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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.1 Chapter 11 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.2 Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing… A criminal trial is an example of hypothesis testing without the statistics. In a trial a jury must decide between two hypotheses. The null hypothesis is H 0 : The defendant is innocent The alternative hypothesis or research hypothesis is H 1 : The defendant is guilty The jury does not know which hypothesis is true. They must make a decision on the basis of evidence presented.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.3 Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing… In the language of statistics convicting the defendant is called rejecting the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis. That is, the jury is saying that there is enough evidence to conclude that the defendant is guilty (i.e., there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis). If the jury acquits it is stating that there is not enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Notice that the jury is not saying that the defendant is innocent, only that there is not enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. That is why we never say that we accept the null hypothesis.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.4 Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing… There are two possible errors. A Type I error occurs when we reject a true null hypothesis. That is, a Type I error occurs when the jury convicts an innocent person. A Type II error occurs when we don’t reject a false null hypothesis. That occurs when a guilty defendant is acquitted.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.5 Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing… The probability of a Type I error is denoted as α (Greek letter alpha). The probability of a type II error is β (Greek letter beta). The two probabilities are inversely related. Decreasing one increases the other.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.6 Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing… In our judicial system Type I errors are regarded as more serious. We try to avoid convicting innocent people. We are more willing to acquit guilty people. We arrange to make α small by requiring the prosecution to prove its case and instructing the jury to find the defendant guilty only if there is “evidence beyond a reasonable doubt.”

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.7 Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing… The critical concepts are theses: 1. There are two hypotheses, the null and the alternative hypotheses. 2. The procedure begins with the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. 3. The goal is to determine whether there is enough evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is true. 4. There are two possible decisions: Conclude that there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Conclude that there is not enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.8 Nonstatistical Hypothesis Testing… 5. Two possible errors can be made. Type I error: Reject a true null hypothesis Type II error: Do not reject a false null hypothesis. P(Type I error) = α P(Type II error) = β

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.9 Introduction… In addition to estimation, hypothesis testing is a procedure for making inferences about a population. Hypothesis testing allows us to determine whether enough statistical evidence exists to conclude that a belief (i.e. hypothesis) about a parameter is supported by the data.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.10 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing (1)… There are two hypotheses. One is called the null hypothesis and the other the alternative or research hypothesis. The usual notation is: H 0 : — the ‘null’ hypothesis H 1 : — the ‘alternative’ or ‘research’ hypothesis The null hypothesis (H 0 ) will always state that the parameter equals the value specified in the alternative hypothesis (H 1 ) pronounced H “nought”

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.11 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing… Consider Example 10.1 (mean demand for computers during assembly lead time) again. Rather than estimate the mean demand, our operations manager wants to know whether the mean is different from 350 units. We can rephrase this request into a test of the hypothesis: H 0 : = 350 Thus, our research hypothesis becomes: H 1 : ≠ 350 This is what we are interested in determining…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.12 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing (2)… The testing procedure begins with the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. Thus, until we have further statistical evidence, we will assume: H 0 : = 350 (assumed to be TRUE)

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.13 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing (3)… The goal of the process is to determine whether there is enough evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is true. That is, is there sufficient statistical information to determine if this statement: H 1 : ≠ 350, is true? This is what we are interested in determining…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.14 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing (4)… There are two possible decisions that can be made: Conclude that there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis (also stated as: rejecting the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative) Conclude that there is not enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis (also stated as: not rejecting the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative) NOTE: we do not say that we accept the null hypothesis…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.15 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing… Once the null and alternative hypotheses are stated, the next step is to randomly sample the population and calculate a test statistic (in this example, the sample mean). If the test statistic’s value is inconsistent with the null hypothesis we reject the null hypothesis and infer that the alternative hypothesis is true. For example, if we’re trying to decide whether the mean is not equal to 350, a large value of (say, 600) would provide enough evidence. If is close to 350 (say, 355) we could not say that this provides a great deal of evidence to infer that the population mean is different than 350.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.16 Concepts of Hypothesis Testing (5)… Two possible errors can be made in any test: A Type I error occurs when we reject a true null hypothesis and A Type II error occurs when we don’t reject a false null hypothesis. There are probabilities associated with each type of error: P(Type I error) = P(Type II error ) = Α is called the significance level.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.17 Types of Errors… A Type I error occurs when we reject a true null hypothesis (i.e. Reject H 0 when it is TRUE) A Type II error occurs when we don’t reject a false null hypothesis (i.e. Do NOT reject H 0 when it is FALSE) H0H0 TF Reject I II

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.18 Types of Errors… Back to our example, we would commit a Type I error if: Reject H 0 when it is TRUE We reject H 0 ( = 350) in favor of H 1 ( ≠ 350) when in fact the real value of is 350. We would commit a Type II error in the case where: Do NOT reject H 0 when it is FALSE We believe H 0 is correct ( = 350), when in fact the real value of is something other than 350.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.19 Recap I… 1) Two hypotheses: H 0 & H 1 2) ASSUME H 0 is TRUE 3) GOAL: determine if there is enough evidence to infer that H 1 is TRUE 4) Two possible decisions: Reject H 0 in favor of H 1 NOT Reject H 0 in favor of H 1 5) Two possible types of errors: Type I: reject a true H 0 [P(Type I)= ] Type II: not reject a false H 0 [P(Type II)= ]

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.20 Recap II… The null hypothesis must specify a single value of the parameter (e.g. =___) Assume the null hypothesis is TRUE. Sample from the population, and build a statistic related to the parameter hypothesized (e.g. the sample mean, ) Compare the statistic with the value specified in the first step

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.21 Example 11.1… A department store manager determines that a new billing system will be cost-effective only if the mean monthly account is more than $170. A random sample of 400 monthly accounts is drawn, for which the sample mean is $178. The accounts are approximately normally distributed with a standard deviation of $65. Can we conclude that the new system will be cost-effective?

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.22 Example 11.1… The system will be cost effective if the mean account balance for all customers is greater than $170. We express this belief as a our research hypothesis, that is: H 1 : > 170 (this is what we want to determine) Thus, our null hypothesis becomes: H 0 : = 170 (this specifies a single value for the parameter of interest)

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.23 Example 11.1… What we want to show: H 1 : > 170 H 0 : = 170 (we’ll assume this is true) We know: n = 400, = 178, and = 65 Hmm. What to do next?!

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.24 Example 11.1… To test our hypotheses, we can use two different approaches: The rejection region approach (typically used when computing statistics manually), and The p-value approach (which is generally used with a computer and statistical software). We will explore both in turn…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.25 Example 11.1… Rejection Region… The rejection region is a range of values such that if the test statistic falls into that range, we decide to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis. is the critical value of to reject H 0.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.26 Example 11.1… It seems reasonable to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative if the value of the sample mean is large relative to 170, that is if >. = P( > ) is also… = P(rejecting H 0 given that H 0 is true) = P(Type I error)

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.27 Example 11.1… All that’s left to do is calculate and compare it to 170. we can calculate this based on any level of significance ( ) we want…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.28 Example 11.1… At a 5% significance level (i.e. =0.05), we get Solving we compute =175.34 Since our sample mean (178) is greater than the critical value we calculated (175.34), we reject the null hypothesis in favor of H 1, i.e. that: > 170 and that it is cost effective to install the new billing system

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.29 Example 11.1… The Big Picture… =175.34 =178 H 1 : > 170 H 0 : = 170 Reject H 0 in favor of

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.30 Standardized Test Statistic… An easier method is to use the standardized test statistic: and compare its result to : (rejection region: z > ) Since z = 2.46 > 1.645 (z.05 ), we reject H 0 in favor of H 1 …

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.31 p-Value The p-value of a test is the probability of observing a test statistic at least as extreme as the one computed given that the null hypothesis is true. In the case of our department store example, what is the probability of observing a sample mean at least as extreme as the one already observed (i.e. = 178), given that the null hypothesis (H0: = 170) is true? p-value

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.32 Interpreting the p-value… The smaller the p-value, the more statistical evidence exists to support the alternative hypothesis. If the p-value is less than 1%, there is overwhelming evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis. If the p-value is between 1% and 5%, there is a strong evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis. If the p-value is between 5% and 10% there is a weak evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis. If the p-value exceeds 10%, there is no evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis. We observe a p-value of.0069, hence there is overwhelming evidence to support H 1 : > 170.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.33 Interpreting the p-value… Overwhelming Evidence (Highly Significant) Strong Evidence (Significant) Weak Evidence (Not Significant) No Evidence (Not Significant) 0.01.05.10 p=.0069

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.34 Interpreting the p-value… Compare the p-value with the selected value of the significance level: If the p-value is less than, we judge the p-value to be small enough to reject the null hypothesis. If the p-value is greater than, we do not reject the null hypothesis. Since p-value =.0069 < =.05, we reject H 0 in favor of H 1

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.35 Calculating p-values with Excel… Consider the dataset for Example 11.1.Example 11.1 Click: Tools > Data Analysis Plus > Z-Test: Mean p-value

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.36 Calculating p-values with Excel… Alternatively, we can compare the standardized test statistic with the critical value of z: test stat z.05 Again, z = 2.4605 > 1.6449 = z.05, so we reject H 0 …

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.37 Conclusions of a Test of Hypothesis… If we reject the null hypothesis, we conclude that there is enough evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is true. If we do not reject the null hypothesis, we conclude that there is not enough statistical evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is true. Remember: The alternative hypothesis is the more important one. It represents what we are investigating.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.38 Chapter-Opening Example… The objective of the study is to draw a conclusion about the mean payment period. Thus, the parameter to be tested is the population mean. We want to know whether there is enough statistical evidence to show that the population mean is less than 22 days. Thus, the alternative hypothesis is H 1 :μ < 22 The null hypothesis is H 0 :μ = 22

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.39 Chapter-Opening Example… The test statistic is We wish to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative only if the sample mean and hence the value of the test statistic is small enough. As a result we locate the rejection region in the left tail of the sampling distribution. We set the significance level at 10%.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.40 Chapter-Opening Example… Rejection region: From the data in SSA we computeSSA and p-value = P(Z < -.91) =.5 -.3186 =.1814

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.41 Chapter-Opening Example… Conclusion: There is not enough evidence to infer that the mean is less than 22. There is not enough evidence to infer that the plan will be profitable.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.42 One– and Two–Tail Testing… The department store example was a one tail test, because the rejection region is located in only one tail of the sampling distribution: More correctly, this was an example of a right tail test.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.43 One– and Two–Tail Testing… The SSA Envelope example is a left tail test because the rejection region was located in the left tail of the sampling distribution.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.44 Right-Tail Testing… Calculate the critical value of the mean ( ) and compare against the observed value of the sample mean ( )…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.45 Left-Tail Testing… Calculate the critical value of the mean ( ) and compare against the observed value of the sample mean ( )…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.46 Two–Tail Testing… Two tail testing is used when we want to test a research hypothesis that a parameter is not equal (≠) to some value

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.47 Example 11.2… AT&T’s argues that its rates are such that customers won’t see a difference in their phone bills between them and their competitors. They calculate the mean and standard deviation for all their customers at $17.09 and $3.87 (respectively). They then sample 100 customers at random and recalculate a monthly phone bill based on competitor’s rates. What we want to show is whether or not: H 1 : ≠ 17.09. We do this by assuming that: H 0 : = 17.09

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.48 Example 11.2… The rejection region is set up so we can reject the null hypothesis when the test statistic is large or when it is small. That is, we set up a two-tail rejection region. The total area in the rejection region must sum to, so we divide this probability by 2. stat is “small”stat is “large”

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.49 Example 11.2… At a 5% significance level (i.e. =.05), we have /2 =.025. Thus, z.025 = 1.96 and our rejection region is: z 1.96 z -z.025 +z.025 0

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.50 Example 11.2… From the data, we calculate = 17.55data Using our standardized test statistic: We find that: Since z = 1.19 is not greater than 1.96, nor less than –1.96 we cannot reject the null hypothesis in favor of H 1. That is “there is insufficient evidence to infer that there is a difference between the bills of AT&T and the competitor.”

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.51 Two-Tail Test p-value… In general, the p-value in a two-tail test is determined by p-value = 2P(Z > |z|) where z is the actual value of the test statistic and |z| is its absolute value. When using Excel, we are interested in the bottom rows of the Data Analysis Plus output: use this p-value… …or compare these #’s

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.52 Summary of One- and Two-Tail Tests… One-Tail Test (left tail) Two-Tail TestOne-Tail Test (right tail)

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.53 Probability of a Type II Error – It is important that that we understand the relationship between Type I and Type II errors; that is, how the probability of a Type II error is calculated and its interpretation. Recall example 11.1… H 0 : = 170 H 1 : > 170 At a significance level of 5% we rejected H 0 in favor of H 1 since our sample mean (178) was greater than the critical value of (175.34)

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.54 Probability of a Type II Error – A Type II error occurs when a false null hypothesis is not rejected. In example 11.1, this means that if is less than 175.34 (our critical value) we will not reject our null hypothesis, which means that we will not install the new billing system. Thus, we can see that: = P( < 175.34 given that the null hypothesis is false)

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.55 Example 11.1 (revisited)… = P( < 175.34 given that the null hypothesis is false) The condition only tells us that the mean ≠ 170. We need to compute for some new value of. For example, suppose the mean account balance needs to be $180 in order to cost justify the new billing system… = P( < 175.34, given that = 180), thus…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.56 Example 11.1 (revisited)… Our original hypothesis… our new assumption…

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.57 Effects on of Changing Decreasing the significance level, increases the value of and vice versa. Consider this diagram again. Shifting the critical value line to the right (to decrease ) will mean a larger area under the lower curve for … (and vice versa)

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.58 Judging the Test… A statistical test of hypothesis is effectively defined by the significance level ( ) and the sample size (n), both of which are selected by the statistics practitioner. Therefore, if the probability of a Type II error ( ) is judged to be too large, we can reduce it by increasing, and/or increasing the sample size, n.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.59 Judging the Test… For example, suppose we increased n from a sample size of 400 account balances to 1,000… The probability of a Type II error ( ) goes to a negligible level while remains at 5%

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.60 Judging the Test… The power of a test is defined as 1–. It represents the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false. I.e. when more than one test can be performed in a given situation, its is preferable to use the test that is correct more often. If one test has a higher power than a second test, the first test is said to be more powerful and the preferred test.

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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11.61 Using Excel… The Beta-mean workbook is a handy tool for calculatingBeta-mean for any test of hypothesis. For example, comparing n=400 to n=1,000 for our department store example… the power of the test has increased by increasing the same size…

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