4 ANOVAAnalysis of Variance (ANOVA) – a test of more than two population means.One-Way ANOVA – only one factor or independent variable is manipulated.ANOVA compares two sources of variability.
5 Two Sources of Variability Treatment effect – the existence of at least one difference between the population means defined by IV.Between groups variability – variability among subjects receiving different treatments (alternative hypothesis).Within groups variability – variability among subjects who receive the same treatment (null hypothesis).
6 F-TestIf the null hypothesis is true, the numerator and denominator of the F-ratio will be the same.F = random error / random errorIf the null hypothesis is false, the numerator will be greater than the denominator and F > 1.F = random error + treatment effect random error
7 Difference vs Error Difference on the top and the error on the bottom: Difference is the variability between the groups, expressed as the sum of the squares for the groups.Error is the variability within all of the subjects treated as one large group.When the difference exceeds the variability, the F-ratio will be large.
8 F-Ratio F = MSbetween MSwithin MS = SS df SS is the sum of the squared differences from the mean.
9 F-Ratio F = MSbetween MSwithin MSbetween treats the values of the group means as a data set and calculates the sum of squares for it.MSwithin combines the groups into one large group and calculates the sum of squares for the whole group.
10 Testing HypothesesIf there is a true difference between the groups, the numerator will be larger than the denominator.F will be greater than 1Writing hypotheses:H0: m1 = m2 = m3H1: H0 is false
11 Formulas for F Description in words of what is being computed. Definitional formula – uses the SS, described in the Witte textComputational formula – used by Aleks and in examples in class.
12 Formula for SStotal SStotal is the total Sum of the Squares It is the sum of the squared deviations of scores around the grand mean.SStotal = ∑(X – Xgrand)2SStotal = ∑(X2 – G2/N)Where G is the grand total and N is its sample size
13 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 24483648210Grand Total15G = 45
14 Formula for SSbetween SSbetween is the between Sum of the Squares It is the sum of the squared deviations for group means around the grand mean.SSbetween = n∑(X – Xgrand)2SSbetween = ∑(T2/n – G2/N)Where T is each group’s total and n is each group’s sample sizedefinitioncomputation
15 Formula for SSwithin SSwithin is the within Sum of the Squares It is the sum of the squared deviations for scores around the group mean.SSwithin = ∑(X – Xgroup)2SSwithin = ∑X2 – ∑T2/n)Where T is each group’s total and n is each group’s sample sizedefinitioncomputation
16 Degrees of Freedom dftotal = N-1 dfbetween = k-1 dfwithin = N-k The number of all scores minus 1dfbetween = k-1The number of groups (k) minus 1dfwithin = N-kThe number of all scores minus the number of groups (k)
17 Checking Your Work The SStotal = SSbetween + SSwithin. The same is true for the degrees of freedom:dftotal = dfbetween + dfwithin
18 Calculating F (Computational) SSbetween = S T2 – G n NWhere T is the total for each group and G is the grand totalSSwithin = S X2 - S T2 NSStotal = S X2 – G2/N
19 F-Distribution Common – retain null Rare – reject null Critical value Look up F critical value in the F table using df for numerator and denominator
20 ANOVA AssumptionsAssumptions for the F-test are the same as for the t-testUnderlying populations are assumed to be normal with equal variances.Results are still valid with violations of normality if:All sample sizes are close to equalSamples are > 10 per groupOtherwise use a different test
21 Cautions The ANOVA presented in the text assumes independent samples. With matched samples or repeated measures use a different form of ANOVA.The sample sizes shown in the text are small in order to simplify calculations.Small samples should not be used.