CHAPTER TWO Approaches to Administration. Objectives, 1 §1. Name the first great leader that drew attention to the study of administration. §2. Name and.
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Objectives, 1 §1. Name the first great leader that drew attention to the study of administration. §2. Name and describe the five major approaches to administration. §3. Explain what is meant by the Hawthorne Effect. §4. Explain the McGregor X Y theory as it relates to administration.
Objectives, 2 §5. List and describe the 7 principles of TQM. §6. List the four central elements that administrators must understand if they are to have a successful approach to administration. §7. Explain the concept of a learning organization and why it offers possibilities for the adult administrator.
The Beginning of the Study of Administration §President Woodrow Wilson §1887 wrote an essay called: “The Study of Administration” § Advocated development of principles associated with the administration to lead to more efficiency and reduce confusion
The Five Approaches to Administration §Classical §Human Relations §Organizational Behavior §Contingency §Systems Approach
Approach 1: The Classical Approach §Scientific Management. l Three prominent names;Taylor, the Gilbreths & Gantt l Industrial revolution spurred Taylor’s “principles of scientific management”. l Division between management & workers l Gilbreths applied time & motion studies to own children l Gantt introduced quota & bonus system for workers l “Us” and “Them” mentality.
Bureaucratic Management §Proposed by Max Weber(1947) §Overall organizational structure §Ensured efficiency, fairness & predictability §Division of labor based on specialization & personal expertise §Comprehensive system of rules providing guidelines for behavior of employees §Clearly defined hierarchy ranking jobs according to power and authority
§Impersonality ( the minimization of personal & emotional factors in the workplace, requiring that rules & standards be the basis for hiring, evaluation & promotion) §Weber warned against the dangers of the proliferation of bureaucracy beyond a workable level §This approach is still used where many routine tasks must be performed within timelines and with a high degree of accuracy Bureaucratic Management, Continued
Administrative Management §Focuses on the manager as key to increased efficiency & productivity rather than the worker or the organization as a whole §Unity of command; workers receive instructions about a particular function from only one person §Unity of direction; employees working on a project should be directed by only one manager §Scalar principle; one uninterrupted line of authority traceable from bottom to top §Disagreements over this approach working in education. (see text, ch2 p27)
Approach 2: The Human Relations Approach §Recognized human factors in the workplace §Workers reacted to abuse of early industrial era by banding together to demand reasonable pay & better working conditions §Research showed that maximum efficiency did not mean maximum production §Three major influences on humanistic concern in management theory, l The rise of labor unions l The Hawthorne experiment l Authors focusing on social & psychological factors in productivity
The Hawthorne Experiment §Named due to experiments conducted by National Research Council at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, Illinois §Initial experiment was to determine the ideal level of lighting to maximize productivity §Learned that productivity increased regardless of light level, from bright to near-twilight §Led to a conclusion called “Hawthorne Effect” l When workers are given special attention, performance is likely to increase regardless of working conditions §Impact of social & psychological factors on humans
McGregor X Y Theory §THEORY X §Humans are basically lazy §Lack ambition §Seek security while avoiding work & responsibility §Must be controlled, directed, coerced & even threatened to complete work §THEORY Y §Humans internally motivated §View work as a natural part of life §Seek responsibility §Committed to goals §Innovative
Approach 3: The Organizational Behavior Perspective §Two aspects l Interaction between individual & organization l Interaction between informal organization & formal, or office, organization §For organization maximally, needs & expectations of workers & needs & purposes of organization must be met
Approach 4: The Contingency Approach §Organizational structure & management approach based upon: l goals of organization l type of technology involved l composition of workforce l type of task l stability of environment
Approach 5: Systems Approach §Likened to a living organism( Ludwig von Bertalannffy) §Organization - an association of interrelated & independent parts working together §Inputs transformed into outputs §Feedback allows adjustments to insure desired output §Layers of systems working within other systems
Systems Approach, continued §Interdependence with external environment essential to success of adult, community and continuing education administrator §Ensures needs of target population being met §All parts of the system are important §All impact each other and are impacted upon by external forces §All interact to create the image and actuality of the institution
Seven Principles of TQM §1. Focus is on delivering customer value §2. Continuously improves the system & its process §3. Manages processes, not people §4. Locates root causes to solve & prevent problems §5.Collects data and uses science for analysis §6. Remembers that people are the organization’s primary resource §7. Promotes teamwork to execute processes efficiently and effectively
Four Central Elements of Any Approach to Administration §1. A proactive stance based on a clear understanding of organization: its mission, values, goals, strengths and weaknesses §2. A recognition of the adult, community and continuing education organization as a system within a system, which implies a continuous cycle of needs assessment and evaluation to determine if individual needs are being met.
Central Elements of Approach, continued §3. Use of a collaborative approach which simultaneously taps and develops human resources, both within the organizational system and in relation to all other parts of the system §4. A recognition of the constant need for organizational change and renewal for continuous improvement
Summary Questions, 1 §1 What American leader first brought attention to the study of administration? §2. Compare and contrast the five major approaches to administration. §3. Explain what is meant by the Hawthorne Effect. §4. Explain the McGregor X Y theory as it relates to administration.
Summary Questions, 2 §5 What are the 7 principles of TQM. §6. What are the four central elements that administrators must understand if they are to have a successful approach to administration? §7. What is a learning organization?