Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pancreatic Hormones Glucagon Insulin.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Pancreatic Hormones Glucagon Insulin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pancreatic Hormones Glucagon Insulin

2 Pancreas Histology

3 Pancreas 13-34

4 Islets of Langerhan (Pancreatic Islets)

5 Pancreatic Hormones, Insulin & Glucagon Regulate Metabolism
Figure 22-8: Metabolism is controlled by insulin and glucagon





10 Insulin Stimulates Cellular Glucose Uptake
Adipocytes Skeletal Muscle Liver Insulin Intestine & Pancreas

11 Glucagon and Insulin

12 Action of Insulin on Adipose Tissue
Stimulates glucose uptake Stimulates glycolysis Stimulates lipogenesis Inhibits lipolysis and ketogenesis

13 Actions of Glucagon on the Liver
Stimulates glycogenolysis Stimulates gluconeogenesis Inhibits glycolysis Stimulates lipolysis and ketogenesis




17 Actions of Insulin on the Liver
Stimulates glucose uptake Stimulates glycogenesis Stimulates glycolysis Stimulates HMP shunt activity Inhibits glycogenolysis Inhibits gluconeogenesis Stimulates lipogenesis Inhibits lipolysis Stimulates cholesterol synthesis Increases VLD lipoprotein Increases potassium and phosphate uptake

18 Actions of Insulin on Muscle
Stimulates glucose uptake Stimulates glycogenesis Stimulates glycolysis Inhibits glycogenolysis Inhibits FFA uptake and oxidation Stimulates proteogenesis Inhibits proteolysis Stimulates uptake of potassium, phosphate and magnesium Increases blood flow

19 GLUCAGON Alpha cells Hypoglycemia = glucagon secretion Actions
hypoglycemia (<90mg%) alpha cells secrete glucagon liver cells: increase glycogenolysis increased gluconeogenesis normoglycemia (>90mg%) ( -) negative feedback increased blood glucose increased glycogenolysis increased gluconeogenesis Result = normoglycemia

20 INSULIN Beta cells Hyperglycemia = insulin secretion Actions
hyperglycemia (<110mg%) beta cells secrete insulin increased glucose uptake into body cells increase glycogenesis (skeletal muscle, liver) increased lipogenesis normoglycemia (<110mg%) ( -) negative feedback decreased blood glucose increased glucose uptake increased glycogenesis increased lipogenesis Result = normoglycemia Diabetes mellitus

21 Normal Insulin Glycerol Lipolysis Free fatty acids Triglyceride
LPL Triglyceride Lipolysis Glycerol Free fatty acids Free fatty acids Glucose Synthesis Insulin

22 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Triglyceride LPL Glycerol Lipolysis Free fatty acids Synthesis Free fatty acids Glucose

23 Diabetes Mellitus This is a disease caused by elevated glucose levels
2 Types of diabetes: Type I diabetes (10% of cases) Type II diabetes (90% of cases)

24 Type I Diabetes (10% of cases)
Develops suddenly, usually before age 15 Caused by inadequate production of insulin because T cell-mediated autoimmune response destroys beta cells Controlled by insulin injections

25 Type II diabetes (90% of cases)
Usually occurs after age 40 and in obese individuals Insulin levels are normal or elevated but there is either a decrease in number of insulin receptors or the cells cannot take it up. Controlled by dietary changes and regular exercise

26 Homeostasis: Normal blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL)
Glucose homeostasis Body cells take up more glucose Insulin Beta cells of pancreas stimulated to release insulin into the blood Liver takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen Blood glucose level declines to a set point; stimulus for insulin release diminishes High blood glucose level STIMULUS: Rising blood glucose level (e.g., after eating a carbohydrate-rich meal) Homeostasis: Normal blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL) STIMULUS: Declining blood glucose level (e.g., after skipping a meal) Blood glucose level rises to set point; stimulus for glucagon release diminishes Alpha cells of pancreas stimulated to release glucagon into the blood Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose to the blood Glucagon Figure 26.8

27 Type 2 diabetes: patophysiology
Exxagerated lipolysis I Glucose G I Beta Cell Dysfunction I Insulin G G G I G Pancreas I G G I I G G I Decreased Glucose Uptake I Increased SGO G G Insulin Resistance

28 FOOD I Glucose Insulin Insulin Effects Storage In Fat Depots
Inhibition of Lipolysis I Glucose G I Insulin Secretion I G Insulin G G I G Pancreas I G G I I G Restrain of HGO G I I Uptake of glucose G G Insulin Effects

29 Prevention of obesity قال صلى الله عليه وسلم (ما ملأ آدمي وعاء شرا من بطنه، بحسب ابن آدم لقيمات يقمن صلبه، فان كان لابد فاعلا فثلث لطعامه وثلث لشرابه وثلث لنفسه). رواه أحمد والترمذي

Download ppt "Pancreatic Hormones Glucagon Insulin."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google