Remote Sensing in Modern Military Operations. Outline ► Background ► Former cruise missile technology ► Current cruise missile technology ► GIS on the.
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Presentation on theme: "Remote Sensing in Modern Military Operations. Outline ► Background ► Former cruise missile technology ► Current cruise missile technology ► GIS on the."— Presentation transcript:
Outline ► Background ► Former cruise missile technology ► Current cruise missile technology ► GIS on the battlefield: ESRI products for the military ► Future of GIS applied to small unit tactics
► What is a GIS? ► A GIS is a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information; that is, data identified according to location. Practitioners also define a GIS as including the procedures, operating personnel, and spatial data that go into the system.
► A GIS makes it possible to link, or integrate, information that is difficult to associate through any other means. Thus, a GIS can use combinations of mapped variables to build and analyze new variables (fig. 9).
► For example, using GIS technology, it is possible to combine agricultural records with hydrography data to determine which streams will carry certain levels of fertilizer runoff. Agricultural records can indicate how much pesticide has been applied to a parcel of land.
Former Cruise Missile Technology ► Navigation Inertial Navigation System (INS) Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) (later) Global Positioning System (GPS) ► Terminal phase Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC)
TERCOM Target Launch INS Navigation Waypoint fix Stored map Missile track Multiple raster maps stored (all with same dimensions) Maps are DEMS of areas that have distinct topography Spatial resolution increases with each successive map—“precision funneling” Tomahawk Cruise Missile Track using INS and TERCOM
DSMAC and TERCOM High-resolution imagery (spatial and radiometric) Radar-altimeter used to compare elevation of terrain with stored data Generate DEM from high- resolution satellite imagery Right time of day—correct range of contrast Accurate 30-100 m Must obtain data for entire land surface of earth Very inefficient over flat areas—circuitous route necessary
Next Generation Missile—JASSM ► Joint Air-Surface Standoff Missile Navigation ► INS ► GPS Terminal Phase ► IR seeker ► Real-time target correlator Much more precise
► The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) has tapped Space Imaging (www.spaceimaging.com) to provide the remote sensing imagery to underpin the installation visualization effort. The commercial firm is supplying its Precision 1-meter IKONOS imagery to cover more than 300 defense sites, mostly in the United States and Guam. Much of the needed imagery came from the company’s existing inventory of installation images in its archive. www.spaceimaging.com
GIS on the Battlefield: ESRI Command and Control
GIS on the Battlefield: ESRI Mission Planning—Threat Domes
GIS on the Battlefield: ESRI Military Operations in Urbanized Terrain
GIS on the Battlefield: ESRI Tracking and Monitoring
► The GIS imagery product can serve a number of functions. Local installation officials can use the multilayered GIS product to plan additional security measures to deal with new terrorist threats. These local officials also can examine infrastructure issues, such as expansion or return of land to civilian use, in the context of the effects these changes would have in a variety of environmental areas. And, Defense Department officials can consider all of these factors in determining base realignment or closure.
The Future: GIS Integrated with Land Warrior ► Land Warrior System
What GIS can do for small units: ► Command and control For company commanders, platoon and squad leaders Track movements and status of each person and unit Transmit messages, images, maps, to individuals ► Navigation View 2D or 3D maps of current location in multiple views GPS to direct toward waypoints ► Soldier identification and target discrimination Friendly troops Enemy troops Civilians
GIS for small units: ► Terrain analysis Cross-country mobility Patrol base analysis—OCOKA ► Observation and fields of fire ► Cover and concealment ► Obstacles ► Key terrain ► Avenues of approach Automated real-time data correction ► Communication with command center Field commanders can query GIS analysts at command center to conduct terrain analysis or least cost path