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Using Evidence to Bridge the 12-13 Gap Patricia Owen Megan Oakleaf OELMA October 2008 www.infowen.info.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Evidence to Bridge the 12-13 Gap Patricia Owen Megan Oakleaf OELMA October 2008 www.infowen.info."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Evidence to Bridge the Gap Patricia Owen Megan Oakleaf OELMA October 2008

2 Are your seniors ready for college- level research? A. Yes B. No Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

3 What information literacy skills do they struggle with? A. Determining research questions/topics B. Locating information C. Evaluating information D. Using information ethically E. More than one of the above Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

4 What TLs Know About their Seniors Only 51% of TLs believe students are achieving desired levels of information literacy (Islam & Murno). Owen & Oakleaf, 2008 Are your seniors ready for college-level research? What information literacy skills do they struggle with?

5 Overview What college faculty say freshman students dont do What IL skills some college freshmen are expected to use in their first semester in college How to find out what IL skills your high school seniors will be expected to use in their first semester in college How to digest your findings (evidence) & determine what skills to teach Additional ways to use evidence to bridge the gap Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

6 Challenge – Teaching it All What College Faculty Say Freshman Students Dont Do GENERAL Dont know what they dont know Dont know who to ask for research help (Daniel) Dont understand library jargon, ex. full text (Daniel) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

7 Challenge – Teaching it All What College Faculty Say Freshman Students Dont Do RESEARCH PROCESS & QUESTIONS Dont follow research process steps, ex. info lit model (Daniel) Dont estimate time required for research, ex. ILL (Daniel) Dont define a research question or topic thats not shallow or pop (Daniel; California Study in Fitzgerald) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

8 Challenge – Teaching it All What College Faculty Say Freshman Students Dont Do SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION Dont find different formats of information (Daniel) Dont understand that web search engines rarely locate college-appropriate information Dont distinguish between OPACs and online databases (Islam & Murno) Dont conduct effective searches (Daniel) using: –Keywords, alternate search terms –Boolean terms, ex. AND, OR –Controlled vocabulary, subj. headings –Field searching, ex. author, title Dont interpret search results Dont find full text of articles Dont find books using Library of Congress (LC) classification, not Dewey (Daniel) Dont use reference books in the library (Quarton in Fitzgerald) Dont regroup when first attempts to find resources dont work, ex. try different database (Daniel) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

9 Challenge – Teaching it All What College Faculty Say Freshman Students Dont Do EVALUATING INFORMATION Dont weed through search results to find adequate and accurate information Dont evaluate information using standard evaluation criteria Dont distinguish between popular and scholarly articles (Matorana) Dont disregard inadequate or inaccurate information Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

10 Challenge – Teaching it All What College Faculty Say Freshman Students Dont Do USING INFORMATION Dont synthesize, communicate, and argue an thesis using evidence (Fitzgerald) Dont analyze data and statistics Dont represent, analyze, and critique the ideas of others ethically Dont write without plagiarizing (accidentally or otherwise), ex. use in-text citations Dont cite sources properly using multiple citation styles, ex. Citation Builder Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

11 What Students & Their Instructors Think 40% of college students say there are gaps in their ability to do research. –10% say they are struggling 59% of college instructors are dissatisfied with the preparation of public high school graduates to do research. –24% are very dissatisfied (Rising to the Challenge Study) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

12 What Higher Education Expects Experience with computer technology & internet research Sophisticated reading skills including criticism, analysis, & inquiry Ability to analyze data, information, & personal beliefs Ability to conduct disciplined, planned inquiry Evaluation skills using criteria such as clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, significance, & fairness Synthesis skills & ability to relate prior knowledge to new information Ability to formulate, communicate, and argue an assertion with evidence Ability to represent, analyze, & criticize the ideas of others ethically & with proper documentation Ability to work alone, drawing on helpful resources (California Study in Fitzgerald) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

13 What Higher Education Expects HABITS OF MIND Curiosity & spirit of inquiry Ability to ask questions & maintain healthy skepticism Willingness to experiment Willingness to participate in intellectual discussions Respect for other perspectives & ability to challenge personal beliefs (California Study in Fitzgerald) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

14 What Higher Education Expects AASL STANDARDS (New) Inquire, think, & gain knowledge. Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, & create new knowledge. Share knowledge & participate ethically & productively as members of our democratic society. Pursue personal and aesthetic growth. Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

15 What Higher Education Expects ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NET.S) Creativity & innovation Communication & collaboration Research & information fluency Critical thinking, problem solving & decision making Digital citizenship Technology operations & concepts Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

16 What Higher Education Expects Partnership for 21 st Century Skills Core Subjects & 21 st Century Themes Learning & Innovation Skills Information, Media, & Technology Skills Life & Career Skills

17 What skills do students need in their first semester in college? Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

18 Meeting the Challenge… With Evidence Use a step-by-step, evidence-based process to determine the skills emphasized at the colleges your students attend Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

19 Syllabus Study at NCSU Identified random sample of 10% of first-year students (n=350) Retrieved course schedules from registrar Contacted professors & depts, checked course websites Located all course syllabi for 139 students Analyzed syllabi; identified what resources students need to complete assignments VanScoy, Amy and Megan Oakleaf. Evidence vs. Anecdote: Using Syllabi to Plan Curriculum- Integrated Information Literacy Instruction." College and Research Libraries Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

20 Digesting the Evidence Resource Types 1 st Semester, 1 st Year Students Must Use % of Students Required to Find Specific Resources Types Owen & Oakleaf, 2008 VanScoy, Amy and Megan Oakleaf. Evidence vs. Anecdote: Using Syllabi to Plan Curriculum- Integrated Information Literacy Instruction." College and Research Libraries

21 Digesting the Evidence Number of Resources 1 st Semester, 1 st Year Students Must Use % of Students Required to Find Multiple Resource Types Owen & Oakleaf, 2008 VanScoy, Amy and Megan Oakleaf. Evidence vs. Anecdote: Using Syllabi to Plan Curriculum- Integrated Information Literacy Instruction." College and Research Libraries

22 What skills do YOUR STUDENTS need in their first semester in college? Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

23 Step-by-Step & Evidence-Based Identifying Colleges –Who to contact –What to ask Contacting Colleges –Who to contact –What to ask Using Your Findings As Evidence –Digesting your findings –Determining skills to teach –Documenting & reporting the results Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

24 Identifying Colleges Who to contact –Guidance counselors –Students What to ask –What colleges do most of our students attend? (counselors) –What college do you intend to attend? (students) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

25 Identifying Colleges – Examples Wooster High School –Ohio University, Ohio State University, Malone College, Wayne College & University of Akron Zanesville High School –Ohio University (Zanesville), Zane State College, Muskingum College, Ohio State University Vermilion High School –University of Toledo, Lorain County Community College, Bowling Green State University, Ohio State University Talawanda High School –Miami University (all campuses), Ohio State University, Ohio University, Eastern Kentucky University Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

26 Contacting Colleges Who to contact –English Departments Administrative Assistants of Composition Programs –Reference Departments Instruction Coordinators, FYE Librarians What to ask –Where do you keep syllabi for the first-year writing course? (English) –Do you have access to student syllabi? (Library) –Can you request access (registrar, learning management systems, departmental offices) to the syllabi? (Library) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

27 Contacting Colleges – Examples Miami University –Go to the College Composition Office in the Department of English –336 Bachelor Hall –Ask to see syllabi. Dont go on Thursdays! Ohio University –Go to Department of English –360 Ellis Hall –Ask to see syllabi for ENG 151, 152, 153 in 3-ring binder. Bowling Green State University –Go to the General Studies Writing Department –215 East Hall –Ask to see syllabi for ENG 110, 111, 112. Have a million sample syllabi. Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

28 Using Your Evidence Digesting your evidence Determining skills to teach Using & reporting results Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

29 Digesting the Evidence Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

30 NCSU Example In the 1 st semester, students must: Find websites (95%) Find articles (94%) Find books (85%) Find reference books (40%) Find data/statistics (40%) VanScoy, Amy and Megan Oakleaf. Evidence vs. Anecdote: Using Syllabi to Plan Curriculum- Integrated Information Literacy Instruction." College and Research Libraries Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

31 Determining Skills to Teach & Using Evidence to Bridge the Gap Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

32 EHS Example GOAL: Revise lessons 6-12 to focus instruction on essential IL student skills (12-13, Gr 9 orientation) Identify skills –K-12 Lib Media ACS, AASL, ISTE, Partnership for 21 st C Skills –Research evidence about what 1 st semester college freshmen need to know, LEGITIMIZED IN EYES OF TEACHERS/STUDENTS

33 EHS Example Determine teaching opportunities –12 th grade, college professor/librarian visit 1 st experience, learned from failure 2 nd experience –September launch –Checklist as guide (LC on reverse) –Print version – scholarly journals & popular magazines –Compared INFOhio & OhioLINK databases –Follow up with assignment (Humanities Index)

34 EHS Example Determine teaching opportunities, contd. –9 th grade, revise September orientation TRAILS assessment (test 8 th graders (?) and exiting seniors) –Provide library portal links about info lit (ex. KnightCite, Citation Builder) 2-3 year goal for info lit instruction 6-12 –Revise all class visits & assignments

35 Finding Websites MINIMUM SKILLS REQUIRED: Choose search engines Construct sophisticated searches Evaluate websites using criteria Incorporate information into paper/project Cite according to required style guide Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

36 Finding Articles MINIMUM SKILLS REQUIRED: Navigate library website Choose an appropriate online database Construct sophisticated searches Distinguish popular & scholarly articles Evaluate articles using criteria Incorporate information into paper/project Cite according to required style guide Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

37 Finding Books MINIMUM SKILLS REQUIRED: Navigate library website Identify OPAC Construct sophisticated searches Evaluate books using criteria Use call numbers (LC) Incorporate information into paper/project Cite according to required style guide Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

38 Finding Reference Books MINIMUM SKILLS REQUIRED: Navigate library website Identify OPAC Construct sophisticated searches limiting to reference Evaluate reference books using knowledge of reference book types & evaluation criteria Use call numbers (LC) Incorporate information into paper/project Cite according to required style guide OR… Locate reference area in library Use call numbers (LC) to browse subject area Cite according to appropriate style guide Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

39 Finding Data & Statistics MINIMUM SKILLS REQUIRED: Identify sources of data & statistics Who would care about this information enough to keep statistics on it? Locate sources via web, online databases, OPAC, or reference sources Interpret data & statistics Evaluate data & statistics using criteria Incorporate information into paper/project Cite according to required style guide Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

40 What else can I do? Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

41 Focus on Students Share resources aimed at smoothing the transition. or Create a one-page handout summarizing expectations of first-year college students & share it with students and parents (Burhanna & Jensen). Give students practice dealing with unstructured assignments requiring use of complex resources (Daniel). Create planned, systematic, and cumulative IL instruction programs (Jackson & Hansen). Remember that high school library use is a predictor of college library use (Jackson & Hansen). Encourage positive library attitudes (Boatman in Fitzgerald). Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

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44 Focus on Teachers Inform teachers about the role of information literacy in national & state academic content standards (Bielich & Page qtd in Islam & Murno). Identify classroom teachers who incorporate inquiry-based learning or other types of research projects & create finding aids that include local college resources. If possible, partner with teachers to design field trips to academic libraries. Work to train pre-service teachers (Islam & Murno). Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

45 Focus on Administrators Document & report your results Emphasize benefits to administrators (Hull & Taylor qtd in Islam & Murno) –Community relations –Enhanced public image –Recruitment/admission Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

46 Focus on College Collaborations Introduce yourself to your college counterparts Communicate (Martorana, Daniel) & create shared physical & virtual discussion spaces (Jackson & Hansen) –Site visits –Meetings & conferences –Representation on library advisory groups –Listservs –Websites Collaborate to develop IL partnerships (Nichols) –Lesson plans –Finding aids (Jackson & Hansen). –Workshops (for students, teachers, other librarians) –Videos –Assessment –Borrowing privileges Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

47 Basis for Collaboration with College Librarians Shared vision Common goals (AASL/ACRL Standards) Overlapping user populations Similar need to work with classroom faculty Similar desire to support student academic work Climate of trust & mutual respect Personal value for all parties (Muronga & Harada qtd in Jackson & Hansen, Jackson & Hansen) Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

48 Using Evidence to Bridge the Gap Patricia Owen Megan Oakleaf OELMA October 2008

49 For More Information ACRL/AASL Blueprint for Collaboration Barefoot Bridging the Chasm: First-Year Students and the Library Chronicle of Higher Education Carr & Rockman Information Literacy Collaboration: A Shared Responsibility American Libraries 2003 Daniel High School to University: What Skills do Students Need? Information Rich but Knowledge Poor? Emerging Issues for Schools and Libraries Worldwide 1997 Fitzgerald Making the Leap from High School to College (includes California, Dunn, & University Success study summaries) Knowledge Quest 2004 Hartman Understandings of Information Literacy: The Perceptions of First Year Undergraduate Students at the University of Ballarat Australian Academic & Research Libraries 2001 Islam & Murno From Perceptions to Connections: Informing Information Literacy Program Planning in Academic Libraries Through Examination of High School Library Media Center Curricula College & Research Libraries 2006 Owen & Oakleaf, 2008

50 For More Information Jackson & Hansen Creating Collaborative Partnerships: Building the Framework Reference Services Review 2006 Martorana, et al Bridging the Gap: Information Workshops for High School Teachers Research Strategies 2001 Nichols, et al Building a Foundation for Collaboration: K-20 Partnerships in Information Literacy Libraries Beyond Their Institutions: Partnerships that Work 2005/6 Pathways to Academic Libraries Rising to the Challenge Transitioning to College VanScoy & Oakleaf "Evidence vs. Anecdote: Using Syllabi to Plan Curriculum-Integrated Information Literacy Instruction College and Research Libraries 2008 Owen & Oakleaf, 2008


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