Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives 8.1 Discuss the managers role in human resource management as it regards staffing, training, and employee performance appraisal. 8.2."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives 8.1 Discuss the managers role in human resource management as it regards staffing, training, and employee performance appraisal. 8.2 Explain how a manager achieves effective staffing and what tools are available to facilitate this objective. 8.3 Outline the formats and structures used to interview job candidates. 8.4 Identify employment laws and practices that managers must follow to ensure fair and unbiased hiring. 8.5 Describe the methods available to train employees and when each should be used. 8.6 Discuss the tools and techniques used to evaluate employees and why evaluation and feedback are important elements of performance management.
Basic Concepts of Talent Management?
Talent Management – all the activities involved in managing employees to include attracting, selecting, training, appraising, retaining, and promoting.
What functions of Human Resources are Managers Responsible for?
First level managers are involved in three human resource functions: Staffing – involves forecasting, selecting, and retaining employees to perform the work of the organization. Training – is a continuous activity that involves developing the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of employees to enable them to meet organizational goals. Appraising – involves assessing individual employee performance and developing a plan for continuous improvement.
What is Staffing?
Staffing is one of the most important HR functions because it directly affects the ability to meet performance goals. It is a managers goal to balance the workforce and ensure that they are not overstaffed, or understaffed. Overstaffing – an excess of employees in relation to job demands. Overstaffing causes a rise in department costs, and makes efficiency suffer. Overstaffing however offers flexibility to cover varying demand and handle emergencies. Understaffing – a shortage of employees in relation to job demands. Understaffing can slow production, and cause employees to become stressed out. Understaffing however can stimulate creativity and challenge employees to rise to the occasion.
The Staffing Process Staffing is accomplished through a six step process: Job Analysis Forecasting Recruitment Screening Selection Orientation
Job Analysis This step specifies the kinds of jobs and the characteristics of workers need to meet product and service requirements, as well as contribute to the organizations mission and objectives. The end products of the job analysis are two formal written documents: Job Descriptions – describes the tasks and activities assigned to a job. Job Specifications – identifies the minimum qualifications an individual must have to perform the job successfully.
Forecasting This step determines the employment levels needed to meet current and future goals. Current Human Resources – employees needed today to meet an organizations short-term goals. Future Human Resources – employees needed in the future to meet long-term goals. Managers make both supply and demand forecasts. Demand – an estimate of the qualifications and numbers of employees and organization will need to achieve its goals. Supply – an estimate of the availability and qualifications of employees in the organization now, as well as in the labor market.
Recruitment This step includes all the activities involved in developing a pool of candidates for an open position. Recruitment sources can be internal or external. Internal Recruitment – involves looking at existing employees from within the organization to fill open positions. External Recruitment – involves searching for employees from outside the organization via external sources. Neither internal or external recruitment provides the perfect solution for developing a candidate pool as they both have their advantages and disadvantages.
Screening This step narrows down the pool of candidates by determining which candidates actually meet the qualifications of the job. This step is often handled by a human resources department and includes collecting job applications and resumes, administering employment tests, conducting reference checks, verifying education, etc. Candidates that meet job qualifications are passed on to the hiring manager for review and selection.
Selection During this step managers use a variety of tools in order to narrow down the candidate pool to the individual that best suits the needs of the position. Those tools include: Background Information Usually obtained from job applications and resumes and can include education, certifications, experience, references, and more. Interviews Provide an opportunity to obtain more detail about a candidate in person. It also provides an opportunity to assess communication and interpersonal skills.
Selection - continued Employment Testing Testing is used to draw inferences about the future behavior or performance of a job candidate. Testing should be related to a jobs specifications and should not discriminate unfairly against the person taking it. Testing falls into three classifications: Paper-and-Pencil (aptitude, job knowledge, personality, and career interests) Physical Ability (strength, stamina, and dexterity) Performance (keyboarding, software applications, and problem solving)
Selection - continued Employment Testing – continued Testing is subject to the requirements of validity and reliability. Validity – the proven ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure. Reliability – the demonstrated ability of a test to yield similar scores for a candidate if the test were repeated. Before using a test for selection purposes, managers must have sound evidence that the test is a good predictor of job behavior or performance. References Validate employment, experience, and job skills outlined on a job application or resume.
Orientation This step takes place once the candidate has been selected for hire, orientation is used to help transition the candidate into the new job environment. The first few weeks on the job are the most critical in a new hires career. Pre-planning and preparation can go a long way in giving a new hire a positive impression of his/her new employer, manager, and co-workers. Orientation can range from formal, group training sessions that span several days or weeks to informal, one-on-one sessions with a number of key employees. Hiring managers play an essential role in the orientation process.
Orientation – continued Some best practices for orientation include: Confirm job details in writing with the new employee Confirm the new employees workspace is set up, clean and has essential supplies. On day one, greet the new employee upon arrival and help to get them settled in their workspace. Introduce the new employee to co-workers and key departmental personnel. Give the new employee a tour of the department (or company), pointing out essential areas. Schedule orientation for the new employee as soon as possible. Provide appropriate policy and safety manuals. Communicate initial tasks and timelines to the new employee. Assign a mentor to assist in the new employees transition to the job.
Job Interview – an exchange of information between a job applicant and an employers representative designed to develop qualitative information about the applicants suitability for employment.
Job Interview Objectives A job interview has three broad objectives: To give information To get information To build a positive relationship A hiring managers first task is to build rapport with the job candidate, and make them feel comfortable with the interview process. A managers goal is to provide a realistic job preview. Realistic Job Preview – a balance presentation of positive and negative features about a job that allows a candidate to reach an informed judgment about whether to accept a job offer or not.
Interviews can be conducted in a number of formats which include: Phone and Group Interviews – are good for the initial screening of a large pool of job candidates, because they are both cost-and time-efficient. Face-to-Face and Individual Interviews – are best used for single hires after an initial screening has occurred. Panel Interviews – are best used to avoid bias which can occur in individual interviews.
Three commonly used interview structures include: Structured Interview – each candidate is asked the same question, which provides the easiest comparison of candidate responses. Unstructured Interview – takes on conversational form, allowing the interviewer to ask random, open-ended questions. Situational Interview – each candidate is asked how they would respond to an actual situation that may be encountered on the job, which helps pinpoint a candidates strengths and weaknesses.
Training: Process and Purpose
Training focuses on the preparation of employees to perform specific tasks or acquire specific knowledge, skills, and abilities to meet organizational goals. Knowledge – is information that can be acquired by reading, listening, or observing and provides a foundation for effective performance. Skills – are observable competencies that enable the performance of a job-related action. Abilities – are the actual performance of a behavior or action that results in a desired product or service. Training is a component of performance management Performance Management – an approach to increasing the effectiveness of a company by improving the performance and developing the capabilities of the employees who work there.
Training Needs Training Need – a demonstrated gap between expected and actual performance. There are two way to identify training needs which include: Formal Approach This approach attempts to identify the employees who need training and the type of training they need, through the use of surveys, interviews, skills tests and observation. Needs should be prioritized on the basis of cost, benefit, and urgency. Informal Approach This approach attempts to identify the employees who need training through, customer complaints, high turnover, repeated mistakes, subpar production rates and poor morale.
Coaching and Mentoring Organizations are starting to have managers assume responsibility for training, coaching and mentoring. Coaching – helping employees learn through observation, demonstration, questioning, and timely feedback. Coaching occurs daily and is a powerful tool for building a high performing workforce. Mentoring – is similar to coaching, but at a higher level and with less frequent interaction. Mentoring is used to develop employees on a career track or seeking to obtain management positions. Managers must keep repeating the important things that employees need to retain, because learning can fade quickly if not given the chance to be used or practiced.
Training Methods Training can be categorized into the following formats: On-the-job (job aids, coaching, cross training, and job rotation) On-the-job training is the training method of choice if a new job skill is the desired outcome. A drawback to on-the-job training is that it can be expensive and time-consuming. Off-the-job (workshops, e-learning, webinars, and social networks) Off-the-job training is the training method of choice is new policies or changes in procedures need to be introduced. A drawback to off-the-job training is that it can be inexpensive and sometimes nonproductive.
Training Methods - continued Combination (apprenticeships, internships, and simulations) Combination training methods can be effective methods of training when time is not an issue Combination training methods combine dedicated time developing knowledge and skills, plus hours, weeks, or even years of practice performing the actual work alongside an experienced employee. Apprenticeships are associated with highly specialized skill development. Internships are associated with providing hands-on experience for entry-level workers.
Selecting a Training Method The training method of choice and support materials should be tailored to the learning style of the employee. Learning styles include: visual, auditory, and tactile.
Selecting a Training Method - continued Selecting the best training method involves using a series of questions that include: What is the training objective? When is the training needed? What is the budget for training? How many employees need to be trained? How much time and preparation can be afforded? What resources are needed? Attention spans are limited to minutes for listening, thus the best methods of training engage learning in activity and experiential learning.
Sources of Training Internal Sources Training Divisions – most prevalent in mid-to large-size organizations. They assess company-wide training needs and conduct classroom training. Corporate Universities – exist within large organizations to deliver job specific training. External Sources Colleges and Universities – specialize in specific types of training, some offer course credit which can be applied to terminal degrees at the undergraduate and graduate level. Trade Associations – are good sources of educational seminars, conferences, and workshops to help employees stay current in their field.
Measuring Training Effectiveness Training is effective if: It has a demonstrable payoff. It is transferred or applied to a job. Effective training should have a cost-benefit ratio that confirms the pay exceeds the direct and indirect costs of training. Direct Costs – training preparation, materials, and instructor fees. Indirect Costs – time invested by employees and trainers, errors or low productivity if no training is received, and productivity lost during training. The cost of training can add up, however it can be more costly in the long run to not train or have training that is ineffective.
Performance appraisal – a formal and systematic evaluation of how well a person performs his or her work and fills the appropriate role in the organization. Formal performance appraisals are performed once a year, however performance feedback is delivered more frequently. Performance appraisal feedback can encourage high levels of employee motivation, and can encourage poor performers to work towards improvement.
Weaknesses of Appraisal Programs Factors that contribute to problems with employee performance include: Individuals may be assigned to work that does not match their capabilities. Employees may lack the necessary information or skills because they never received proper training. Individuals may be victims of pressure from the work group. Workers may not be up to the job requirements, physically or emotionally. Management may be a fault. Mechanical or procedural problems may exist.
Questions Answered During an Appraisal In a performance appraisal a manager is attempting to answer the following questions; What has the individual done since the last appraised? How well has it been done? How much better could it be? In what ways have strengths and weaknesses in the individuals job approach affected performance? Are these factors ones that could be improved? If so, how? What is the individuals potential? How well could the employee do if given a chance?
Appraisal Factors Being Judged Factors that are judged in an appraisal tend to fall into two categories: Objective Factors – focus on hard facts and measurable results – quantities, quality, and attendance. Subjective Factors – represent opinions, such as those about attitude, personality, and adaptability.
Appraisal Formats Graphic Rating Scale – an alphabetic or numeric system for quantifying employee performance on a series of items. Force Choice Format – a variation of a graphic rating scale that provides a series of paired descriptive statements for each factor being rated. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) – a performance appraisal format that describes, and provides examples of, behaviors that can be rated along a scale from outstanding to unsatisfactory. Force Ranking – appraisal systems that require managers to rate employees from best to worst. Management by Objectives (MBO) – a planning and control technique in which a manager and his or her immediate superior agree on goals to be attained and standards to be maintained. 360 Degree Appraisal – an appraisal format that evaluates performance at all levels of the organization.
Common Biases Held by Appraisers Nearly all appraiser have an unconscious tendency to let one favorable or unfavorable incident or trait color their judgment of a person. Some biases include: Recency – relying too heavily on what happened last week or last month, instead of considering performance across the entire appraisal period. Overemphasis – placing too much weight on one good or poor factor. Unforgiveness – not allowing an employees improved performance to outshine a poor record in a prior appraisal period. Prejudice – Allowing an individuals contrary personality to affect the appraisal of his or her good work.
Common Biases Held by Appraisers - continued Favoritism – being positively influenced by a persons likableness or friendship, despite poor performance. Grouping – rating all employees in a substandard work group the same, without consideration for their unique differences. Indiscrimination – being too critical or too generous; no one gets a good rating, or everyone does. Stereotyping – basing judgments on preconceived notions about such things as race, gender, sexual orientation, color, religion, age, and national origin. Similarity – Judging employees more favorable if they have characteristics similar to ones own. Central Tendency – the temptation to rate most characteristics, and most people, toward the middle of the rating scale.
Guidelines for Giving Effective Feedback Be specific and focus on behaviors or outcomes that are within a workers ability to improve. Approach performance appraisal as an exercise in problem solving and solution finding, not criticizing. Express confidence in a subordinates ability to improve. Provide performance feedback both formally and informally. Praise instances of high performance and areas of a job in which a worker excels. Avoid personal criticisms and treat subordinates with respect. Agree to a timetable for performance improvements.
Legal Implications of Performance Appraisals An appraisal represents a critical, legal communication to an employee and should be supported by objective reasoning and documentable evidence. Most legal implications are derived from the following doctrines: Equal pay for equal work. Absence of discrimination on the basis of age, gender, religion, race, color, sexual orientation, or national origin. Accommodation of the physical and mental needs of the disabled and of veterans. Equal employment opportunity.
Legal Implications of Performance Appraisals - continued To minimize accusations of noncompliance with these legal requirements, the following guidelines should be observed: Make certain appraisals are based on what the job actually requires, not what you would like the employee to do. Be cautious in making subjective judgments. Stick to the fact that can be documented. Do everything possible to avoid even the appearance of prejudice or discrimination.