITE AREAS , PLANT BUILDINGS , POWER DISTRIBUTION AREAS ETC.THE NUMBER SHOULD BE DETERMINED BASED ON THE MAX. TRAVELING DISTANCE OF 15 mtrs IN ABOVE AREAS.AT LEAST ONE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SHOULD BE PROVIDED FOR EVERY 250 sq. mt. OF HAZARDOUS OPERATING AREA.DRY CHEMICAL POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 25/50/75 kg CAPACITYTO BE LOCATED IN CRITICAL OPERATING AREAS. AT LEAST ONE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SHOULD BE PROVIDED FOR EVERY 750 sq. mt. OF HAZARDOUS OPERATING AREA.
118 FIRE FIGHTING DESCRIPTION NORMS/CRITERIA TO DETERMINE THE QUANTITY NEEDEDCO2 EXTINGUISHERS OF 4.5 Kg OF 6.8/9.0 kg ON WHEELSTO BE LOCATED IN SUBSTATIONS AND POWER STATIONS. THE NUMBER SHOULD BE DETERMINED BASED ON THE MAX. TRAVELING DISTANCE OF 15 mtrs.. AT LEAST ONE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SHOULD BE PROVIDED FORE EVERY 250sq. Mt. OF HAZARDOUS OPERATING AREA.STEAM LANCERS (AS A PART OF UTILITY STATION)FOR FIGHTING INCIPIENT FIRES AT FLANGE LEAKAGE & HOT PUMPS.RUBBER HOSE REELTO BE LOCATED IN PROCESS (25 mm) UNIT BATTERY LIMITS AND OTHER PROCESS AREA.
119 FIRE FIGHTING S. NO. TYPE OF FIRE RISK EXAMPLE OF OCCUPANCIES SCALE OF EQUIPMENT1 A)CLASS ‘A’ LIGHT HAZARDOFFICERS (OTHER THEN RECORD ROOM) SCHOOL CLUBS, ETC.FOR EVERY 600 M2 FLOOR AREA 1 NO. 9L WATER TYPE, MAX. DISTANCE 25 MB)CLASS ‘A’ ORDINARY HAZARDORDINARY RECORD ROOM TAILORING SHOP. BOOK BINDER ETC.FOR EVERY 600 M2 FLOOR AREA 2 NOS. 9L WATER TYPE MAX. DISTANCE 15 MC)CLASS ‘A’ EXTRA HAZARDLARGE TIMBER YARDS SAW MILLS HOUSE OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS‘DO’ + SOME EXTRA PROVISION AS PER LOCAL AUTHORITY.D)CLASS ’A’ SPECIAL HAZARDIMPORTANT OFFICE RECORDS, LIBRARIES DATA PROCESSINGFOR EVERY 100 M2 1 NO. 4.5 KG CO2. MAX. DISTANCE -10 M2 A)CLASS ‘B’ SMALL QUANTITY HANDLEDWORKSHOP. GARAGE ETC.2 NOS. FOAM / DCP PER 50 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE – 10 M
120 FIRE FIGHTING S. NO. TYPE OF FIRE RISK EXAMPLE OF OCCUPANCIES SCALE OF EQUIPMENTB)CLASS ‘B’ BULK STORAGE OTHER THEN TANK FARMSFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS IN CAN, DRUMS ETC.3 NOS. FOAM /DCP PER 100 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE – 10 M3.CLASS ‘C’HANDLING /STORAGE OF GAS CYLINDERS, GAS PLANT ETC.2 NOS. DCP/CO2 (6.8 kg) PER 200 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE – 10 M.4..CLASS ‘D’REACTIVE METAL STORAGE2 NOS. DCP PER 50 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE – 10 M.5.MIXED OCCUPANCY (ELEC. RISK)W/SHOP, X-MERS MOTORS, TEL, EXCH., ETC.1 NO. DCP/CO2 PER 100M2 AREA.
121 FIRE FIGHTING MOBILE FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT FOAM TENDERS DCP TENDERS FOAM NURSERTRAILER FIRE PUMPTROLLEY MOUNTED MONITORSFIRE FIGHTING HOSE & OTHER ACCESSORIES LIKE FOAM BRANCH, NOZZLES ETC.FIRE FIGHTING CHEMICALS LIKE FOAM COMPOUND, DRY CHEMICAL POWDER ETC.
122 GENERAL LOSS CONTROL RULES NO MATCH BOX/ LIGHTER / MOBILE IS ALLOWED IN REFINERYN0 SMOKING IS ALLOWED IN REFINERY EXCEPT AT DESIGNATED PLACES NO VEHICLE IS ALLOWED INSIDE BATTERY AREA WITHOUT SPARK ARRESTOR NOBODY IS ALLOWED TO ENTER THE REFINERY WITHOUT SHOES.NO OUTSIDER IS ALLOWED INSIDE ANY OPERATIONAL PLANT / UNIT AREA WITHOUT PERMISSION OF AREA IN CHARGE. NO DEBRIS/OBSTACLES ALLOWED ON ROADSNO PHOTOGRAPHY/VIDEOGRAPHY IS ALLOWED WITHOUT PERMISSION NO MAINTENANCE WORK SHOULD BE STARTED WITHOUT VALID PERMIT &CLEARANCE.
123 GENERAL LOSS CONTROL RULES NEVER ENTER WORK AREA WITHOUT HELMET WITH CHIN STRAP IN PLACE· NO CLIMBING/WORKING ALLOWED WITHOUT SAFETY BELT ABOVE 2 METREHEIGHT· DO NOT WALK ON PIPELINES OR FALSE CEILINGS · DO NOT STAND UNDER SUSPENDED LOADS · DO NOT TAMPER WITH FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT OR FIRE HYDRANTS · DO NOT EXCEED SPEED LIMIT OF 25 KMPH WITHIN THE REFINERY PREMISES. · REPORT ALL ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS TO AREA INCHARGE AND FIRE &SAFETY. · IN CASE OF TOXIC GAS RELEASE/DISASTER, ASSEMBLE AT DESIGNATED LOCATIONS. MAKE SAFETY A HABIT
124 WATERThe water is the best extinguishing media for Class A Fires. It is -Readily available.Have good absorbing capacity.can be used as cooling agent, fire fighting, producing foam etc.Water extinguishes the fire by cooling , smothering , emulsification [only in case of heavy oils], dilution.Limitations: OnEnergized equipments andWater reactive metals.
125 FOAMIt is considered to be the best extinguishing medium for Class B fires.The foam is the mass of air bubbles formed by aeration of foam solution made up of the water and foam concentrate.The foam extinguishes the fire of liquid hydrocarbons Insulating the surface of fuel.Prevent release of vapours. Prevent mixing of vapour and atmospheric oxygen forming a blanket.The foam is classified in two types depending on the method of generationi.e. chemical and mechanical foam
126 Chemical foamAs the name suggests it is formed by the chemical reaction between the two chemicals namely Sodium bicarbonate and Aluminums Sulphide. The use is restricted to the portable extinguishers and now they are considered as obsolete.6 NaHCO3 + Al(SO4)3 = 3Na2SO4 + 2Al(OH) + 6CO2
127 Mechanical foamThis foam is formed by mechanical agitation of the foam solution. There are various types such as protein foam, aqueous film forming foam, film forming fluoroprotein, alcohol resistant foam etc. used for fire fighting. Method of application of foam -- Foam should not be directly applied on the surface of the burning liquid whereas it should be applied in such manner so that it will slide down and spread on the surface of the burning liquid.
128 Aqueous film forming foam Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) UL Listed - It is the most commonly used synthetic foam in petroleum industries. It has unique property of forming a film on the surface of the liquid. It has low viscosity and surface tension. Hence it floats on the surface of the liquid and spreads to cover all the area. Even if the film is broken it has a characteristic to bleed back which means it reseals the surface due to which flashback is avoided. It has longer shelf life of minimum 15 years and excellent flashback resistance. Effective knocking down property on spill fires.
129 DRY CHEMICAL POWDERThe dry chemical powder is used to extinguish the Class B and Class C fires. The DCP for Class A fires is also available and for Class D fires special dry chemical is used.The most commonly used DCP are:1. Sodium Bicarbonate.2. Potassium Bicarbonate.3. Monoammonium Phosphate. It also called as ABC powder as it can be used on Class A, B, C fires.4. Monnex.: Urea based powder have decrepitating property to shatter into small particles of sub- micron size on approaching flame front. It is 6 times effective than ordinary DCP.5. Ternary Eutectic Chloride : TEC powder is used to extinguish the combustible metal fires. The powder melts and forms the crust over the metal surface thereby extinguishing the fires. It is composed of three chlorides namely Sodium , Potassium and Barium Chloride.
130 EXTINGUISHMENT MECHANISM OF DCP Sodium Bicarbonate: When DCP enters the combustion zone, it decomposes by the heat of the flame to liberate water, water vapours and carbon dioxide.2 NaHCO Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2The sodium Carbonate further decomposes to giveNa2CO Na2O CONa2O NaOHSodium Hydroxide produced during last step reacts with H & OH radicals which are active in fire to give water vapours. NaOH + H Na + H2ONaOH + OH NaO + H2OAlsoNaO + H NaOHNa + OH NaOHThis way all the H and OH radicals in fire are removed by breaking the chain reaction and thus extinguish the fire.
131 CLASS OF FIREDESCRIPTIONEXTINGUISHING MEDIUMINDIAN STANDARDAFire involving ordinary combustible materials like wood, paper, textiles, etc. Where the cooling effect of water is essential for the extinction of firesWaterBFire inflammable liquids like oils, solvents, petroleum products, varnishes, paints etc. where a blanketing effect is essentialFoam ** carbon dioxide dry chemical powder. Not suitable for alcohol and other water miscible flammable liquids(4308)-1982CFires involving gaseous substances under pressure where it is necessary to dilute the burning gas at a very fast rate with an inert gas or powder.Carbon dioxide dry chemical powder. The best way to extinguish such fires is by stopping the flow of fuel gas to the fire. Container is kept cool with water sprayDFires involving metals like magnesium, aluminum, zinc, potassium etc. where the burning metal is reactive to water and which require special extinguisher media or techniqueSpecial dry powder(4861) – 1968*As per IS:
132 SOURCE OF IGNITIONINITIAL RELEASE OF ENERGY TO TRIGGER COMBUSTION (FIRE). IT IS NECESSARY TO UNDERSTAND THE SOURCES OF IGNITION AND TO ELIMINATE THEM TO PREVENT FIRES/EXPLOSIONS IN A REFINERY.SOURCES OF IGNITIONEXAMPLEPREVENTIVE MEASURESELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTSPARKS FROM MOTORS, SWITCHES, LAMPS, HOT ELEMENTS AND ELECTRICAL DEFECTSUSE OF APPROVED EQUIPMENTFOLLOW NATION ELECTRICAL CODESPROPER MAINT.FRICTIONHOT BEARINGS, MIS-ALLIGNED OR BROKEN M/C PARTS, CHOCKING, JAMMING OF MATERIAL, POOR ADJUSTMENTPREVENTIVE MAINT. AND PROPER LUBRICATIONOPEN FLAMESCUTTING AND WELDING TORCHES GAS & OIL BURNERSSTRICT COMPLIANCE OF PRECAUTIONS STIPULATED IN THE FIRE PERMIT FOR HOT JOBS.
133 SOURCE OF IGNITION SOURCES OF IGNITION EXAMPLE PREVENTIVE MEASURES SMOKING AS IGNITIONSMOKING BOOTHS IN AREA WHERE COMBUSTIBLE ARE USEDSMOKING ONLY IN AREAS PERMITTED.USE OF PRESCRIBED RECEPTACLES FOR CIGARETTE BUTTSSPONTANEOUS IGNITIONPYROPHORIC IRON, HOT OIL LEAKAGEKEEP PYROPHORIC IRON WET ARE THE TIME WHEN IT IS TAKEN OUT.HOT SURFACESCONTACT OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL WITHOUT SURFACES, HEATED LINESPROVIDE PROPER INSULATION AND AIR CIRCULATION.SPARK FROM ENGHINE EXHAUSTPOL TRUCKS / DG SETSPARK ARRESTOR ON EXHAUST
134 SOURCE OF IGNITION SOURCES OF IGNITION EXAMPLE PREVENTIVE MEASURES STATIC ELECTRICITYDURING SPLASH LOADING AND LOADING AT HIGH VELOCITIESPROPER EARTHING OF EQUIPMENT.DO NOT RESORT TO SPLASH LOADINGLOADING VELOCITY SHOULD BE CONTROLLEDLIGHTENINGTHUNDERSTORM CLOUD BURSTPROPER LIGHTENING ARRESTOR AND EARTH CONTINUITY.
135 AREA CLASSIFICATIONArea classification is an assessment of dangerous atmosphere where there is possibility of release of a flammable substance in relation to a possible source of ignition from electrical instruments, equipments or static electricity. The aim is to reduce the probability of these risks to the minimum.Hazardous area are divided into three zone Zone 0 Area: An area in which a flammable atmosphere is present continuously, or is present for long periods.Zone 1 Area: An area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to be present periodically or occasionally during normal operation.Zone 2 Area: An area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation and if it does occur it will exist for a short time only.
136 FIRE HYDRANT NETWORK DISTRIBUTION NETWORK: Network shall be laid in closed loops as far as possible to ensure multi-directional flow in the system. Isolation valves shall be provided in the network to enable isolation of any section of the network without affecting the flow in the rest. The isolation valves shall be normally located near the loop junctions. Additional valves shall be provided in the segments where the length of the segment exceeds 300 mts.FIRE HYDRANTS:Fire hydrants shall be provided in the network to ensure protection to all the facilities. The location of the hydrants shall be carefully decided keeping in view the easy accessibility. The maximum distance between two hydrants, however, shall not exceed 30 mtrs around hydrocarbon storage and hazardous areas and 45 mtrs in other areas. Each hydrant shall have two outlets inclined towards the ground. The outlets shall be of female instantaneous type having a standard size of 63.5 mm conforming to BIS.HEADER PRESSURE:The fire water system shall be designed for a minimum residual pressure of 7.0 kg/cm2 g at the hydraulically remotest point of application at the designed flow rate at that point.The fire water network shall be kept pressurised at minimum 7.0 kg/cm2 gat all the time. In existing refineries, this shall be achieved in a phased manner.
137 FIRE WATER STORAGEWater for the hydrant service shall be stored in any easily accessible surface or underground lined reservoir or above ground tanks. The effective capacity of the reservoir above the level of suction point shall be minimum 4 hours aggregate working capacity of pumps. Where make up water supply system is 50% or more this storage capacity may be reduced to 3 hours aggregate working capacity of pumps. Storage reservoir shall be in two equal interconnected compartments to facilitate cleaning and repairs.Large natural reservoirs having water capacity exceeding 10 times the aggregate water requirement of fire pumps may be left unlined.In addition to fire water storage envisaged as above, emergency water supply in the event of depletion of water storage shall be considered. Such water supplies may be connected from cooling water supply header and / or treated effluent discharge headers.Fire water supply shall be preferably from fresh water source such as river, tube well or lake. Where fresh water source is not easily available, fire water supply may be sea water or other acceptable source like treated effluent water.
138 SELECTION OF FIRE FIGHTING PUMPS Fire water pumps shall be used exclusively for fire fighting purposes.TYPE OF FIRE PUMPS:Electric motor driven centrifugal pumps.Diesel engine driven centrifugal pumps.The pumps shall be horizontal centrifugal type or vertical turbine submersible pumps. The pumps shall be capable of discharging 150% of its rated capacity at a minimum of 65% of the rated head. The shut-off head shall not exceed 120% of rated head, for horizontal pumps and 140% in case of vertical turbine type pumps.CAPACITY OF PUMPS:The capacity and number of main fire water pumps shall be fixed based on design fire water rate, to be worked out on the basis of design criteriaSTANDBY PUMPS:When total number of Working pumps work out to be one or two, 100% standby pumps shall be provided.When total number of working pumps are more than two, 50% standby pumps shall be provided.No. of diesel driven pumps shall be minimum 50% of the total no. of pumps and diesel pump capacity shall also be minimum 50%. Power supply to the pump motors should be from two separate feeders.
139 TYPICAL FIRE FIGHTING STRATEGIES TANK FIRE:Before attempting to extinguish fire in the tank, fire in the surrounding area i.e. in the dyke should be extinguished to reduce heat input to tank contents. Cooling the adjacent tanks (contents of which have not ignited but are exposed to radiation heat) by means of water spray/jet applied to shell to prevent excessive vaporization and to reduce the danger of fire spreading to other areas. Application of foam on seal of adjacent tank is also required.When this heat wave reaches to the tank bottom, where some settled water is generally present, it will cause a violent “Boil-Over.” Burning oil first erupts and then falls, spreading even beyond the dyke of the tank. The columns of the flame can be very widely spread at the base. The beginning of a boil over is indicated by both increase in height and in brightness of the flames prior to actual eruption of the boiling oil. Immediate action will have to be taken to evacuate all personnel from the affected area and nearby areas. A “boil over” is a violent eruption. A boil over results from expansion or frothing of the heated liquid but is not as severe as a boil-over.
140 TYPICAL FIRE FIGHTING STRATEGIES Heat-Wave:In Case of wide boiling range ingredients in crude oil or product tank on fire, the lower boiling point hydrocarbons come out of the surface and feed the fire, while the higher boiling point hydrocarbons sink towards bottom forming a heated front to heat cold oil deeper and deeper as fire continues to burn. This phenomenon is called “heat wave.”In case fire is not put out by the time heat wave has reached the point, 5 feet above known bottom water level (which can be roughly judged by peeling off/blistering of the external painting of the tank shell), it is to be ensured that all personnel are evacuated from the area. Be on guard from successive boil-overs form a burning tank since this will often occur.Conduct all necessary work within the dyke area during the initial stages of the fire so that as the fire progresses, fire fighting operation can be carried out from a safer distance. Care must be taken NOT to get water in a heavy oil tank while fighting a fire thus reducing the possibility of boil-over.
142 NEED FOR SAFETY ECONOMIC ASPECTS LEGAL ASPECTS (STATUTORY OBLIGATION) LOSS OF PRODUCTIONLOSS OF CAPITALLOSS OF MANPOWERMEDICAL COMPENSATIONCOST OF TRAININGLOSS OF WAGESBUSINESS INTERRUPTIONSLEGAL ASPECTS(STATUTORY OBLIGATION)HUMAN ASPECTSPHYSICAL INJURYREPARATION ON FAMILYMORAL LOSSSOCIAL ASPECTSGENETICECOLOGICALLOSS TO NATIONPOLLUTION OF STREAM AND AIR
143 SAFETY, HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT (S,H&E) POLICY INDIAN OIL CORPORATION IS COMMITTED TO CONDUCT BUSINESS WITH STRONG ENVIRONMENT CONSCIENCE ENSURING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, SAFE WORKPLACES AND ENRICHMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF EMPLOYEES, CUSTOMERS AND THE COMMUNITY. WE AT INDIANOIL, BELIEVE THAT GOOD S,H&E PERFORMANCE IS INTEGRAL PART OF EFFICIENT AND PROFITABLE BUSINESS MANAGEMENT.WE SHALL :ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN GOOD STANDARDS FOR SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE, THE PROCESSES AND THE ASSETS.COMPLY WITH ALL RULES AND REGULATIONS ON SAFETY, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION.PLAN, DESIGN, OPERATE AND MAINTAIN ALL FACILITIES, PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES TO SECURE SUSTAINED SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.
144 SAFETY, HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT (S,H&E) POLICY REMAIN TRAINED, EQUIPPED AND READY FOR EFFECTIVE AND PROMPT RESPONSE TO ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES.WELCOME AUDIT OF OUR S,H&E CONDUCT BY EXTERNAL BODY, SO THAT STAKEHOLDER CONFIDENCE IS SAFEGUARDED.ADOPT AND PROMOTE INDUSTRY BEST PRACTICES TO AVERT ACCIDENTS AND IMPROVE OUR S,H&E PERFORMANCE.REMAIN COMMITTED TO BE A LEADER IN SAFETY, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION THROUGH CONTINUING IMPROVEMENT.MAKE EFFORTS TO PRESERVE ECOLOGICAL BALANCE AND HERITAGE.
145 GENERAL LOSS CONTROL RULES NO MATCH BOX/ LIGHTER / MOBILE IS ALLOWED IN REFINERYN0 SMOKING IS ALLOWED IN REFINERY EXCEPT AT DESIGNATED PLACES NO VEHICLE IS ALLOWED INSIDE BATTERY AREA WITHOUT SPARK ARRESTOR NO BODY IS ALLOWED TO ENTER THE REFINERY WITHOUT SHOES.NO OUTSIDER IS ALLOWED INSIDE ANY OPERATIONAL PLANT / UNIT AREA WITHOUT PERMISSION OF AREA IN CHARGE. NO DEBRIS/OBSTACLES ALLOWED ON ROADSNO PHOTOGRAPHY/VIDEOGRAPHY IS ALLOWED WITHOUT PERMISSION NO MAINTENANCE WORK SHOULD BE STARTED WITHOUT VALID PERMIT &CLEARANCE.
146 GENERAL LOSS CONTROL RULES · NEVER ENTER WORK AREA WITHOUT HELMET WITH CHIN STRAP IN PLACE· NO CLIMBING/WORKING ALLOWED WITHOUT SAFETY BELT ABOVE 2 METREHEIGHT· DO NOT WALK ON PIPELINES OR FALSE CEILINGS · DO NOT STAND UNDER SUSPENDED LOADS · DO NOT TAMPER WITH FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT OR FIRE HYDRANTS · DO NOT EXCEED SPEED LIMIT OF 25 KMPH WITHIN THE REFINERY PREMISES. · REPORT ALL ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS TO AREA INCHARGE AND FIRE &SAFETY. · IN CASE OF TOXIC GAS RELEASE/DISASTER, ASSEMBLE AT DESIGNATED LOCATIONS. MAKE SAFETY A HABIT
148 WORK PERMIT SYSTEMFor performing any work in the refinery by any person other than the operating personnel of that area, a duly authorised written permit shall be obtained by the person/agency executing the work before commencement of the work.Separate permit shall be obtained for each activity. Following jobs should be undertaken only after obtaining work permit:Hot job, Excavation, Road/dyke cutting, Electrical lock-out/energising, Confined space entry, Boxing up of vessel/furnace/ column, Working at elevation, working on fragile roof structures, Radiography, Crane Operation.
149 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM Types of Work Permit Depending on the nature of the job, types of permit are:1. Cold Work2. Hot Work/Vehicle Entry3. Radiography4. Working at Height5. Confined Space Entry6. Excavation/Dyke Cutting /Road Cutting7. Electrical Work Permit.
150 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM General Requirements · All jobs in the refinery shall be carried out under valid work permit only. Operating personnel do not require work permit.· Work permits in the refinery shall meet the requirements of OISD-STD-105 titled ‘Work Permit System’.· Permits should be in printed forms, in triplicate, serially numbered and different colour code may be adopted for different types of permits.· Depending on nature of jobs, type of permit required shall be decided .· ‘Working at Height Permit’ shall be required for working at a height of more than two meters from where the working personnel are liable to fall.
151 WORK PERMIT SYSTEMPermit issuing authority shall satisfy him that permit conditions are met before issuing permit. It is also to be ensured that permit conditions are maintained in course of execution of the job.Before issuing a permit, equipment is inspected to ensure that the area is cleaned and all safety precautions have been adopted. Wherever necessary, equipment is isolated, drained/ depressurised, properly purged, water flushed, gas test and oxygen deficiency test are done. Please refer OISD-105 for explanatory notes to work permits forms (reproduced from OISD-STD-105).· All concerned are to be trained on Work Permit System for proper implementation. Certification and documentation of the training imparted is a must.
153 ACCIDENT PREVENTION THROUGH PPE ACCIDENTS CAN BE AVOIDED IN THE FOLLOWING TWO WAYS:BY ELIMINATING OR REDUCING THE HAZARDS.BY PROVIDING PROPER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND ENSURING THEIR USE BY CONCERNED PERSONNEL.
154 ACCIDENT PREVENTION THROUGH PPE .OUR ENDEAVOR SHOULD BE TO ELIMINATE HAZARDS COMPLETELY BUT IT MAY NOT BE POSSIBLE IN ALL CASES.THE NECESSITY ARISES FOR PROVIDING PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AS A SECOND LINE DEFENSE.IT IS VERY NECESSARY THAT THE SELECTION OF THE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IS PROPER. MOST OF THE INJURIES CAN BE ELIMINATED OR MINIMISED BY UTILIZING PROPER EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR THE JOBS:
155 ACCIDENT PREVENTION THROUGH PPE FOUR ASPECTS TO BE TAKEN IN TO CONSIDERATION FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION THROUGH PPENEED FOR PPESELECTION OF PPEPROVIDING THE PPETRAINING AND USAGE
156 ACCIDENT PREVENTION THROUGH PPE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO CATEGORIES:RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES.NON-RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
158 ACCIDENT PREVENTION THROUGH PPE OXYGEN CONTENT IN AIRSIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF PERSON AT REST12% TO 14%RESPIRATION DEEPER, PULSE UP, CO-ORDINATION POOR10% TO 12%RESPIRATION FAST & SHALLOW, GIDDINESS, POOR JUDGMENT, LIPS BLUE8% TO 10%NAUSEA, VOMITING, UNCONSCIOUS-NESS, ASHEN FACE6% TO 8%8 MIN – 100% FATAL, 6 MIN – 50% FATAL, 4-5 MIN – RECOVERY WITH TREATMENT4%COMA IN 40 SECS, CONVULSION, RESPIRATION CEASES, DEATH.19.5% ( MINIMUM)SAFE LIM IT FOR HUMAN BEING
159 ACCIDENT PREVENTION THROUGH PPE TYPEDESIGNED USEFresh Air Breathing ApparatusOxygen Breathing ApparatusCompressed Air Breathing ApparatusTo be used in tanks,pits or areas where gas tests show harmful amount of gas,dust,mist,vapour,lack of oxygenFilter or chemical cartridge respiratorsCanister typeDust respiratorsProtection against low concentration of gases,dusts,fumes or mist.
160 FRESH AIR BREATHING APPARATUS v CareItNecessity:It must be used in all cases when it is necessary to enter anenclosed area where:Hydrogen sulphide,carbon monoxide or any other combustible/toxic gas is present even in slight concentration.Canister can not be used because the concentrationexceeds the limit for canister.There is heavy smoke.There is an oxygen deficiency.
161 COMPRESSED AIR BREATHING APPARATUS Full duration:It is the time a BA set is expected to last from the momentit is started up until the cylinder is exhausted.Working duration:it is the time the BA set is expected to last from the time it is starteduntil the cylinder pressure is reached at which the low pr. Warningwhistle starts to operate.Safety margin:it is the time from the moment the whistle starts to sound until the cylinder is exhausted.In short Working duration = Full duration – Safety margin.v CareIt
162 Canister type gas mask Limitation & Caution: The canister is suitable only for small concentration I,e max 20000ppm for toxic & acid gas.For ammonia it is 30000ppm.Shall not be used inside any enclosed area.Suitable for limited time period( 12 minutes for full conc.limit)The canister should be replaced within 6 month or 100 hours of operation once the bottom seal is broken.v CareIt
163 Dust respirator Limitation & Caution: It must not be used in closed vessels where there is oxygen deficiency.Do not wear a respirator,which has been worn bysomeone else until it has been sterilized.Keep the respirator dry.v CareIt
164 Colour codes of canister as per IS8318/77 Acid gases WhiteOrganic vapours BlackAmmonia gas GreenCarbon monoxide gas BlueAcid gases & Organic Vap YellowAcid gases,ammonia & organic vap - BrownAcid gas,ammonia,co & Org.vap Red
165 Dust Non respiratory safety devices Face & Eye protectionHead protectionHand protectionFoot protectionBody protectionHearing protectionSafety belts.v CareIt
169 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED INJURY : ANY BODILY HARM TO ANY PERSON.MINOR ACCIDENT : ANY INJURY TO A PERSON DURING COURSE OF HIS DUTY ,CAUSING DISABLEMENT FOR A PERIOD OF LESS THAN 48 HRS. IMMEDIATELY AFTER ACCIDENT.LOSS TIME ACCIDENT : ANY INJURY TO A PERSON DURING COURSE OF HIS DUTY ,CAUSING DISABLEMENT FOR A PERIOD OF 48 HRS OR MORE IMMEDIATELY AFTER ACCIDENT OR LATER AS A EFFECT OF ACCIDENT.FATALITY: ANY EVENT CAUSING A LOSS OF LIFE.H1-PO ACCIDENT : AN EVENT THAT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO CAUSEMAJOR ACCIDENT.OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS : ANY ILLNESS, WHICH RESULTS FROM EXPOSURE TO THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT.
170 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED PROPERTY DAMAGE : AN UNPLANNED OR UNDESIRED EVENT WHICH DOES NOT RESULT IN INJURY BUT HAS CAUSED DAMAGE TO PROPERTY/EQUIPMENT TO THE EXTENT OF Rs. 2 LAKS OR MORE.PROCESS LOSS : AN UNPLANNED OR UNDESIRED EVENT WHICH DOES NOT RESULT IN INJURY BUT RESULTS IN SUBSTANDARD OR DECREASED PRODUCTION TO THE EXTENT OF MORE THAN ONE DAY PLANT SHUTDOWN.
171 ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM ALL ACCIDENTS ARE TO BE REPORTED HOWEVERSMALL MAY BE.SPECIFIC FORMAT TO BE USED FOR REPORTING THEACCIDENTTYPES OF REPORTING FORMATS:A-I ( INCIDENT REPORT FORM): TO BE FILLED BY THE SUPERVISOR IMMEDIATELY HALF AN HOUR FOR HUMAN INJURY AND 24 HRS FOR OTHER INCIDENCESA-II ( LOSS TIME ACCIDENT REPORT): TO BE FILLED UP BY THE MEDICAL IN CASE OF HUMAN INJURY WHICH CALLS FOR ABSENCE FROM DUTY.
172 ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM A-III ( CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS): TO BE FILLED UP BY MEDICAL ON DISCHARGE OF THE INJURED PERSON.A-IV ( PERMANENT DISABILITY CERTIFICATE): TO BE FILLED UP BY MEDICAL IN CASE OF PERMANENT DISABILITY ARISING DUE TO ACCIDENT.A-V ( INCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT): TO BE FILLED UP BY SUPERVISOR WITHIN 48 HRS.
173 PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION TO PROVIDE INFORMATION FOR :FINDING OUT BASIC CAUSESIDENTIFYING AREAS FOR CONTROL.TO ENABLE IMPLEMENTATION OF REMEDIAL ACTIONS.TO ELIMINATE/REDUCE THE PROBABILITYOF RECURRENCE OF THE EVENT.
174 ANALYSIS OF CAUSESCLASSIFY THE COLLECTED INFORMATION INTO FIVE STAGES.LOSSES.INCIDENTS OR CONTACTS.IMMEDIATE CAUSESBASIC CAUSES.LACK OF CONTROL.SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS IS THE CORE OF ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION.
175 REMEDIAL ACTION CONTROL THE BASIC CAUSE TO : A. LOWER THE PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE.B. REDUCE THE POTENTIAL SEVERITY OF THE INJURY OR DAMAGE.ACTIONS SHOULD BETEMPORARY - EG: GIVING INSTRUCTION.PERMANENT - TO CORRECT PERSONAL FACTORS OR JOB FACTORS.
177 DUTIES OF SUPERVISORS IN PROMOTING SAFETY EACH SUPERVISOR SHALL EXERCISE CLOSE SUPERVISION OVER HIS MANPOWER..SHALL ENSURE THAT PERSONS WORKING UNDER HIM ARE COMPETENT TO PERFORM THEIR WORK SAFELY.HE MUST TAKE IMMEDIATE CORRECTIVE ACTION WHENEVER UNSAFE CONDITIONS / PRACTICES ARE OBSERVED.SUPERVISOR SHALL EXPLAIN IN DETAIL THE PARTICULAR HAZARDS WHERE THE EMPLOYEE IS WORKING AND THE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN TO ENSURE SAFETY.HE SHALL DEVELOP SAFETY AWARENESS IN THE MINDS OF ALL EMPLOYEES.SUPERVISORS SHALL ENSURE THAT THE SAFETY REGULATIONS ARE UNDERSTOOD, THAT ALL HAZARDS ARE ELIMINATED WHEREVER POSSIBLE AND ALL MEANS OF EGRESS/EXIT, STAIRWAYS AND SIMILAR MEANS OF ESCAPE ARE CLEAR, WORKABLE AND THOROUGHLY KNOWN TO ALL HIS MEN.
178 DUTIES OF SUPERVISORS IN PROMOTING SAFETY HE MUST SET A GOOD EXAMPLE IN KNOWING AND OBSERVING ALL SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONS.SUPERVISORS SHALL INVESTIGATE AND REPORT THE ROOT CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS THAT TAKE PLACE IN THEIR AREAS.SUPERVISORS ARE REQUIRED TO MAKE CONTACTS WITH PERSONS WORKING IN ISOLATED PLACES.BY REGULAR AND SYSTEMATIC INSPECTION, SUPERVISOR SHALL ENSURE THAT ALL TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MACHINERIES AND PREMISES ARE IN SAFE AND OPERATIVE CONDITIONS.SUPERVISORS MUST TAKE CORRECTIVE ACTION WHENEVER RULES ARE NOT OBSERVED BECAUSE A SINGLE VIOLATION MAY BECOME A SOURCE OF MAJOR ACCIDENT AND MAY PUT THE SAFETY OF AN INDIVIDUAL OR A GROUP IN JEOPARDY.
179 REFERENCES SAFETY MANUAL ( HQ/ UNITS) PROCESS SAFETY MANUAL (UNITS) FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL (UNITS)UNIT OPERATING MANUALMATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETOISD STANDARDSBIS STANDARDSLOSS CONTROL MANUALSEQMS MANUALSRELEVANT STATUTORY ACTS AND RULES
180 SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS SAFETY OUR FIRST JOBSAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
181 WHY SAFETY IS OUR FIRST JOB To protect human lifeTo protect company propertyTo protect surrounding environment/ communityTo efficiently run the business & reduce LossesTo enhance productivityTo build up morale & team spiritTo enhance corporate image
182 Safety ManagementIn the early stage of industrialization safety was managed through training and following safe procedures, compliance of rules and regulations, etc.Next stage witnessed enhanced safety feature through technological up-gradation safe processes, safety features in built in design and prescriptive statutory rules.Finally safety is managed through systems approach. The ‘Cullen Report’, 1990 on Piper Alpha Disaster stressed the need for formal safety management system.
183 Safety Management System An integrated approach of Management, Leadership Commitment and Coordinated Technical Interventions from concept to commissioning to commercial operations
184 Safety Management Systems EPA Risk Management ProgrammeAPI RP 750 : Management of Process HazardsCMA (Chemical Manufacturers Association) SystemsCCPS Guidelines for Technical Management of Chemical Process SafetyOSHA - Process Safety ManagementOHSAS –18001OISD
185 Elements of Safety Management Systems Management Leadership, Commitment and AccountabilityEmployee ParticipationProcess safety InformationProcess Hazard AnalysisOperating ProceduresTrainingContractors
186 Elements of Safety Management Systems Pre-commissioning Checks and AuditsWork Permit SystemMechanical IntegrityIncident InvestigationManagement of ChangeEmergency Planning and ResponseSafety AuditsRegulatory Compliance
187 Management Commitment & Leadership Corporate safety policyAllocation of resourcesDevelopment of systems & guidelinesPerformance of systems & guidelinesNurturing positive safety culture
189 Employee Participation Abide by safety rules/regulationsTo follow safe operating practicesActively participate in safety committeesFeed back on unsafe practices and actsTrain co-workers and assist them in performing safelyHelp in controlling safety and environmental incidencesUse Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
190 Process Safety Information Complete and accurate information aboutProcess ChemicalsProcess TechnologyProcess Equipment
191 Process Safety Information Process ChemicalsPhysical Properties like vapour pressure, boiling point etc.Fire & Explosion Hazards like flash point, auto-ignition temperature, explosive limits etc.Reactive hazards (tendency to react violently)Health hazard (toxicity)Corrosive properties
192 Process Safety Information Process TechnologyWritten down process descriptionProcess chemistrySafe Operating limitsP&ID
193 Process Safety Information Process EquipmentMaterials of constructionDesign SpecificationsElectrical classification
194 Process Hazard Analysis What - if - analysisCheck-listHazard & Operability Studies (HAZOP)Quantitative Risk Analysis (MCA based)Strategies to minimise riskProcess safety information provides input for such studies/task
195 Operating ProceduresComprehensive operation, maintenance & Inspection ManualsEquipment operation, normal start up and shut downs, emergency handling proceduresInterlocks and safe shut-down instrument functions & its special featuresContains work permit system, equipment hand-over, fire protection/fighting facilities etc.
196 TrainingEmployees, contractors, security personnel, Truck drivers/khalasisCore Safety trainingSkill trainingRefresher trainingUse of modern training aids - simulators
197 Training Training on operating instructions Emergency response trainingSkill of trainersTraining effectivenessChange of assignment/retrainingCertification
198 Pre-commissioning Safety checks & Audit Carried out by multi disciplinary team on a well structured check listTo ensure construction as per designTo ensure compliance with regulationsTo ensure proper documentation, operating procedures, training
199 Pre-commissioning Safety checks & Audit To ensure that all protections are provided, tested and put in placeWork permit system in placeAll personnel protective equipment provided for ready use.
200 Mechanical Integrity The objective is to ensure Reliable and safe operationHigher equipment lifeHigher on-stream factor
201 Mechanical Integrity Condition Monitoring Preventive /Predictive MaintenanceResidual Life AssessmentPeriodic Testing of Relief Valves, Interlocks, Alarms, shut down systems etc.Documentation of monitored data to guide corrective actionsOnly nominated officers approve by-passing of TRIPS/Interlocks etc. Restoration on top priority.
202 Management of ChangeProcedure for evaluating potential impact, authorising and controlProposed changes are reviewed by various functions/departmentsOperating/maintenance personnel are imparted trainingDocuments are updated and changes are communicated to all concernedSame control is exercised for temporary as well as permanent changes
203 Safety Audit To check and affirm System Effectiveness Done on structured check list by Multi Disciplinary TeamsInternal Audit - Every YearExternal Audit (once in 3 years) & Surprise Audit (once in a year) by OISDImplementation of recommendationsReview
204 Statutory Compliance The Factories Act, 1948 The Petroleum Rules, 1976 The Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981The SMPV (U) Amendment Rules, 2000The MSIHC Rules, 2000The EP Act, 1986and other relevant rules like Indian Electricity Act, Boiler Regulations, Central Motor Vehicle Rules etc. to be followed.
205 MISCONCEPTION ON SAFETY ACCIDENTS HAPPEN – THEY ARE INEVITABLE.IF A PERSON IS DESTINED TO MEET WITH AN ACCIDENT NO MORTAL EFFORTS CAN SAVE HIM.WHERE THERE IS HUGE MACHINERIES AND FAST MOVING PRODUCTION LINES ACCIDENTS ARE INEVITABLE.SAFETY RULES ARE FOR NEW COMERS AND NOVICES.A WILLING WORKER WILL MEET WITH AN ACCIDENT – NOT THE IDLER.IT NEEDS A REAL HE-MAN TO FACE IT.SAFETY RULES ARE MANAGEMENT’S BABY; WHY SHOULD BOTHER.MAINTAINING SAFETY IS A MANAGERIAL FUNCTION.
208 Risk Management “Public” assessment of Risk IntuitiveYes/NoSafetyIs it or Isn’t itDiscrete eventsPersonal consequencesIt matters how we die“Expert” assessment of RiskScientificProbabilisticAcceptable RiskChanging knowledgeComparative riskPopulation averagesA death is death208
209 Control: HIERARCHY OF CONTROL Hierarchy of Control: The measures we take to eliminate or reduce the risk to an acceptable level.Hierarchy of Control:The order in which controls should be consideredWhen selecting methods of controlling a risk.209
210 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL Elimination Substitution Isolation Engineering ControlsAdministrative ControlsProvide Personal Protective Equipment .210
211 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL ELIMINATION The Best method of dealing with a hazard is toeliminate it.Once the hazard has been eliminated thepotential for harm has gone.211
212 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL SUBSTITUTION This involves substituting a dangerous processor substance with one that is not as dangerous.This may not be as satisfactory as elimination asthere may still be a risk (even if it is reduced).212
213 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL ISOLATION Separate or isolate the hazard from people.This method has its problems in that the hazard hasnot been removed.The guard or separation device is always at risk of beingremoved or circumvented.213
214 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL ADMINISTRATION Administrative solutions usually involve modificationof the likelihood of an accident happening.This can be done by reducing the number of peopleexposed to the danger reducing the amount of timeexposed and providing training to those people whoare exposed to the hazard.214
215 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Provision of personal protective equipment should onlybe considered when all other control methods areimpractical, or to increase control when used with anothermethod higher up in the Hierarchy of Control.215
216 MONITORING AND REVIEW KEY POINT A review follow-up is always essential.Review is an important aspect of any riskManagement process.It is essential to review what has been done toEnsure that the controls put in place are effective.216
217 The Risk Management Process The total procedure associated with- Identifying a HAZARD,- Assessing the RISK,- Putting in place CONTROL MEASURES,AND REVIEWING THE OUTCOMES.217
220 The risk management process is an CONCLUSIONHazard identification, risk assessment, control and reviewis not a task that is completed and then forgotten about.Hazard identification should be properly documented evenin the simplest of situations.Risk assessment should include a careful assessmentof both LIKELIHOOD and CONSEQUENCE.Control measures should conform to the recommendationsof the hierarchy of control.The risk management process is anON GOING ONE220
222 PIELINE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Pipeline is a network of pipes used for the transportation of materials, in liquid form, from one place to another. It requires one storage area and one pumping unit for the material to be transported from one location to the another.Generally, Cross-country pipelines are laid underground and used for transporting raw material or oil as well as finished products from one locations. In this system, block valves are given at a maximum distance of 75 kms so as to restrict the flow during emergency situation. Along with the pipeline a set up of communication system is provided for efficient communication during emergency any maintenance activity.The emergencies in pipeline may one of the following:Leak.Leak with Fire.Burst.Burst with Fire.
223 SAFETY SYSTEM IN PIELINES In pipeline installations various safety systems are adopted to ensure the safe movement of the material. The measures adopted to ensure the safety are as follows:Maximum allowable operating pressure in the pipeline.Pressure relief valves.Block Valves for dividing the whole pipeline into various sections.Station limit valve.High level tripping devices on discharge side of the pumping unit.Low level tripping devices on suction side of the pumping unit.Alarm for high level in the storage tanks.Data monitoring through SCADA system.Leak detection system.Manual call points in the installation.Emergency shut down.Fix as well as mobile fire fighting and protection system for the installation.
224 JETTY INSTALLATIONSJetties are the locations near the ports where loading and / or unloading of the material takes place from port to ships and vice-versa. The jetties are basically of two types:RORO Jetty – Roll On Roll Off – Jetty used for loading and unloading of goods.LOLO Jetty – Load On Load Off – Jetty used for lading and unloading of Petroleum products.SAFETY SYSTEM AT JETTIES:Jetty Installations are provided with inbuilt protection facilities including the following:Auto shut-off system at the unloading arm during emergency.Water hydrant network.Fixed water-cum-foam monitors of high range.Manual Call Points.Portable Fire Extinguishers.
225 FIRE HYDRANT NETWORK DISTRIBUTION NETWORK: Network shall be laid in closed loops as far as possible to ensure multi-directional flow in the system. Isolation valves shall be provided in the network to enable isolation of any section of the network without affecting the flow in the rest. The isolation valves shall be normally located near the loop junctions. Additional valves shall be provided in the segments where the length of the segment exceeds 300 mts.FIRE HYDRANTS:Fire hydrants shall be provided in the network to ensure protection to all the facilities. The location of the hydrants shall be carefully decided keeping in view the easy accessibility. The maximum distance between two hydrants, however, shall not exceed 30 mtrs around hydrocarbon storage and hazardous areas and 45 mtrs in other areas. Each hydrant shall have two outlets inclined towards the ground. The outlets shall be of female instantaneous type having a standard size of 63.5 mm conforming to BIS.HEADER PRESSURE:The fire water system shall be designed for a minimum residual pressure of 7.0 kg/cm2 g at the hydraulically remotest point of application at the designed flow rate at that point.The fire water network shall be kept pressuriSed at minimum 7.0 kg/cm2 gat all the time. In existing refineries, this shall be achieved in a phased manner.