2 Economics - Notes for Teachers Monetary PolicyIntroductionMonetary policy may be defined as actions taken by a country’s Central / Reserve Bank to influence the price and availability of credit in the economy.Monetary policy is carried out to achieve sustainable growth while keeping the rate of inflation as low as possible.Academic PowerPoint
3 Economics - Notes for Teachers Monetary PolicyMoneyMoney must be:A medium of exchangeA store of valueA measure of valueCapable of extinguishing debtAcademic PowerPoint
4 Economics - Notes for Teachers Monetary PolicyThe Money SupplyMonetary school of economic thought believed that if the money supply could be strictly controlled, then the level of economic activity could be regulated and so could the level of inflation.Academic PowerPoint
5 Factors affecting the money supply It is thought that the growth in the money supply has a strong bearing on the level of economic activity and hence it is important to examine the factors which affect the growth of the money supply.
6 Factors affecting the money supply 1. Credit creation processFinancial intermediaries (e.g. banks, housing loan companies) accept deposits from the public and reward them with the payment of interest.They will then on lend the funds at a higher rate of interest. A portion of the funds will be retained in order to meet day to day requirements (known as the Reserve Requirement).
7 Factors affecting the money supply Credit creation process (continued)When the funds return to the banking system, the on lending procedure will occur.Hence an initial deposit results in the multiple expansion of deposits and further loans.This generates growth in credit, deposits and the money supply, as deposits are counted as part of the money supply.
8 Factors affecting the money supply 2. Government Budget outcomeIf the government operates a budget deficit, then the source of their borrowing can influence the money supply. A budget deficit can be financed from three main sources.These are presented on the next slide.
9 Factors affecting the money supply Government Budget outcome (continued)Reserve Bank – will directly increase the money supply and may impact on inflationPublic/financial markets – money supply is not affected but investment may be ‘crowded out’Overseas sector – has no impact on money supply but will affect the exchange rate
10 Factors affecting the money supply 3. Market operationsThese are the primary monetary policy instruments of the Central / Reserve Bank.They take place in order to influence the level of short-term interest rates especially the overnight cash rate. It does so through the sale and purchase of government securities.
11 Factors affecting the money supply 4. Business cycleThe level of economic activity will have a direct effect on the demand for loanable funds.As economic activity increases, then the demand for funds rises.There is a positive correlation between the demand for credit and the level of economic activity.
12 Causes of interest rate fluctuations Level of economic activitychange in demand for funds due to business expectationsstabilisation government policyPublic sector deficitthis may cause interest rate fluctuations due to financing the budget deficit
13 Causes of interest rate fluctuations Overseas economic eventsThe movement of large volumes of funds internationally to attract high interest rateInflationLenders increase interest rates to maintain real interest rates during periods of inflation
14 Causes of interest rate fluctuations Central/Reserve Bank monetary policyChanges in liquidity affect interest rates
15 Operation of monetary policy Virtually all Central / Reserve Banks implement monetary policy by manipulating the level of liquidity in order to influence short term or overnight cash rates.This is usually achieved through the sale and purchase of government securities.
16 Operation of monetary policy Selling securities reduces liquidity in the market raising the cash rate.Conversely, the purchase of securities will increase liquidity in the market and reduce the cash rate.Any change in the cash rate will flow through to all interest rates in the economy.
17 Inflation targetingMany Central / Reserve Banks strongly believe that it is important to set forward targets for inflation.This helps to set expectations in the economy, and emphasises the importance of controlling inflation.Price stability is viewed as an essential precondition to sustain long term economic growth.
18 Strengths of monetary policy 1. Flexible – the Central / Reserve Bank meets regularly and decisions are made every day. Usually does not require parliamentary approval.
19 Strengths of monetary policy 2. Political neutrality – impacts all sectors of the economy and hence cannot be politically motivated.3. Effective during boom periods – tightening of monetary policy has swift and direct impact on aggregate demand. Affects decisions of consumers and investors.
20 Strengths of monetary policy 4. Very effective under floating exchange rates – the interest rate changes affect the exchange rate which reinforces the impact, e.g. fall in interest rates will reduce capital inflow, and also reduce exchange rates, hence stimulating domestic demand even further.
21 Weaknesses of monetary policy 1. Not effective during a recession – reducing interest rates in a recession may do little to boost investment or aggregate demand. For example, Japan’s interest rates have been close to 0% for the last decade with the economy still in recession.
22 Weaknesses of monetary policy 2. Timelags – Monetary policy has several lags:Recognition lagAction lagImplementation lagEffect lagEffect lag is the major lag associated with monetary policy – it is the time taken for monetary policy to actually affect the level of economic activity.
23 Weaknesses of monetary policy 3. May be circumvented – There are many options available for credit. Monetary policy may therefore not impact on everyone.