Associative Cache Mapping A main memory block can load into any line of cache Memory address is interpreted as tag and word (or sub-address in line) Tag.
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Presentation on theme: "Associative Cache Mapping A main memory block can load into any line of cache Memory address is interpreted as tag and word (or sub-address in line) Tag."— Presentation transcript:
Associative Cache Mapping A main memory block can load into any line of cache Memory address is interpreted as tag and word (or sub-address in line) Tag uniquely identifies block of memory Every line’s tag is examined for a match Note: Cache searching gets expensive
Comparison of Associate to Direct Caching Direct Cache Example: 8 bit tag 14 bit Line 2 bit word Associate Cache Example: 22 bit tag 2 bit word
Set Associative Mapping Cache is divided into a number of sets Each set contains a number of lines A given block maps to any line in a given set — e.g. Block B can be in any line of set i e.g. with 2 lines per set — We have 2 way associative mapping — A given block can be in one of 2 lines in only one set
Comparison of Direct, Assoc, Set Assoc Caching Direct Cache Example (16K Lines): 8 bit tag 14 bit line 2 bit word Associate Cache Example (16K Lines): 22 bit tag 2 bit word Set Associate Cache Example (16K Lines): 9 bit tag 13 bit line 2 bit word
Replacement Algorithms (1) Direct mapping No choice Each block only maps to one line Replace that line
Replacement Algorithms (2) Associative & Set Associative Likely Hardware implemented algorithm (speed) First in first out (FIFO) ? —replace block that has been in cache longest Least frequently used (LFU) ? —replace block which has had fewest hits Random ?
Write Policy Challenges Must not overwrite a cache block unless main memory is correct Multiple CPUs may have the block cached I/O may address main memory directly ? (may not allow I/O buffers to be cached)
Write through All writes go to main memory as well as cache (Typically Only 15% of memory references are writes) Challenges: Multiple CPUs MUST monitor main memory traffic to keep local (to CPU) cache up to date Lots of traffic – may cause bottlenecks Potentially slows down writes
Write back Updates initially made in cache only (Update bit for cache slot is set when update occurs – Other caches must be updated) If block is to be replaced, memory overwritten only if update bit is set ( Only 15% of memory references are writes ) I/O must access main memory through cache or update cache
Coherency with Multiple Caches Bus Watching with write through 1) mark a block as invalid when another cache writes back that block, or 2) update cache block in parallel with memory write Hardware transparency (all caches are updated simultaneously) I/O must access main memory through cache or update cache(s) Multiple Processors & I/O only access non- cacheable memory blocks
Choosing Line (block) size 8 to 64 bytes is typically an optimal block (obviously depends upon the program) Larger blocks decrease number of blocks in a given cache size, while including words that are more or less likely to be accessed soon. Alternative is to sometimes replace lines with adjacent blocks when a line is loaded into cache. Alternative could be to have program loader decide the cache strategy for a particular program.
Multi-level Cache Systems As logic density increases, it has become advantages and practical to create multi- level caches: 1) on chip 2) off chip L2 cache may not use system bus to make caching faster If L2 can potentially be moved into the chip, even if it doesn’t use the system bus Contemporary designs are now incorporating an on chip(s) L3 cache....
Split Cache Systems Split cache into: 1) Data cache 2) Program cache Advantage: Likely increased hit rates – data and program accesses display different behavior Disadvantage: Complexity Impact of Superscaler machine implementation ? (Multiple instruction execution, prefetching)
Comparison of Cache Sizes a Two values seperated by a slash refer to instruction and data caches b Both caches are instruction only; no data caches ProcessorType Year of Introduction Primary cache (L1)2 nd level Cache (L2)3 rd level Cache (L3) IBM 360/85Mainframe196816 to 32 KB—— PDP-11/70Minicomputer19751 KB—— VAX 11/780Minicomputer197816 KB—— IBM 3033Mainframe197864 KB—— IBM 3090Mainframe1985128 to 256 KB—— Intel 80486PC19898 KB—— PentiumPC19938 KB/8 KB256 to 512 KB— PowerPC 601PC199332 KB—— PowerPC 620PC199632 KB/32 KB—— PowerPC G4PC/server199932 KB/32 KB256 KB to 1 MB2 MB IBM S/390 G4Mainframe199732 KB256 KB2 MB IBM S/390 G6Mainframe1999256 KB8 MB— Pentium 4PC/server20008 KB/8 KB256 KB— IBM SP High-end server/ supercomputer 200064 KB/32 KB8 MB— CRAY MTA b Supercomputer20008 KB2 MB— ItaniumPC/server200116 KB/16 KB96 KB4 MB SGI Origin 2001High-end server200132 KB/32 KB4 MB— Itanium 2PC/server200232 KB256 KB6 MB IBM POWER5High-end server200364 KB1.9 MB36 MB CRAY XD-1Supercomputer200464 KB/64 KB1MB—
Intel Cache Evolution Problem Solution Processor on which feature first appears External memory slower than the system bus. Add external cache using faster memory technology. 386 Increased processor speed results in external bus becoming a bottleneck for cache access. Move external cache on-chip, operating at the same speed as the processor. 486 Internal cache is rather small, due to limited space on chip Add external L2 cache using faster technology than main memory 486 Contention occurs when both the Instruction Prefetcher and the Execution Unit simultaneously require access to the cache. In that case, the Prefetcher is stalled while the Execution Unit’s data access takes place. Create separate data and instruction caches. Pentium Increased processor speed results in external bus becoming a bottleneck for L2 cache access. Create separate back-side bus that runs at higher speed than the main (front- side) external bus. The BSB is dedicated to the L2 cache. Pentium Pro Move L2 cache on to the processor chip. Pentium II Some applications deal with massive databases and must have rapid access to large amounts of data. The on-chip caches are too small. Add external L3 cache.Pentium III Move L3 cache on-chip.Pentium 4
Intel Caches 80386 – no on chip cache 80486 – 8k using 16 byte lines and four way set associative organization Pentium (all versions) – two on chip L1 caches —Data & instructions Pentium 3 – L3 cache added off chip Pentium 4 —L1 caches –8k bytes –64 byte lines –four way set associative —L2 cache –Feeding both L1 caches –256k –128 byte lines –8 way set associative —L3 cache on chip
Pentium 4 Core Processor Fetch/Decode Unit —Fetches instructions from L2 cache —Decode into micro-ops —Store micro-ops in L1 cache Out of order execution logic —Schedules micro-ops —Based on data dependence and resources —May speculatively execute Execution units —Execute micro-ops —Data from L1 cache —Results in registers Memory subsystem —L2 cache and systems bus
Pentium 4 Design Reasoning Decodes instructions into RISC like micro-ops before L1 cache Micro-ops fixed length —Superscalar pipelining and scheduling Pentium instructions long & complex Performance improved by separating decoding from scheduling & pipelining —(More later – ch14) Data cache is write back —Can be configured to write through L1 cache controlled by 2 bits in register —CD = cache disable —NW = not write through —2 instructions to invalidate (flush) cache and write back then invalidate L2 and L3 8-way set-associative —Line size 128 bytes
PowerPC Cache Organization (Apple-IBM-Motorola) 601 – single 32kb 8 way set associative 603 – 16kb (2 x 8kb) two way set associative 604 – 32kb 620 – 64kb G3 & G4 —64kb L1 cache –8 way set associative —256k, 512k or 1M L2 cache –two way set associative G5 —32kB instruction cache —64kB data cache