Basic Search Strategies: Information Need & Resources Recent events or research? Newspapers, magazines, journals, or the Internet Current, general information? Popular magazines and newspapers Current, in-depth information? Scholarly journals, conference proceedings Overviews, background or definitions? Encyclopedias, handbooks, dictionaries, or reviews More detail? Books
Types of Periodicals: Scholarly Journals Authors are authorities in their fields. Articles are usually reports on scholarly research. Articles must go through a peer-review or refereed process. Scholarly/academic articles that are read by academic or scholar "referees" for advice and evaluation of content when submitted for publication. Referees recommend to the editor/editorial board whether the article should be published as is, revised, or rejected. Also sometimes know as "peer-reviewed" articles.
Types of Periodicals: Scholarly Journals (cont.) Authors cite their sources in endnotes, footnotes, or bibliographies. Articles use jargon of the discipline. Individual issues have little or no advertising. Illustrations usually take the form of charts and graphs.
Types of Periodicals: Trade Publications Authors are practitioners Authors often mention sources, but rarely formally cite them in bibliographies. Intended audience are fellow practitioners. No peer review process. Articles give practical information. Some illustrations are included Authors use jargon of the field.
Types of Periodicals: Popular Magazines and Newspapers Authors are magazine staff members or free lance writers. Authors often mention sources, but rarely formally cite them in bibliographies. Issues contain numerous advertisements. No peer review process. Articles are meant to inform and entertain. Illustrations may be numerous and colorful. Language is geared to the general adult audience (no specialized knowledge of jargon needed).
Reference Works: Subject vs. General When enough information about a research track has been accumulated, it will begin to be integrated into reference books. For example: Subject encyclopedias: Encyclopedia of Psychology Places important research projects or tracks into a disciplinary perspective, identifying the role each plays, historically and intellectually, in the psychology professions. General encyclopedias: Encyclopedia Britannica Takes a broader view, attempting to articulate the impact of the most important research projects on society as a whole.
Reviews A research review, or literature review, is a piece of writing that summarizes and evaluates the significant research to date on a given topic. Contrast this with a research report, which emphasizes the methods and results of one particular study, not a whole area of research. Publications such as the Annual Review of Psychology compile articles that summarize a topic and provoke discussion that will lead to new research activity. Occasionally, an entire book may serve as a review for research tracks especially rich with activity.Annual Review of Psychology
Conference Proceedings Published papers presented at conferences, meetings, etc. Conference papers are not always published, or published in a timely manner! Peer-review process similar to scholarly journals Presenters can be scholars or practitioners Use the jargon of their discipline Intended audience are other scholars or practitioners Often the first formal report of someone’s research Authors cite their sources Papers are often revised and published later in journals or books.
Evaluating Print Resources Every book, periodical article, or other published resource should be evaluated to determine its quality and its relevance to your topic and the nature of your assignment. Use the criteria below to help you evaluate resources.criteria Authority Content & Coverage Timeliness Accuracy Objectivity
Evaluating Internet Resources Types of Web Sites: the URL is a key.gov.edu.org.com Apply the same criteria: Authority Content & Coverage Timeliness Accuracy Objectivity World Wide Web sites come in many sizes and styles. How do you distinguish a site that gives reliable information from one that gives incorrect information? Below are some guidelines to help.guidelines
Internet as Interface vs. Internet as Source Internet Explorer or Netscape Interface: Access databases and online journals E.g.: PsycINFO, ERIC Usually require subscription Exception: ERIC Wizard Usually have print counterparts Equivalent authority and reliability Source: Access using free search engines E.g.: Yahoo, Google, HotBot Originated on the Internet Anyone can put up a Web page! Critical evaluation more important
Basic Search Strategies: Use Databases to Find Resources Books – Online catalog CSUN Library Online Catalog Articles – Indexes, abstracting services, or full-text databases Find Articles and More Web pages – Search engines Internet Search Tools
Basic Search Strategies: What Is a Database? Collection of records composed of fields which are searched for words and phrases using Boolean Logic. For example:
Basic Search Strategies: Words to Search by Keyword = natural language Subject terms/descriptors = controlled vocabulary
OR AND NOT Basic Search Strategies: Boolean Logic
Basic Search Strategies: Boolean “OR” Where either term (or both) are present Broadens the search teenagers OR adolescents
Basic Search Strategies: Boolean “AND” Where both terms are present Narrows the search teenagers AND academic achievement
Basic Search Strategies: Boolean “NOT” Where first term is present but second term is not Narrows the search counseling NOT therapy
Basic Search Strategies: Truncation Symbol: *, !, ?, etc. (varies by database) Replaces one or more letters at the end of a word or root word Truncation = OR Example: teen! retrieves teen OR teens OR teenager OR teenagers However: cat* retrieves cat, cats, but also cataclysm, catacomb, catalepsy, catalog, etc. Use OR instead to maintain meaning: cat or cats